ISSN: 2319-5967

ISO 9001:2008 Certified
International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT)
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2013

Overview, Characteristics and Advantages of
IP Camera Video Surveillance Systems
Compared to Systems with other Kinds of
Camera
Gradimirka Popovic1, Nebojsa Arsic1, Branimir Jaksic1, Boris Gara2, Mile Petrovic1
1
Faculty of Tehnical Sciences, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia,
2
Ministry of Interior Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract— This study deals with the basic characteristics of the IP cameras used in video surveillance systems, and it
also compares them with the analog ones. The comparison between IP and analog camera characteristics was made when
used in operation of one video surveillance system. The IP video surveillance system multiview function mode was also
studied. Furthermore, the study dealt with the IP camera power charge principles in the video surveillance systems via
Ethernet in cases with and without PoE switch. The overview of the basic characteristics of four kinds of IP cameras: Cube,
Dome, Box and Bullet were given.
Index Terms— IP camera, multiview, power over ethernet (PoE), video surveillance.

I. INTRODUCTION
Video surveillance is an integral part of each and every modern security system for protection of facilities,
individuals and assets. In large systems, the video surveillance is integrated with other security systems such as
anti-theft systems, access control systems, fire detection systems, public address systems. The first video
surveillance systems were completely analog. The technological progress has triggered development and appliance
of digital technologies in the video surveillance systems. Nowadays, there are practically no more utterly analog
systems. There are video surveillance systems which combine analog and digital systems. Beside analog
components, such systems also have a digital component (mainly DVR digital video recorder) which performs
analog-digital and digital-analog conversion. In digital systems, the signal from camera to the recording location is
transferred in digital format.Video surveillance systems are divided into three groups according to the operation
technologies used [1]:
A. Completely analog (analog CCTV - Closed-circuit television system using video recorders)
It is completely analog system composed of analog cameras with a composite video signal output connected to
VCR (Video Cassette Recording). VCR uses video cassettes identical to the ones used by home video devices.
Video material is not compressed, so it is recorded with maximum number of frames, one cassette may record
maximum 8 hours. In most systems, quads and multiplexers may be connected between cameras and VCR. It
enables archiving from more than one camera, but in smaller number of frames. Analog monitors are used to
monitor video pictures [1].
B. Final Stage partly digital (analog CCTV systems using digital video recorders and network video
recorders)
These are analog systems with digital archiving. Video tape is replaced by hard disc, which requires digitalized
signal to be compressed in order to enable archiving of video material recorded during several days. The first
devices had limited hard disc capacity so the length of recording was also limited, or recording with smaller
number of frames had to be used. Disc capacity has not been a problem any more due to the production technology
development. Most devices have several input channels, usually 4, 9 or 16 meaning that they already have function
of quad/multiplex devices. Analog systems using network devices are partly digital systems meaning that they use
devices with Ethernet port for network connection. Since the recorded material is digitalized and compressed, it
may be transfered via network and viewed at a distant location. Some systems allow viewing of both recorded

356

whereas the analog cameras require encoder or DVR video signal digitalization [3]. IP camera is composed of lenses. [3]. Access from any computer connected to the network requires DVR. ARTPEC chip performing controling function and compression chip. All recordings of the surveillance cameras are digitalized both for viewing and storing at the computers. via network switches and is archived on the computer using video surveillance software. They receive. alarm management.000 pixels. Some systems require a special client installantion. Video material is transfered via IP base network. send and transfer the picture (video signal) directly via IP networks. Very fast development of network technologies and increase of bandwidth has enables greater application of network CCTV cameras. wireless LAN) for signal transfer depending on the TCP/IP protocol. The advantage of IP camera over other analog cameras is higher resolution of pictures. Issue 5. the higher quality of camera [1]. whereas other devices enable viewing of only recorded material. IP camera does not have to be connected to the PC. CCD sensor. since it functions independently. i. whereas some of them use a standard web browser. IP camera signal available on web network. The monitored picture is focused at through an objective on the surface of an element and an electric signal is generated on it. However. The greater number of pixels. Fig. IP camera structure is given on Fig. 1: IP camera structure IP cameras may be monitored via any web browser. IP CAMERA CHARACTERISTICS The greatest trend in video surveillance systems is switch from analog cameras to the IP camera. i. Video server is connected via network switch to the network and further to the PC where video data are archived on the hard discs [2]. IP camera has its own IP address. e-mail client. 1. Receiving and saving of camera pictures to the system is done by a digital video recorder with network interface or PC computer connected to the network [2]. Completely digital (network video systems using video servers and networks. IP camera may be described as a camera and computer merged into an integral device which digitalizes and compresses video material and has a network connection [2]. These are photosensitive elements composing of fine network of individual pixels. Typical number of pixels for CCD elements range between 250. thus enabling the authorized viewers to see. network switch and PC with video surveillance software. and it may be installed wherever there is an IP 357 .e IP cameras) Network video systems using video servers are composed of video servers. which makes a distant monitoring more flexible C. programmability. optical filter.e. Analog cameras are connected to the video server which digitalizes and compresses the video material. FTP server. Internet. There cameras use network infrastructure (LAN. II. save and manage the video through standard infrastructure of IP base network. which is proportional to light intensity falling upon it.000 and 500. September 2013 material and live broadcast. It is connected to the network and it has embedded web server. FTP client. Signal is digitalized in camera itself and in such format sent via network to the surveillance location. IP cameras digitalize video signals inside the camera.ISSN: 2319-5967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2. CCD sensor (Charge Coupled Device) is a basic element of almost all contemporary cameras.

Scenario with analog cameras Scenario with IP cameras Camera resolution from 420 to 700 TV lines. digital inputs and outputs. 4CIF resolution from 1 MPixel to 8 MPixel Cabling coaxial to each camera and DVR. [6]. Cat 5e. as well as that brad width defines speed of video material transfer. This application supports around 900 fps (frames per second) in CIF picture format on the standard PC (Pentium IV/3. Issue 5.local recording. the network also has some other functions and information which may be transferred through the same network connection. Furthermore. September 2013 connection. they have an advantage of SD card. There are no limitations in number of multiview configurations. Many systems for video surveillance are able to show one or several cameras alive in 25 fps and Frame Rate decreases fast where there are more than 5 cameras connected. Several multiview screens. Table 1 gives comparison of characteristics between analog and IP cameras during video surveillance system performance. they have POE ability – power charge through network cable (data and power charge go through one network cable). IP camera technology has overtaken analog ones and now they fit to all requirements and specifications. Shortcomings of IP cameras are those that they have not be designed for analog monitors allowing on-site viewing. Example of such control center is given on the Fig. III. Standard version of IP system enables viewing of several cameras (may be of different sizes) in one window of web browser. potential application of the former for recording. for instance. IP cameras support possibility to display pictures with sound from great number of cameras simultaneously. new applications may easily display live broadcasting from 30 cameras. This capacity is sufficient for live broadcast from 30 cameras in 25 fps. The user may switch between different displays by a simply click. Beside video. serial ports for serial data or control pan/tilt/zoom mechanism [4]. up to the high level. Furthermore. possess Dual stream – two independent streams. may be defined in one camera. Multiview function enables several viewers to watch different displays of camera connected to the network from different PCs. IP CAMERA MULTIVIEW OVERVIEW Multiview function is supported by almost all web browsers. IP performances exceed analog camera performances due to their new functions. analog camera is a carrier of mono-direction signal ending on the DVR device and level of processing. such as moving and sending various video flows [4]. delay between events and the display on screens is much shorter. differently divided between cameras. without problems and without installation of additional software. including audio. Number of cameras which may be displayed is limited only by computer performances and screen size. IP camera communicates simultaneously with several applications in order to perform various tasks. audio. IP cameras are easily connected to the existing infrastucture. TABLE I: Comparison of characteristics between analog and IP cameras during video surveillance system performance. Power over Ethernet (PoE) (Video and Power) additional power cables The average cable length 100 m/camera (video) 65 m/camera (Cat5 with PoE) 65 m/camera (power) Power Power for cameras PoE Switches to all types DVR PoE switch Server / memory Mid-end DVR (H. Namely.2 GHz).264 compatible with PC (standard) with memory memory) Software on the DVR (H. Opposite to that.ISSN: 2319-5967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2. These 30 cameras may be lined up in 6x5 on large TFT screen in CIF format (320x240 pixels) [5]. 2. whereas IP camera is bi-directional and integrates itself with the other parts of a system.264 compatible) AXIS Camera Station Monitors standard high resolution monitors standard high resolution monitors IV. Furthermore. Multiview function may integrate both live footage and recordings of events [5]. COMPARISON BETWEEN IP AND ANALOG CAMERAS During recent years. whereas the latter stream may be used for monitoring via Internet [5]. 358 . in given scalable environment.

so that the cameras and appropriate software for video management would be operational even in case of power cuts. the video surveillance system independent from the public power network will be created. When existing network/switch structure is used. the network video products may receive power and data through a single cable. 6 and 12 ports (one camera may be connected to each port). PoE technology has been defined in standard IEEE 802. Fig. POWER OVER ETHERNET PoE (Power over Ethernet) is a technology integrating power charging into standard WLAN infrastructure. V. Fig. If PoE device is connected so that it is charged by electric power from UPS. There are cameras which support PoE or simple IP cameras which use an adapter. Issue 5. PoE device enables installation of IP cameras on locations without any or difficult power access. Charging provided by LAN infrastructure is automatically activated when compatible terminal has been identified. most producers offer network switches with integrated PoE support. the new power cables had to be distributed and power switches installed [7]. All IP cameras without installed PoE may be integrated into PoE system using an active splitter which separates 359 . PoE enables simple. 2: Windows application for multiview. Nowadays.ISSN: 2319-5967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2. PoE switch eliminates a need for charge input on cameras and enables simplified application of continuous charging (UPS) ensuring 24 hour working mode. and it is blocked when the device is not compatible [7]. in most cases. PoE provides power charge to the network device such as IP phone or IP camera using the same cables as the ones for network connection. faster and less expensive installation in comparison to the traditional installation when. seven days a week [7]. 3: IP camera power charge via switch with PoE. 3 provides an overview of IP camera power charge via switch with PoE. af and designed in such a manner so not to degrade performances of network data transfer and not to decrease signal transfer range in the network. [8]. Applying PoE device. PoE midspan are available in 1. the users may add so-called midspan to the switch in order to make improvements using the same functions. September 2013 Fig. because Midspan provides additional charging to the network cable.

such as integrated wireless networking. B. if there is a need to adjust visual field of cube camera. Cube Camera With regards to the cube cameras. One more limitation is that only less than 25% of cube cameras have PoE support [9]. some cube cameras offer certain advanced functions. This is important.e.9 W to the place with a device/camera. less that 33% of dome camera 360 . i. a number of significant limitations to be taken into consideration is related to the fixed focal lenses. more than 70% of cube cameras offer 15 fps (frames per second) or more.4 W on the switch or midspan. 5: Principles of connecting IP camera within video surveillance. Even though it is usually done on short distances. 5 shows how IP camera receives charging through network cable and how it may continue working even in the case of power drops/cuts.e. Also. Fig. 4 provides a scheme overview of PoE splitter application for the cameras without possibility of direct PoE Fig. Fig. which is more than sufficient for most applications. Standard provides up to 15. Box Camera Box camera offers flexibility and simplicity for relatively low price.ISSN: 2319-5967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2. Around 90% of box cameras enable the users to change an objective easily. Fig. wireless technology support is more common for cube cameras than for other kinds. using Midspan. On the other hand. KINDS OF IP CAMERA A. starting from moderate to significant ones. Main reasons why the users choose box cameras is changeable objective. Fig. with background light or changeable light. it may be useful due to removal of network cables. it has to be physically moved. Cube cameras generally have problems. Cube cameras have greater Frame rate. Issue 5. 5 provides a principle of IP camera networking with and without active splitter. Some Cube cameras have integrated IR LED diodes in order to improve efficiency in cases of poor light. 4: IP camera power charge via switch without PoE This characteristic offers a user a possibility to freely and safely combine appropriate cameras and PoE compatible devices on the network. September 2013 data and power coming through the network cable [7]. VI. i. ensuring power charging for external cameras as well [8]. which transfers maximum power of 12. Contrary to that. especially if they try to see something really distant.

If camera should be directed toward some angle. CONCLUSION Video surveillance concept based on video systems with IP cameras provides great efficiency and decreaces the price of the system. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was done within the research project of the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of Serbia III47016 and TR35026. people or vehicles. since there is no need to purchase and install a special case.JAHORINA 2007. More than 80% of bullet cameras have integrated IR reflectors [12]. pp. but only on the short distances (usually 50 m or less).” VII International Scientific – Professional Symposium INFOTEH . construction management. IP systems of video surveillance may be easily integrated with other systems and functions. “IP Video Surveillance. traffic management.a) Cube. b) Dome. Sizes of these cameras may vary. distance may be short (less than 20 m). a) b) c) d) Fig. Box cameras may offer supreme esthetics. Mini dome cameras provide the best esthetic solutions. alarm systems. VII. REFERENCES [1] M. posibility to count facilities. This is an inexpensive way to improve quality of video material when artificial light is not available. without additional separate case. The advantage of dome camera is shorter installation time. September 2013 support changeable objectives and those limited by the physical size of the case [10]. Bullet cameras are easier to be installed outdoors. it depends on dome camera design). vol. such as efficiency in poor light conditions. data transfer as a response to motion detection. and require less skills and time [11]. D. [15]. 6: Appearance IP camera . In case of dim light/night surveillance. except straight forward. however. C. possibility of using PoE (Power over Ethernet) – charging through computer network. Bullet cameras usually have some significant advantages not so common for box cameras. box cameras tend to be easier and offer greater frame rate than dome cameras. Dome cameras may be installed right next to the wall or to the ceiling. Fig. On the other hand. More than 60% of dome cameras are resistant to vandal behavior. Automatic warning on the camera via e-mail is enabled. so there are mini dome cameras as well as large cumbersome ones. Issue 5. 361 . whereas it is the case with only 10% of box cameras. 7. support for newly installed intellegent motion detection with recognision of shapes. may have limited movements (however. such as access control. some dome cameras have integrated IR LED. 694-697. Bullet Camera Bullet cameras may be best defined as special forms of box cameras. since the existing computer network is used for transfer of audio and video signal within the system of video surveillance with IP cameras. [14]. Dome cameras are better and have advantage if a camera should be installed outdoors. [16]. This makes bullet cameras extremely good for situation when there is no light. being closed inside a case. great decrease of expenditures for cabling on larger installations (Cat 5e instead of RF-59 coax cable). Mitrovic. may be complicated for installment. March 2008. since they are mainly installed on platforms.ISSN: 2319-5967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2. c) Box and d) Bullet. Dome Camera Dome cameras offer a serial of physical options (advantages) which are not accustomed for the box cameras. 6 provides a physical appearance of IP camera [13]. making them pretty discrete. IP video surveillance provides an opportunity to choose a software and hardware for video recording on the base of an open code. The dome cameras.

[10] http://www. degree in 1989 from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Mile Petrovic is full professor at the Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering. [3] V. University of Nis. [7] R.aspx?PrId=81 [14] http://securitycameraagent. Kruegle. USA. “Network Video Surveillance and Compression Technology.ISSN: 2319-5967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2. and D. Germany. 2007. “Power over Ethernet (PoE): An Energy-Efficient Alternative.com/Vandal-Proof-Dome-Security-Cameras/ [15] http://www. [5] AXIS Communications. pp.” Marvell Semiconductor Inc. He has authored over 20 scientific peer-reviewed papers on the above subject.com/ AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY Gradimirka Popovic graduated engineer of electrotechnics. he is a Full Professor with the Faculty of Technical Sciences. University of Belgrade. University of Priština in Kosovska Mitrovica.com.” V International Scientific – Professional Symposium INFOTEH .television techniques and digital image processing. Kleinerman.. [6] www. Santa Clara. Serbia. March 2006. Slavic.3af. He is PhD candidate in the Faculty of Electronic Engineering (department Telecommunications).in/product_details.com. Areas of interest include telecommunications . University of Belgrade and Ph.ipvideonadzor. She has written several articles in the field of electronics and telecommunications.” 2011. His main research interests include High Voltage equipment and measurements. September 2013 [2] H. “Central Video Surveillance With Optical Transmission System. “CCTV Surveillance: Analog and Digital Video Practices and Technology. Unterdorfer. degree in 1993 from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. She graduated on Faculty of Electro-technical sciences on University in Priština. USA.com/_/assets/library/110-3467_truvis_boxcam_ds_. and M.dvrconnection.com/china/pd/7742737/H_264_Megapixel_Sony_CCD_IP_Box_Camera.diytrade. He has authored over 50 scientific peer-reviewed papers and a large number of projects and patents. University of Priština. degree in 1983 in Electrical Engineering from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Faculty of Technical Sciences in Kosovska Mitrovica. Kostic. He received his B. [9] ACTI Connecting Vision.” 2002. Serbia. and D.almaks.rs/sites/default/files/product-specifications/ir-bullet-user-manual. Participated on numerous expert and scientific conferences.” 2013. Nebojsa Arsic was born in Serbia in 1960.Sc. Serbia. [4] www. June 2008. Boris Gara has completed master's degree in electrical engineering and computer science. Currently. Branimir Jaksic is assistant at the Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering.” Hirschmann Automation and Control GmbH. student of master’s studies on Faculty of Technical Sciences in Kosovska Mitrovica. “Power over Ethernet IEEE 802. Areas of research include telecommunications and digital image processing.Sc. May 2011. 362 .pdf [13] http://blueweb.axis. [8] P.interlogix. [12] http://www. Vol.JAHORINA 2006. She works as a professor of Information and computers in the primary school.D. Faculty of Technical Sciences in Kosovska Mitrovica.” Massachusetts: Elsevier. 156-159. Issue 5. “AXIS 233D Network Dome Camera. “Cube Camera E Series – Hardware Manual. His areas of interest include digital image processing and transmission of multimedia signals through telecommunications networks.pdf [11] AXIS Communications.html [16] https://www. Feldman. And a member of the technical program committee and reviewer for several international journals and symposia. 5.