You are on page 1of 8

IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS)

e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861.Volume 14, Issue 8 Ver. II (Aug. 2015), PP 30-37

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic ZoneCase Reports

Dr. Alka Gupta1, Dr. Deshraj Jain2, Dr. Ajay Sangwan3, Dr. Sneha Chhabra4

( Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, College of Dentistry, Indore/ DAVV, India )

Abstract :
Aim- Whenever there is a loss of single anterior tooth the implant retained prosthesis is a preferred option.
However, deficient bone in the region of implant placement restricts this modality. With the advancement of
techniques and materials the possibility of successfully restoring such compromised cases with implant retained
prosthesis is now possible.
Procedure- Customized/ angulated abutments were planned in the following case reports for implant retained
restoration due to either the generalized horizontal bone loss or deficient faciopalatal bone (Barely sufficient
bone, Division B-w, as per by Misch and Judy)
Results- These case reports describe the use of customized/angulated abutments for implant retained
restorations in the esthetic zone.
Conclusion- Moderate to severe bone loss in anterior region presents a challenging situation to the dentists.
Therefore, success is not only defined by osseointegration of the implant, but a harmonious and natural
blending of the restoration with the surrounding tissues and dentition. Biological, functional and biomechanical
parameters must be examined and potential problems have to be identified preoperatively.
Keywords: Angulated Abutment ,Dental implant, Esthetic Zone,UCLA Abutments

I. Introduction
The esthetics of a maxillary anterior single crown on a natural tooth is often one of the most difficult
challenges in the restorative dentistry [10]. It is even greater on an implant abutment because the bone is lost
first in faciopalatal width, the greater width of implants in this dimension would require bone augmentation.
Bone osteoplasty, additional surgical orprosthetic steps and components with varied emergence profiles or
angled/customized abutments are often required to render the illusion of a crown on an abutment. Angled
abutments are used only to improve the path of insertion of the prosthesis or the final esthetic result (e.g facially
oriented anterior implants). They are often provided in 15- 30 degree angles. The angled abutment, which is
loaded along the abutment axis, will transmit a significant moment load to both implant crestal region and
abutment screw, proportional to its angle of inclination. As angle increases resistance to fracture decreases
because of increased angular load and decreased metal thickness lateral to abutment fixation screw.
Another option is custom abutment which may be fabricated at any length or angulations, though more
than 30 degree angulation is not recommended. The esthetic improvement is associated with improved peri
implant emergence profile. In addition, appropriately contoured abutments can reduce the likelihood of
complications associated with residual luting agent by improving cement margin accessibility [1]. Angulated
abutment systems can be supplied as one piece, two piece or three piece. One piece abutment is the abutment of
choice for multiple abutments but when angled it is mostly threaded to a wrong direction .Two piece abutment
are mostly recommended for single tooth implants and are used as angled abutments [10]. If there is no
correlation between the angle of the implant and the flat surface of the internal hex of the implant then select the
three-piece. Considerable technical innovation, feasibility and financial investment are required for its use. To
allow more versatility in overcoming deeply placed implant and/or angulation and esthetic problems, castable
plastic patterns (UCLA abutments) were advocated by Lewis [2] that facilitated integration of the restoration
with the abutment [3]. Abutments with customized periimplant emergence form can be fabricated from casting
of modified UCLA abutment using lost wax technique by additive methods of waxing and casting [4] or by
CAD/CAM technology. By CAD/CAM systems implant abutment can be made using metals such as titanium
and titanium alloy and ceramics such as aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide [5,6]. The primary advantage of a
cast custom abutment is that it is made specifically for the patients individual tooth that the corresponding
implant replaces [7]. The custom abutment is generally contoured like the preparation of the missing tooth and
is thus inherently antirotational. The gingival transition of the custom abutment begins at the implant platform.
Therefore, the emergence profile is confluent from the implant to the abutment and to the crown in both the
vertical and occlusal planes [8].

DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

30 | Page

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic Zone- Case Reports

II. Case Reports
Case 1: A 53 year old male patient reported to Department of Prosthodontics, with the chief complaint of
missing central incisor in the upper left quadrant. The tooth was root canal treated 6 years back and eventually
got crown part fractured 6 months back leading to subsequent extraction of root stump. On clinical examination
it was observed that the cevicoincisal length of adjacent right central incisor was more as compared to normal
length due to recession (Fig.1). For evaluation of availability of bone the OPG was done (Fig.2), showing
generalised horizontal bone loss at the alveolar crest region Division B-w ( width 2.5 - 4mm wide, by Misch and
Judy). Alginate impressions (Algitex Dental Products of India, Mumbai, India) of upper and lower arch were
made and poured to get diagnostic casts.The treatment options given to the patient included fixed partial
denture, removable partial denture and implant supported prosthesis. The patient wanted fixed replacement of
the tooth without involving his adjacent teeth and desired an implant prosthesis. On evaluation of radiographs
and diagnostic cast a two stage surgery was planned, an implant of diameter 3.5 mmand length 11.5 mm (Adin,
Dental Implant Systems Limited, Israel ) was selected. Accordingly a clear acrylic resin surgical template was
made on the diagnostic cast which allowed the proper access to the osteotomy site in terms of position,
angulation mesiodistally and labiolingually using model based technique of surgical template fabrication (Fig.
3). The ideal angulation for implant insertion is determined on the diagnostic wax up, and the template should
relate this postion during surgery. A hole was drilled into the planned implant site and a 2mm wide tube was
placed around the bur and stabilized with wax and surgical template of clear acrylic fabricated.
The patient was educated to use an aqueous 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse for 1 minute, 3 times
daily for 2 weeks for oral disinfection before implant placement. One hour before surgery, the patient took
antibiotics (amoxicillin 500 mg, 2 tablets). Surgical protocols of sterilization and disinfection were followed.
After the administration of local anesthesia an incision was given crestally. A mucoperiosteal flap was elevated
to expose the alveolar crest and surgical template was used for initial osteotomy with 2mm pilot drill. The
implant of diameter 3.5 mm/ length 11.5 mm was placed using strict protocol of drill sequence. An IOPA X ray
was done to confirm the position of the implant (Fig.4,5). Cover screw was placed and the surgical site was
closed with sutures (Vicryl 3-0) and removable partial denture was adjusted at the intaglio surface (Fig.6). The
patient was instructed to wear it as less as possible to prevent the possible complication of incision line opening
and should not be worn at night. Patient was given prescription for chlorhexidine gluconate and salt water rinses
and written postoperative instructions such as adequate rest, application of cold pack (ice) and precautions to be
taken to prevent bleeding , suture line opening and pain. After 10- 14 days patient was recalled and the sutures
were removed. To expose the implant platform, 4 months later the second stage surgery was performed and
cover screw was removed and healing cap was placed to develop the required emergence profile. Three weeks
later healing cap was removed which showed healed gingival cuff (Fig.7). To get the implant level impression
closed tray technique followed and impression coping was placed. The position of the impression coping was
verified with the IOPA radiograph (Fig.8). Addition silicone impression material (Aquasil Ultra- Dentsply, USA
) was used for making the impression. The impression coping was retrieved from the implant and joined
together with implant analog and seated back in the impression (Fig.9). The impression was poured in die stone
and the cast was made using esthetic gingival mask in the implant area. Custom UCLA abutment was planned as
abutment option considering the increased inter arch space available with respect to missing tooth and
angulation of the implant. The abutment shape was waxed up around the plastic pattern of the UCLA abutment.
Wax was added to get emergence profile and desired contour. Customized abutment was placed on the implant
analog (Fig.10) and metal ceramic crown was made. The healing cap was removed and customized abutment
was placed with 20 Ncm using a torque device and a large hex driver tip (Fig.11). The screw access hole was
filled with putty and the metal ceramic crown was cemented with a non eugenol temporary cement (Rely X
Temp NE, 3M ESPE, United States ). Because of the precise fit between the individualized abutment and the
metal ceramic crown, only a minimal amount of cement was needed to place the crown. To date, the restoration
has been in service for 24 months without complications (Fig.12,13).
Case 2: A 25 year old male patient reported with the history of trauma 6 years back followed by replantation of
the tooth. The tooth underwent internal resorption and hence was extracted. On clinical examination, evaluation
of diagnostic cast and OPG there was bone loss both cervico apically and mesio distally (Fig.14). Implant of 3.5
mm diameter and 13mm length (Nobel biocare-Replace select) was selected and surgical template was
fabricated using model based technique. Implant was placed using pilot drill followed by sequential use of
osteotome and was reinforced by bone graft around the implant. Postoperative IOPA X ray was taken
(Fig.15). The patient was given a removable partial denture during the healing period. After 4 months second
stage surgery was done, healing abutment was placed for a period of three weeks. Final impression was made
using closed tray technique with rubber base impression material and poured. Angulated abutment of 25 degree
was selected and modified according to the clinical condition to get the desired emergence profile. The pink
porcelain was used to match the adjacent central incisor (Fig.16). An IOPA X ray was taken to check proper fit
DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

31 | Page

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic Zone- Case Reports

of the abutment (Fig.16) and prosthesis was cemented in place. To date, the restoration has been in service
without complications (Fig.17,18).

III. Discussion
The esthetic zone of the premaxilla often requires both hard (bone and teeth) and soft tissue restoration.
In compromised situations where bone height or width is deficient at the osteotomy site, implant has to be
placed more apically or palatally, various treatment options are available to rehabilitate such cases. The most
common approach is to modify the narrower division B ridge into another bone division by crestal osteoplasty.
Bone augmentation in Division B bone can be done by narrow osteotomy made between the bony plates and
bone spreader tapped into edentulous site with subsequent placement of bone graft material (e.g autogenous or
demineralized freeze dried bone, synthetic bone subsitutes). In the severe cases on lay particulate autogenous
graft covered with a membrane for guided tissue regeneration may be required but that needs additional surgical
intervention and are expensive. Narrow diameter root form implants with sufficient length may be used but they
transfer greater stress to the crestal bone. Thus to avoid additional surgical procedures angulated / Customised
abutments may be used. Proper examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, are necessary for esthetic and
functional success of anterior single-tooth implants. To achieve prosthetically desired parallelism between
implants or teeth, the clinician can place an angled abutment. Angulations of as much as 15 degree are easy to
correct with pre angled components. Greater angulation correction may be possible with either pre angled parts
or custom made components. The clinician has the choice of either prefabricated or customized abutments.
While standard sizes and dimensions are sufficient for posterior restorations, their application in the anterior
maxilla may not lead to an optimal esthetic final result. If support of the surrounding tissues is the primary
objective, custom made abutments may be necessary for each individual situation[9]. Typically, dentists select
either stock or cast custom abutments for implant restorations. A major disadvantage of stock abutments is
related to their shape. Most are cylindrical in configuration for the entire length of the component because of
which anti rotational facets has to be incorporated by the dentist himself. The custom abutment is generally
contoured like the preparation of the missing tooth and is thus inherently anti rotational. A higher placed
abutment decreases the amount of crown above the implant abutment, and also provides increased cement
resistance and less torque on the cemented region [10]. In comparison to stock abutments, custom UCLA
abutments provide better potential than for ideal crown contours and peri-implant soft tissue support leading to
optimal esthetic results. A high success rate was reported (4 years: 95.8%). S. Lewis [7].
S. Lewis, J. Beumer reported in a study of 24 months that, 17 patients with 45 implants were
restored using the UCLA abutment. No excessive bone loss, fracture of implant components or restorations, or
clinical signs of electrogalvanism or electrolytic corrosion have been noted. All patients remained completely
asymptomatic. Several soft tissue, hard tissue and implant surgical procedures are required to obtain an ideal
result [5].

IV. Figures And Tables

Fig.1 Intraoral picture showing increased cervicoincisal edentulous space in left upper central incisor (Case 1)

Fig.2 Orthopantogram showing missing left upper central incisor (Case1)

DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

32 | Page

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic Zone- Case Reports

Fig.3 Pilot drill with surgical template (Case1)

Fig.4 Implant placed at prepared osteotomy site (Case1)

Fig.5 IOPA showing the position of implant (Case1)

Fig.6 Removable partial denture adjusted after implant placement (Case1)

DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

33 | Page

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic Zone- Case Reports

Fig.7 Healed gingival cuff for emergence profile (Case1)

Fig.8 Position of the impression coping verified with IOPA radiograph (Case1)

Fig.9 Implant level impression using closed tray technique showing impression coping and
implant analog (Case1)

Fig.10 Customised cast abutment using UCLA abutment with gingival mask (Case1)

DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

34 | Page

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic Zone- Case Reports

Fig.11 Patient with customised abutment (Case1)

Fig.12 Definitive prosthesis in place (Case1)

Fig.13 Postoperative IOPA after 2 years of follow up (Case1)

Fig.14 Preoperative Orthopantogram X ray (Case 2)

Fig.15 IOPA X ray with implant (Case 2)

DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

35 | Page

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic Zone- Case Reports

Fig.16 IOPA X ray with modified angulated abutment (Case 2)

Fig.17 IOPA X ray with prosthesis in situ (Case 2)

Fig.18 Rehabilitated patient (Case 2)

Fig.19 Prosthesis in situ with pink porcelain close up view (Case 2)

DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

36 | Page

Abutment Options for Compromised situation in Esthetic Zone- Case Reports

V. Conclusion
The anterior implant is successful only if the final restoration is fully integrated within the adjacent
dentition. Angled abutments no doubt result in increased stress on implants and adjacent bones but they are
within physiologic limits. Customized UCLA implant abutments may be treated like natural abutment teeth and
provide excellent esthetic and functional properties for long-term clinical success. These abutment options
allowed esthetic restorations to be finished in close proximity to the implant head, overcoming many esthetic




Journal Papers:
Guess PC, Att W, Strub JR, Zirconia in fixed implant prosthodontics. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012; 14:633-45.
Glauser R, Sailer I, Wohlwend A, Studer S, Schibli M, Scharer P, Experimental zirconia abutments for implant-supported singletooth restorations in esthetically demanding regions: 4-year results of a prospective clinical study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17:28590.
Declan Byrne, Frank Houston, The fit of cast and premachined implant abutments. J Prosthet Dent 1998; 80:184-92.
Priest G, Virtual-designed and computer milled implant abutments. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005; 63: 22-32
Lewis S, Beumer J 3d, Hornburg W, Moy P. The UCLA abutment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1988; 3:183-9.
Yildirim M, Edelhoff D, Hanisch O, Spiekermann H, Ceramic abutments - a new era in achieving optimal esthetics in implant
dentistry. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2000; 20:81-91.
Lewis SG, Llamas D, Avera S, The UCLA abutment: A four-year review. J Prosthet Dent 1992; 67:509
Papazian S, Morgano SM, A laboratory procedure to facilitate the development of an emergence profile with a custom implant
abutment. J Prosthet Dent 1998; 79:232
Stefan Holst, Markus B. Blatz, Prosthodontic Considerations for Predictable Single- Implant Esthetics in the Anterior Maxilla. J
Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005;63:89-96, Suppl 2
Books :
Carl.E.Misch, Contemporary implant dentistry1993, 3rd edition (Elsevier Health Sciences)

DOI: 10.9790/0853-14823037

37 | Page