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EXPERIMENT NO: 5

Emotional conditioning

Submitted to: Ms Naumana Amjad

Submitted by: Ghuncha Naqvi

Roll no. 18

Bs (Hons.) 7th sem

Dated as 15th January, 2010

Department of Applied Psychology

University of the Punjab
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EXPERIMENT NO: 5

EMOTIONAL CONDITIONING

Purpose:

An experiment was conducted to demonstrate association of nationalities with negative

and positive previously conditions words.

Introduction:

Classical Conditioning:

A stimulus that does not produce a response is paired with a stimulus that does elicit a

response. After many such pairings, the stimulus that previously had no effect begins to produce

a response.

Secondary Classical Conditioning:

The procedure whereby a neutral stimulus becomes a conditional stimulus CS by being

paired with a well-established conditional stimulus CS is called secondary classical conditioning.

Appetitive Conditioning:

If the unconditional stimulus used is positive (something the organism would ordinarily

seek out, such as food, water or sexual stimulation) the procedure is called appetitive

conditioning.
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Defense Conditioning:

If the unconditional stimulus is aversive (something the organism would ordinarily try to

avoid, such as electric shock, extreme heat or a pin prick) the procedure is called defense

conditioning.

Experiment on appetitive and defense conditioning:

Carolyn and Arthur Staats performed a series of experiments on secondary classical

conditioning which included both appetitive and defense procedure. Their basic strategy was to

pair a relatively neutral stimulus with one that was presumably a CS for some emotional

response. The purpose was to see whether these procedures would result in the neutral stimuli

become conditional stimuli.

In 1958 Staats and Staats paired the name of various nationalities with words thought to be

conditional stimuli for emotional responses. College students watch the words Germaan, Italian,

French, etc. flashed on the screen; at the same time, they repeated the words spoken by the

experimenter. Most of the nationalities were paired with unemotional words such as chair, road,

with and twelve. The words Swedish and Dutch were always paired with some more potent

words. For some students, Swedish was always paired with unpleasant words such as bitter, ugly

etc while for some Dutch was always paired with pleasant words such as gift, happy etc. For

other students procedure was reversed. Afterwards students rated each of the nationality words

on scale from pleasant to unpleasant . These ratings showed that secondary conditioning has

indeed taken place. The words Swedish and Dutch become pleasant and unpleasant, depending

upon the words with which they have been associated.
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We are doing this experiment again and we will see we are getting the same results or

not.

Hypothesis:

H1: When a nationality is regularly associated with positive words, it becomes pleasant;

when it is paired with negative words, it become unpleasant.

Method:

Apparatus: list of nationalities, Multimedia, Paper, Pencil

Subject: There were 20 subjects. Their age ranges from 20 to 24. All subjects are students of BS

(Hons.).

Procedure: The subjects were asked to sit on the chairs one by one in front of multimedia. They

were given instructions about the procedure of the experiment. They seated comfortably but were

a little bit curious about the experiment. There were 8 nationalities such as Swedish, Irish,

Nigerian, Philippians etc , which were appeared on the screen one by one and were shown to the

subjects. At the same time the students repeated words spoken by the experimenter. Five trials

were taken for each word. The nationality Irish was always paired with a positive word such as

gift and happy, while Philippines was always paired with a negative word such as cruel and

enemy. While other nationalities were paired with the neutral words such as table, chair, road,

car etc. After this the subjects were given a scale that had ratings from 1 to 7, where 1 being not

like and 7 being like. On the scale nationalities were written vertically and rating 1 to 7 was

written horizontally. The subjects rated the nationalities on a seven-point scale ranging from Not

Like to Like.

Results:
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The results showed that the nationalities had acquired the emotional meanings of the

words with which they have been paired. For students Irish became good and the mean score is

4.49 and Philippines became bad and mean score is 3.15. Neutral stimulus becomes conditioned

stimulus. Table 1 shows the rating of nationalities by 20 students and at the end are the mean

scores.

Table 1: Rating of Nationalities

Subject Swedish *Iris Norwegian *Philippines Lebanese Dutch Moroccan Nigerian
h

1 7 5 4 1 1 4 1 1

2 2 4 4 2 5 1 6 3

3 7 4 3 7 7 1 7 3

4 7 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

5 2 7 5 5 6 6 1 7

6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 4 7 5 1 3 3 4 1

8 2 7 3 1 4 2 4 2

9 5 3 5 4 6 4 4 2

10 3 7 5 4 5 3 4 3

11 7 5 6 4 4 3 3 4

12 1 7 3 4 4 4 6 1

13 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

14 7 5 2 2 2 4 4 3

15 4 6 4 3 2 5 5 5

16 2 7 6 5 4 2 6 5

17 5 4 3 4 6 5 6 4
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18 7 4 2 3 2 4 2 3

19 7 6 4 3 6 5 4 4

20 7 3 5 4 1 2 6 7

*Irish (like) Mean=4.49 *Philippines (not like) Mean= 3.15

Discussion:

The practical showed that nationalities which had no meaning previously acquired the

positive and negative emotional meaning after conditioning with positive and negative words. So

emotional conditioning has occurred.
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EXPERIMENT NO: 5

Emotional conditioning

Submitted to: Ms Naumana Amjad

Submitted by: Ghuncha Naqvi

Roll no. 18

Bs (Hons.) 7th sem

Dated as 14th January, 2010

Department of Applied Psychology

University of the Punjab

EXPERIMENT NO: 5
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Emotional conditioning

Submitted to: Ms Naumana Amjad

Submitted by: Aliya Ghafoor

Roll no. 27

Bs (Hons.) 7th sem

Dated as 14th January, 2010

Department of Applied Psychology

University of the Punjab

EXPERIMENT NO: 5

Emotional conditioning
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Submitted to: Ms Naumana Amjad

Submitted by: Saira Bano

Roll no. 26

Bs (Hons.) 7th sem

Dated as 14th January, 2010

Department of Applied Psychology

University of the Punjab
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