You are on page 1of 85


TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................I
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION...........................................1












BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY..........................................13

CUT LINE.........................................................................13


OUT LINE........................................................................14


ONTOLOGY / METAPHYSICS..................................................15






CRITICAL THINKING............................................................27


DEDUCTIVE LOGIC & INDUCTIVE LOGIC..................................28


INDUCTIVE LOGIC..............................................................29










SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION....................................................37










MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES..................................................40



MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES.........................................................42


MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES.........................................................44







BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY..........................................51





















MORAL OBLIGATIONS............................64

MUSLIM PHILOSOPHY...................................................72






EDUCATIONAL THEORY........................................72


IN ISLAM..............................................77




Derived from Greek word philo-sofia which means love of wisdom or

love of knowledge. Great Greek philosophers were Socrates



Philosophy is a set of ideas ant beliefs about every aspect of life. It
is in search of truths and realities about Man God of universe.

P. Montague: Philosophy is an attempt to give a reasoned

conception of the universe and mans place in it.


J.H. Leighten: A complete philosophy includes a world view of

reasoned conception of the whole cosmos and a life view of the
values, in meanings and purposes of human life.


E.S. Ames: Philosophy is an endeojourto achieve a comprehensive

view of life and its meaning upon the basis of the results of
various sciences.



















philosophical ideas are realized through a process of educates many

philosophers were also educationists, like John Dewey, Herbart, Pestalozzi
and Ghazali Lets first describe the two terns, philosophy and education .
What is Philosophy?
Philosophy is a set of beliefs about man, God and universe. It is in
search of truths and realities behind this apparent world. It tries to
understand the purpose and future of mans life. It makes on enquiry about
the nature and existence of God. It also discusses the aeration of this
surprising world and tries to know whether it is going to change or not.
Major fields of philosophy are:















Major theories of philosophy are:

Unit. I continued

Philosophy and Education


Idealism, that Mind is prior to matter


Realism, that matter is prior to mind.




Pragmatism, that social life of man is important

Education is a teaching and learning process which continues

throughout one life. During this process the individual learns various
skills, gains knowledge and builds character. He is also able to earn his
living by fair means. In other words, education aims at moral, social,
physical, intellectual, religious, cultural and authentic development of the
Education can be formal as well as informal. When education is
provided systematically in a particular instruction, according to a
prescribed curriculum, examination is conducted and certificates are
awarded, it is called formal education. When education is imported by
parents or friends, no proper classes are held and no certificates are
awarded, the individual learns skills and habits of his elders, it is called
Informal Education. Both type of education is important and it has its own
Some Elements of Educations are the following.




Close Relationship between Philosophy & Education

After a brief description of Philosophy and Education we find a
close relationship between the two. They are like two sides of a coin, one

is the speculative side, while the other is a practical one. Philosophy

presents ideas which are realized through a process of education.
Every nation first develops a philosophy and later plans a scheme
of education. When there is a change in the philosophy of a country, the
system of education also changes. Two such examples are of Greece and
Pakistan. In the city of Sparta (in Greece) when priority was given to the
defence of the state, Militry training was made compulsory in the schools
and colleges. In Pakistan, during the rule of Gen. Zia-ul-Haq more
emphasis was placed on Islamization, as a result of it many Madrasa
schools were established and the text books at all levels were revised so
that the first chapter of all books should begin with the name of Allah and
great Muslim scientists, scholars, philosophers and historians should be
mentioned in the beginning of the book. It is clear that a change in the
Philosophy of a nation also being, a charge in the system of education.
There is a close relationship in the fowling:.


Both Deal with Morality:

Both philosophy and education are interested in improving the

moral standard of the people, as it is required for a good and peaceful

society. The chief aim of education is character building, that every
individual should develop certain quantities of character such a polite
speech, tolerance, loyalty, respect, truthfulness, sympathy, kindness,
helpfulness etc. Education brings a change in the behavior and attitude of
the students, that they are able to differentiate between right and wrong,
good and evil, and follow the right path. In all walks of life they should
become regular, punctual, dutiful, hardworking and responsible persons.

They should be helpful in the family, they should be dedicated at the job
and they should be patriotic to the country.
Ethics is also a branch of philosophy which deals with the moral
conduct of man. It raises questions whether man is born innocent or he is
selfish by nature. Philosophy tells us that there is a strange blend of good
and evict in the nature of man. At times, man tarries out to be quite evil
and cruel, at times he is willing to sacrifice his life and property for the
sake of others.


Both Provide Knowledge:

Both philosophy and education join hands in providing

knowledge. Education provides systematic knowledge at primary,

secondary and higher level in different disciplines, such as Mathematics,
languages, sciences, Arts, Agriculture, Forestry, computers, engineering
etc. It also informs about animal and human behavior. It provides
knowledge about religious of the world and their mode of worship, about
continents, occasions and countries of the world, about solar system and
mans effort to understand it. Education also describes the nature of
vocations and professions man can be engaged in. Philosophy would also
discuss the nature, sources and validity of knowledge. It is interested in
knowing whether the knowledge which we get is true or complete, or there
is still some knowledge which is beyond mans understanding. It also
provides theories in this connection which are known as Empiricism,

Intuitionism and


Philosophy provides

knowledge while discussing the reality of the universe, reality of God,

reality of man, reality of existence and the final reality.


Both Emphasize on Value:

Philosophy and Education attach great importance to values in the

social life of man. All societies have their own values. There cannot be a
value free society. In Pakistan it is valuable to give regard to the elders, to
greet each other, to love the children, to say your prayers to God, to
welcome the guests etc. the chief Islamic Values are of freedom (to say and
do what is absolutely correct) Justice (to do justice irrespective of colour,
creed or sex). Equality (all men are equal, high or low, rich or poor).
Brotherhood (All Muslims are brothers, will join in grief and joy) without
regard to these values, there cannot be a good society.
Philosophy also gives great regard to values, it considers moral,
social, religious, intellectual and aesthetic values to be selected by the
people for good life. Philosophy also searches about supreme values,
namely Truth, Beauty, Goodness, Hope and faith.


Both Discuss Methods of Teaching:

There is a close relationship between philosophy and education, as

both discuss methods of teaching the well known methods used and
propagated by philosophers are called dialogue, discussion and
questioning. These methods of teaching were used by Greek philophers
(Socrates, plato, Avistotle) in the learning process. In this method, readymade knowledge will not be provided to the learners the teacher would ask
many questions from the students related to the problem or topic the
discussion will continue until the students reach to a correct conclusion.

Education further elaborated and developed many new methods of

teaching lecture method will be used for providing factual knowledge.
Demonstration method will be used for the teaching of languages.
Experimental methods will be used for the teaching of science subjects.
Field trips will be useful for the teaching of geography. Play way and
activity methods will be useful for the teaching of mathematics.


Both Discuss Aims of Education:

Since philosophers are greatly interested in the education of man,

they believe that man becomes civilized by education and training. It is

essential for the progress of man. For Socrates, search for truth will be the
chief aim of education. For Plato, four coordinal virtues will be developed
through a process of education. These are wisdom courage self
control and justice. Wisdom means to be objective and thoughtful in life
and differentiate between good and evil. Courage means to sacrifice ones
life and property for the sake of protecting others. Self-control means to
exercise control over ones emotions of hatred, jealousy, selfishness and
anger. Justice is fair play and just treatment with the right person. Justice is
the result of wisdom, courage and self control. According to Aristotle
the, aim of education is to develop body, mind and soul of the individual.
Education develops aims for an all round development of the
individual. These will be the following:Moral aim

Religious aim

Social aim

Physical aim

Intellectual aim

Recreational aim

Citizenshop aim.

Aesthetic aim

To conclude philosophy and education are closely related and

depend on each other.
The scope of philosophy would include all the investigations of
philosophers related to human life, experiences and future world they want
to find the teeth and reality behind every idea and every object. Philosophy
really means serious thought to universe, human behavior, qualities of
truth, beauty and goodness.
The scope of philosophy is very vast, it includes:




Metaphysics /Ontology
It is concerned with the reality or being of everything that exists,
the course, substance and purpose of everything.


It deals with the possibilities and limits of human knowledge can
we get some true and complete knowledge of this world?


It means that there are values in human life in every society, these
are Intrinsic (valuable for itself) and universal and objective
values. As truth, beauty and goodness are






Definition of Philosophy:
Philosophy is a set of ideas and beliefs about the origin of this
universe, the purpose of mans life and about the existence and nature of
Philosophers are greatly interested in understanding these
surprising world, the future of mans life and the future of this universe.
The shortest definition of philosophy is that it raises questions about every
aspect of mans life in order to understand it better. In answer to all their
questions they present theories Greek philosophy Socrates, Plato and
Aristotle became famous all over the world. French philosopher Descartes
and German philosopher Immanuel Kant became well known for their
modern approach on philosophy definition of P. Montague:
Philosophy is an attempt to give a reasoned conception of the whole
cosmos and mans place in it.
The scope of philosophy is very vast, it touches all the fields of mans life.
To improve human life, it performs various.
Functions viz:
It is in search of truths and realities
It explores the realm of knowledge.
It presents theorems about this world
It determines a standard of morality.

It criticizes all fields, particularly, state, education and religion.


Axiology or theory of Values is Another

Branch of philosophy, it discusses the nature of intrinsic and

extrinsic value. It also investigates about absolute universal and final

values and regard Truth Beauty and Goodness as supreme values. Hope
and faith were also considered as highly valuable.

Ethic: is sometimes considered a separate branch of philosophy,

it is also thought to be a part of Axiology.

Ethics deals with the moral conduct of man and points out a
difference between right and wrong actions. It emphasizes on maintain a
moral standard in all institution of man viz: family, school, employment,
law courts and government organizations. It presents theories of good
life, i.e.

Hedonism / greatest help lines of the greatest number) it is a

materialistic approach.


self realization (Individual qualities of character) to be truthful,

to be honest, kind, police, sympathetic, helps.


Intuitionism (voice of ones conscience)


Logic is another branch of philosophy which emphasizes rational

attitude and correct thinking to be developed in life. It wants
human beings to do deep thinking and be careful in the use of
language. In our expression we should be clear and systematic. We
should have valid arguments to support our statements. We cannot

convey our ideas if our thinking is confused logic is useful in our

everyday life.
The importers of pragmatism are Charles Peirce, William John

Naturalism- considers Nature as the ultimate reality. It regards

this universe as self existing and not created. That the universe is
governed by a Natural law and order and man has gat a central
place in it. The chief aim of education is to prepare for his/her life
and discover the secrets of the nature the separators are Rousseau,
Bacon, Comenius and Herbert Spencer.


Existentialism states that the struggle and existence of man is to be

respected. Man struggle for his existence throughout his life. His
interests, experiences, and his freedom are worthwhile. Reality
consists in the actions of man. He determined his future himself
the chief aim of education is self-awareness and a regard for


Therefore two other contemporary philosophy Conservative and



Conservative philosophy likes talk about plato and Aristotle and

consider conservative values, that is of strict discipline and
Education will aim at developing thinking power of the students
and it will include the study of seven liberal Arts, viz: Astronomy


Governor, Geometry, Maths, Music Logic Oratory. Conservative

philosophy include perennialism and Essentialism.

Progressive philosophies put emphasis on the progress and

freedom of man.




First Branch
Metaphysics or Ontology
(Deals with Reality)



Reality of God:

Arguments in favour + again













Reality of universe / world:


Scientific + religions explanation


Time and space

Reality of Man:


Powers of his mind










Soul of men

Plato +


Moral nature of man

Blend of good + evil



Reality of Existence:


Conditions for existence


God Mind Nature Time and space

Number of Realities:







Deism (Indifferent)







Second Branch Epistemology


Description and Meaning:


Philosophical Qs.

Four theories






Plato: about ignorance belief knowledge


Bacon about four Idols of Mind.



Nature of Knowledge:

Objects of physical world

Living of non living things
Ideas of fields of life.

Sources of Knowledge:


Censure experience










Validity of Knowledge


Test of correspondence. It is based on facts and tested by



Test of coherence. It has some relation with the present



Test of utility. If proves useful for human beings.



It is the study of being or existence, that is to find out the truth or
reality beyond this apparent world. Since philosophers are interested in
searching for the exact relation of everything that exists, they wants to find

the truth about God, man, universe, existent and the number of realities
Aristotle called ontology, the first philosophy. These will be discussed one
by one.


Reality of God.
Philosophers want to reach to some truth by discuss really exist or

it is an idea, they give arguments about the existence of God, many

philosophers support and many others reject the existence of God they
would give arguments in favour as well as against the existence of God,
and leave man to think over for himself. They give many arguments, but
four are well known.

Cosmological. Argument states that there is a huge and

systematic cosmos or universe. How could it come into
being by itself, there must be a creator and he is God
Everything that exists has a creator.



Argument states that everything in this

world performs a useful purpose. Plants are useful as food

for animals, man takes animals and plants as then food.
Human beings help each other in difficulty. But it is
difficult to understand the useful purpose performed by a
lizard or a scorpion.


Argument states that we accept the

existence of everything which human mind can explain.

There are many ideas which do not have a material
existence, truth, Justice, Freedom, Honesty, Sincerity etc.,

but these are accepted to exist, then the Idea. Of God can
also exist because we can explain this characteristics to be
kind, loving, forgiving, helping, knowing etc. It proves
that God exists.

Ethical or Moral argument states that the concept of God

has a moralizing influence on the activities of man. He
says his prayers to God and is prevented from including
into harmful activities. If he leads a good life by believing
in God, let him do so (Most of the philosophers agree with
this ethical argument). It is rejected on the grounds that
people mis-use the name of God and are often indulged
into harmful activities.


Reality of Man: (MindSoulMorality)

The philosophers are greatly interested in finding the truth and

reality of mans nature, purpose and existence. First, they ask about the
power of mans mind, can man know and understand everything and can be
remain successful in his plans of life. In this connection they put forward
four theories called determinism etc.



The term epistemology is derived from Greek word. Epstein which
means knowledge. Philosophers raise many questions regarding the nature,
sources and correctness and knowledge, e.g

Is it possible to obtain all knowledge ?

Is shown knowledge beyond mans understanding?
How can we get, knowledge?
How can we get knowledge?
How can we test or verify knowledge to be true?
In answer to these. Questions, philosophers present theories: viz:
Empiricism, Rationalism, skepticism and Intuitionism.
According to Empiricism, knowledge of physical world is possible
According to Rationalism, all knowledge comes from mind.
According to Intuitionism, true knowledge comes suddenly.
According to skepticism, true and complete knowledge is not possible.
Plato talks above 3 stages of knowledge, ignorance, belief and knowledge.

Ignorance means not knowing an object.


Belief means accepting the existence of an object.


Knowledge means verifying the existence of an object. According

to English philosopher France
Bacon, we cannot get true knowledge due to over prejudices; he

calls then 4 Idols of the Mind. These are idols of cave, tribe, theatre and
market. Idol of cave, refers towards taking ones own ideas to be cored.


Idol of theatre, means to be impressed by the ideas of leaders Idol of

market, means accepting old ideas and rejecting new know.

Scope of Knowledge/Epistemology:
The scope of knowledge would include nature of knowledge,
sources of knowledge and validity of knowledge.

Nature of Knowledge:
What is knowledge? The word nature means the basic

characteristic of a thing. Nature of knowledge will include everything with

which we are familiar. It can be about material world, solar system, living
being, non-living things, ideas of natural and supernatural world, future
life etc. It can be knowledge about all fields of human life social, moral,
religious, physical, intellectual, aesthetic, recreational. It is also a study
about sciences, Art, History, Geography, Mathematics, languages etc,
about Atoms, currents, gravitation.

Sources of Knowledge:

How do we get all knowledge?

Philosophers suggest five ways of gaining all knowledge.

Sense Experience:
We get a lot of knowledge through our five senses of seeing (trees,
morentains), hearing (all sounds), tasting (sweet, sourer) smelling
(fragrance or foul) and touching (soft, hard).Those philosophers
who support this theory are called Empiricists, famous supporters
are Locke, Berkley and Hume. The difficulty with sense19

experience is that these are sometimes defective and do not

provide us complete knowledge. It is also said that senses are often
deceptive. A straight stick would look bent, when put in water.

All kinds of ideas are created by the mind of man to make life
comfortable and peaceful. It is the reasoning power of the mind to
differentiate between good and Evil, and to develop concepts of
truth, beauty, wisdom, patience, sympathy, cooperation, kindness,
friendship, freedom etc. These are superior kind of ideas, without
these life cannot exist. Moral, social and religious values are also a
result of thinking and reasoning. Concept of future life are given
by mind. Problem of life are also solved by reasoning branches of
philosophy (Epistemology). Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza are
the main supporters of this view and they are called Rationalists.
French philosopher Descartes words became famous when he said,
I think, therefore I am


A lot of knowledge is obtained from authentic books such as
Dictionary, Encyclopedia, books written by Plato and Aristotle etc.
Moreover, established Institutions, as colleges and universities
also provide relevant knowledge in a particular field. All writers,
institutions and great men providing a tested body of knowledge
are regarded as authority in their fields of study.



Some knowledge comes to man intuitively, without reasoning. The
word Intuition mean the power of the mind to know something
without conscious reasoning or without effort. It is called sudden
awareness or immediate insight about the nature of things, it also
means obtaining some true knowledge suddenly Mystics claim to
have this true knowledge.


The word reveal means to possess some hidden or secret
knowledge. The religious knowledge or the word of God is
revealed to prophets in a state of vision or dream. It only comes to
prophets and not to ordinary people. It is believed to be taught
directly by God. A lot of knowledge is obtained by revelation..


Validity of knowledge:
The word valid means that which is correct. Philosophers are
interested in this world out of nothing. He is the creation and
controller of this universe. There will be a day of judgment and
human beings will be answerable to him for their actions. The
second view is a scientific one, that living beings originate in
favourable environment, they grow and live for a particular span
of life, they die and become a part of the earth again. The place of
time and space is also discussed by philosophers. They talk about
conceptual time, that it is an idea in the mind of man, for some
people time passes quickly, for others it passes very slowly. We
also have perceptual time. That we can know and measure it with

the help of clocks. What is space, its characteristic is extension, it

is extended around us in all directions.

Reality of Existence:
Philosophers also ask and desire to know what is existence itself.
What are the conditions for existence? Is mind going to tell us
about conditions for existence? Can time and space be conditions
for existence? Will God tell us about the conditions of existence?


The number of Realities.

Philosophers are always interested in finding and reaching to an
absolute and ultimate reality. They define qualities of an absolute
and final reality of all things. The final reality should be self
existent, infinite, transcendent, immutable and beyond time and

If the final reality is one, that is called theism.

If therefore many realities, it is called polytheism
If the reality is one with nature it is called Pontheism
If there exists an indifferent reality is called Deism
If there exists no find reality is called Atheism
Indetermination (man is all powerful in planning and controlling
actions of this life), self-determine (to a great extent man is responsible for
his actions because of his intelligence sometimes he fails because of some
mistake on errors of judgment and suffers),


Fatalism (the beginning and end of mains life is based on his fate, he is
As to the question whether man possesses a soul, there are two
views from plato and Aristotle. According to Plato, a thing which
possesses a soul will always have it cannot come to an and. According to
Aristotle, soul and body are related, when body perishes, the soul will also
come to an end. As to the discussion of moral nature of man, philosophers
believe that there exists a strange blend of good and emit in the nature of
man. Sometimes man becomes extremely cruel to kill the other person
and sometimes he makes a sacrifice of his own life to save another human
being. Some still think that evil tendencies are stronger as compared to
good ones. Hobbes said that man is selfish, nasty and brutish by nature;
Rousseau said that man is born innocent by nature and he learns evils from
the society.


Reality of Universe:
Philosophers want to know the truth behind this external material

world. Why is it created? How long it will remain like this? How it came
into being? What is time and space in this world? They discuss two views,
one is a religious one that God created.



Meaning and Importance:

The word Axiology is derived from Greek origin, which means
right or worthy. Those virtues which are highly praised, liked, esteemed

and appreciated in the social life of man. Values are those qualifies of
character which are considered desirable by a particular society, these may
change from society to society. A society cannot exist without regard to
some moral, social and religious values. We cannot think of a value free
society, in the absence of values, there will be choose and confusion in the
society, people will kill each other because there will be no social and
religious binding. Philosophers are greatly interested in determining values
for the creation of a peaceful society. In analyzing values, they want to
reach to some absolute, final and objective values, truth, Beauty and
Goodness are the three permanent and supreme values. Latr on, Hope and
Faith were also included among universal values.

Selection of Values:
According to philosophers, in the selection of values, preference
should be given to objective and permanent values, viz: moral, social,
religious, intellectual and aesthetic values as compared to subjective
values, viz: recreational, physical and political values. Some people give
importance to games, singing, music, body building, leadership, etc. But
preference should be given to moral values as compared to political values.

Classification by Averett:
A well known philosopher Averett, classifies values into 8 areas:

1. Heath

Handsome, fair, strong, well built

2. Economic

Money, dress, food, house, motor-car


3. Moral

Honesty, trustful, justice, polite speech


4. Social

Cooperation, sympathy, helpfulness


5. Intellectual

Knowledge, education

6. Religious

Faith, prayer, kindness etc.

7. Aesthetic

Appreciation of nature, providing etc.

8. Recreational

Games, music, dancing, acting, visit


Basic Values:

These basic values must be observed by all

Respect for life:

It is valuable to respect all human beings

and not to kill anyone.


Respect for property:

it is valuable to respect the property

(weath, land, family) of othrs and not to steal it.


Respect for freedom:

it is valuable to show respect to ones

freedom of speech, religion, job, family etc.


Respect for dignity of labour:

it is valuable to give

respect to a labouer, former, peon, sweeper etc.

Islamic values: (Reference Dr. Khalifa Abdul Hakim (p-157)
Love knowledge Light/Happiness are supreme values. Syed Amir Ali
(page-18) the people of Paradise are three:

First, a just king. (Justice).

Second, an affectionate man to people (kindness).
Third, a virtuous man (pious and God fearing).




Logic is derived from Greek work logos oyos which means
thought or words. A thought is expressed in language. Philosophers are
interested in the study of logic so that ideas are conveyed in clear
language. They emphasize on correct thinking and rational attitude of
human beings. So that people are thoughtful in their everyday talk and
avoid confusion and mis-understanding. Logic is usually defined as the
science of the lows of valid thought. It is exact and systematic like science,
it has its own lows of thinking, it puts emphasis on correct thinking taught
is the result of accurate thinking. Logic is also said to be a science of
reasoned discourse 9conversation). In all intelligible discourse whether
spoken or written there is a continuity of thought. In all our human
activities thinking is involved, it may be good or bad, clear, confused,
comprehensive etc. , but we can do nothing without thinking of some sort.
All science is an expression of thinking and it is the thinking of the highest
Logic is useful in solving life problems, some solution is reached
after deep thinking. Logic is also useful in law courts in order to defend
a case. It is useful for leaders and politicians to make effective speeches. It
is useful for teachers to teach in a systematic manner. It is useful for
students to learn properly and write clearly in the examination papers.

Since logic is a science of reasoned discourse, it is based on facts

and exact statements. Every reasoning then contains three elements:


Ideas or reasons


Another idea depending on the first one.


Consequent or conclusion.



Logic has been divided into two main classes, deductive and


Deductive Logic:
A deductive reasoning is one in which we reason from a general
principle or law to an individual class or cases. It has three statements. The
statements contain three terms, e.g : (for example)
All men are fallible,
All kings are men,
All king are fallible
The three terms are men, fallible and kings. Deductive logic deals
with the setting of the statements to follow each other systematically, so
that we can reach to a correct conclusion. Take another example from
Man is mortal

Socrates is a man
Socrates is mortal
Here, man is mortal, is a universal truth, second statement is a
supporting one, and the third statement is the conclusion. Deductive logic
deals with the formal validity or correctness.

Let us take another Example

All lions are fierce
It is a lion
It is fierce


In inductive reasoning we proceed from particular statements to

general conclusions. It is also based on 3 statements, the first two are

called premises and the third one is the conclusion. Example:
Some men are selfish
Ali is a man
Ali is selfish
Take another example:
Some men are not doctors
Jamil is a man
Jamil is not a doctor.

Inductive Logic emphasizes on the truth of the statements , that the

subject matter or content expressed in the arguments should be correct. It
is called material validity.
For a statement to be correct must fulfill both the conditions,
deductive (formal validity and inductive) material validity.




According to Aristotle, a proposition is a judgment. In life, we

keep on passing judgments about people, events and objects, as good as
bad, right or wrong etc. these propositions are of 4 types and are denoted
by first four vowels (a, e, i, o) of English alphabet. In the given examples s
stands for subject and P stands for predicate. The four types are given

universal Affirmative

(All S is P)


universal negative

(No S is P)


Particular Affirmative

(Some S is P)


Particular Negative

(Some S is not P)

These are explained below:


a-Universal Affirmative:
When a proposition is stated about a whole class of people, things

or ideas as a general law, it is called universal. It can be stated

affirmatively, e.g :

All birds are feathered

Al men are mortal

All kings are human beings


e-Universal Negative:
When a proposition is stated negatively about a whole class of

people or things, it is called universal negative, for example:

No lions are playful

No men cars fly


i-Particular Affirmative:
When a proposition is stated about a particular idea, person or

thing, it is called particular affirmative. For example:

Some doctors are kind

Some students are hardworking


o-Particular Negative:
When a proposition is stated negatively about a particular, idea,

person or thing, it is called particular negative for example:

Some students are not intelligent

Some men are not thieves


Truth or Validity of the Statements:

When these propositions are put in a logical order, a valid
conclusion can be drawn.

All men are mortal

Ali is a man
Ali is mortal

Moreover, when we say No men are perfect it is a valid

statement. In the same manner, Some men are not perfect will also be
valid and based on truth.




Relation of Logic & Language:

Practically, logic is thought expressed in words. Both thought
and language are interdependent, and closely related to each other. One
cannot be understood without the other.

Many Languages: Development of languages by people of the

world is a result of mans power of thinking. All languages have a
basic structure, a vocabulary, sound system and written symbols.


Child learns a Language: by associating sounds with objects. He

differentiates between family members and outsiders by virtue of
his mind. At a later stage he begins to identify and classify one
object from the other, he can find characteristics of different

objects. Language provides a scheme of fundamental and general

ways of thinking about the world, to identify and generalize ideas.

Provides information:

Language is a medium through which

information about all fields of life is provided, human life, animal

kingdom, solar system, plant life, change of seasons etc.
Philosophers, scientists; Educationists, share their ideas and
theories in language. New inventions and discoveries are
circulated all over the world through the use of language.

Expression of Emotions: It is not possible to express emotions of

lone, hate, desire, wishes and anger without the medium of


Clear & valid Arguments: are learnt in the use of language

Fallacies in Language and Thought

Fallacy is defined as an error in an argument. Sometimes
apparently, the argument looks convincing but actually it is incorrect,
misleading and illogical. A faulty argument can be made intentionally or
un-knowingly, in both cases it will be incorrect and it is called fallacy.
A knowledge of fallacies is important because we will be careful
in making arguments to be valid and avoid making incorrect statements.
Take an example which looks acceptable:
Every one ought to contribute to the support of the unfortunate,
therefore, there is no harm in a law which compels him to do so. The


fallacy lies in confusing moral and legal obligation, otherwise it is quite

Aristotles Classification of Fallacies:
Aristotle classified fallacies into two groups,

those which occur due to incorrect use of language.


those which occur due to confused thought.


Language Fallacies


Fallacy of equivocation (double meaning of a word) it is an

ambiguity in the terms used


in the statements otherwise it is appealing.

Fallacy of Amphiboly:
It is an ambiguity due to the structure of the sentence. I will war

no clothes to look different.


Fallacy of composition: (mixed sentences)

Here words are taken together, which should be separate.

Examples are riddles and sarcastic sentences.


Fallacy of Division:
It is making no destination between and individual and the whole

class/society to which he belongs.


Fallacy of Accent:
By putting emphasis ona certain word, the meaning of the

sentence changes.


Fallacy of Figures of speech.

It is using the same grammatical form. E.g. he is an addict because

he sells objects of addiction.


Fallacy of Thought


Fallacy of Seconded Quid:

It is created when you ignore a particular condition. e.g. walk is

good for health, walk in bad weather is also good.


Fallacy of Accident:
Something can be good accidently but it is not always so wine is

useful as a medicine, not in daily life.


Fallacy of I generation Elenchus:

It takes place by proving

the wrong point when a judge is

impressed by the character not by evidence of a judge is impressed by the

character not by evidence of a prisoner.

Fallacy of petition principle:

It is also called begging the questions, it is an effort to prove our

proposition. (An idiot will disagree)


Fallacy of False cause:

It is a fallacy regarding a cause that which is really not a cause

this place is centre of the earth.



Fallacy of consequent:
It is taking a false idea, e.g. when it is cloudy, the train is always


Fallacy of Many Questions:

It is a fallacy of asking a question in a wrong manner, e.g.
Have you given up telling lies? yes or no.
Answer cannot be given in yes or no

Fallacies inform us not to use false arguments and

be always truthful and do not decline others.



Introduction (Meaning)
Argument from Anology is a past of imperfect induction. Anology
originally meant the sameness of relation between two things. It is an
argument from some degree of resemblance to a further resemblance.
According to Mill, we should see the extent of resemblance, if the extent
of resemblance is great, all characteristics are the same, except one, there
is a probability of correctness. Let us take an example of resemblance
between earth and moon. There may be many similar points but if it differs
in one point, i.e. animal and vegetable life cannot exist on moon, due to
lack of moisture. This analogy would be misleading.


Inductive logic is essentially analytic in method. Anology,

therefore, is quite close to scientific method, but it has to prove the
existence of a connection.

Example of Anology
Probably you believe in the existence of minds other than your
own. Is this belief stationed? You cannot doubt the existence of your own
mind. If you doubted it, the doubt itself would be a proof that your mind
exists. Doubt itself is a state of consciousness whatever else you may
doubt, you cannot doubt that you consciousness exists. But the same thing
cannot be said with reference to other minds. You cannot know minds of
other people, as exactly as you know your mind. To conclude analogy will
not be exact as science but it can be a beginning of scientific inquiry.



Inquiry hypothesis confirmation

Inquiry: Science is a systematic investigation into the real nature of
things. Scientific inquiry consists in discovering, assimilating and
deducing the laws of phenomena. There is a difference between
popular/common explanation and scientific inquiry. Popular explanation is
usually superficial and explains particular facts, whereas, scientific inquiry
is concerned with general laws. Scientific inquiry would use the methods
of observation and experimentation. Its arguments are based on facts
which can be tested and verified with instruments. It provides a
satisfactory explanation upto the mans understanding. Scientific inquiry is


trust worthy and dependable, it can be used for research purposes in

different fields of mans life.
Steps of Scientific Inquiry are the following:

Formulation of Hypothesis:
Scientific inquiry would discover the laws of the phenomena, if

the laws are not known, it would start, with supposition or hypothesis,
which is a rough or tentative answer of the problem. On the basis of it,
further enquiries are made Infect; the purpose of hypothesis is to explain
the phenomena.

It means to find points of similarity with other things or with other

laws. The process of analysis (breaking into parts) and synthesis begins
(making a whole out of parts). For example the law of gravitation was
developed by observing all other objects which fall towards the ground. As
the scientist Newton first saw an apple falling towards the ground.

It is the method of arranging objects to the most important and

numerous points of similarity. An example of it is that man and Earth have

got many similarities, both get heat & light from the sun, it is assumed that
there can be some kind of life. It is still in the process of investigation.

After an examination of particular cases, science arrives at a

universal proposition. It is the discovery of a proof of causal connection.



Deduction / Confirmation:
After testing, rules are deduced, the hypothesis is confirmed, and a

conclusion is drawn.
Logic believes in scientific enquiry and philosophers use scientific
method for arriving at a conclusion.





Basic Philosophy:
According to Idealism, reality consists of mind, ideas, thoughts or

selves. It states that Mind is prior to Matter object of the physical world
exist by virtue of mind. Objects of the physical world course sensations
and mind gives meaning to them, supporters one Plato, Descartes Spinoza
and Legal


Objectives of Education.
I dentists advocate Intellectual development as an ultimate aim of

education. Rational behavior is considered important and moral character

is emphasized. Intellectual, moral and aesthetic values will be developed.


The Role of the Teacher and Pupil

The teacher should be a maker of democracy He/she should

possess professional excellence and command respect. He should

understand his students and develop their interest in learning. Be a friend
of all students.
The pupil is a complete self he has to mind and ideas. He should
develop a high moral character. He should have qualities of character viz:
sincerity, Integrity and Justice. His environment, education and his own


will contribute in the formation of his personality. Human self is superior

and he is capable of changing his surroundings.


The Curriculum:
According to Idealists the curriculum should provide on

understanding of the world. The curriculum will have a areas:


The Universe Division:

The inanimate forces of nature origin of life.
The solar system.


The civilization division:

Study of social sciences
All human institutions related to food, clothing and shelter.


The culture division. Man becomes cultured by the study of

philosophy, art, literature, religion and environment.


The personality division: it will include subjects which are related

to the physical, emotional and intellectual development of human


Methods of Teaching:
Teaching methods must develop the thinking power of the students

Idealists recommend the following methods:


Questioning & Discussion:


Teacher will lead the discussion by asking questions and students

will be encouraged to participate.

Lecture Method:
It is useful for providing objective knowledge.


Project methods will be used where students make visits and

collect information.




Basic Philosophy:
According to Realists objects of our senses are real in their own

right. Matter is prior to mind. Mater existed long before the mind become
aware of if, and it will continue to exist even when the mind ceases to exist
supporters of realism are Aristotle, Broody, Herbart and Locke.


Objectives of Education:
According to Realists, character Building and good life will be the

ultimate aims of education training will be provided in leading a balance

life, that is accepting pain and pleasure as part and parcel of life.
Moderation will be adopted in all walks of life.



The Role of the Teacher & Pupil:

The teacher will have a balanced personality. The teacher will

show regard to moral, social and religious values. The students will be
helped in leading a balanced life.
The pupils personality will be formed by three principles:


The pupil will determine his place and role and

perform his duties towards his family, school and job.


Self-realization refers towards developing qualities of character in ones



Self-integration means to devote ones self for the well being of others in
the society some integrate themselves through religion and others through
social work.


The Curriculum:
The curriculum will include the following:


Courses in natural sciences will be based on physics, chemistry and



Courses in social sciences will be based on psychology. Philosophy,

biography, iterative and Religion.


Vocational courses will include learning of skills.


Methods of Teaching:
The following methods are emphasized by the Realists:


Problem solving and Experimental


Discussion and Activity


Using visual aids and motivating them.


Problem solving means that the students must think over and find the
answers of the question themselves. They should also perform


Discussion and practical should lead towards the new lesson.


Hoe of visual ails motivate the students and make the lesson interesting.


Pragmatism / Experimtizim / Instrumentizm


Basic Philosophy:
According to pragmatism, human life and human experiences are

the ultimate reality with pragmatism philosophy shifted from metaphysical

questions to the problems of social life. According to it all ideas will be
accepted as true, if they contribute in improving human life. It is also
called Experimentalism because it uses the methods of scientific enquiry
and experimentation. It is sometimes called Instrumentalism because ideas
are used as instruments in improving human life. The supporters are
Charles Peirce, William James and John Dewey.


Objectives of Education:
According to pragmatists the following aims are emphasized.

Education should develop talent and potentialities of the individual

education should provide training for better social life education should be
useful for students in carrying a living.


The Role of the Teacher & Pupil:

The teacher should be a guide and leader to the students. The

teacher should be qualified and must have knowledge of child psychology,

guidance, Adolescent Development and teaching methods. The pupil will
share in learning experiences. They will be active participants. They will
learn by performing experiments. They will enjoy freedom of movement
in the class.


The Curriculum:
All subjects of study will be activity based. Language is learnt by

dialogue, story telling and letter writing. Maths is leant by selling,

buying and keeping records. Geography is learnt by visits to rocks and
rivers. Science is leant by performing experiments. There will be activity
rooms with relevant equipment for carpentry, serving and textile useful
activities suggested by Dewey are spinning, weaving, cooking, modeling ,
Gardening, carpentry, dramatics, conversation, discussion and shop work.
The curriculum will develop four human impulses.
Constructive Investigative Artistic Social
These are satisfied through curriculum.




Methods of Teaching:


Scientific and experimental method will be used.


Activity and practical work will be done in the class.

In the learning of all lessons importance will be given to scientific

approach where the students will use observation and experimentation and
will find correct answer.


All the students will be actively involved in practical work as it is the best
method of learning by doing.



Basic Philosophy:
Naturalism considers Nature as the ultimate reality. It is of the
view that the universe operates according to its own laws and principles
vide independent of divine forces. It relates to Nature as opened to
worldliness. It does not believe in a supernatural power. Moreover, it
regards universe as self existing and not created. There is a system
according to which living beings originate, develop and die, the earth
revolves and seasons change, all this happen due to a natural order. It holds
that the scientific explanation of the world is the only satisfactory
interpretation. Man has got a central place in the world of nature. When
man comes in interaction with nature, he explores it and explains it as he
experiences it. The supporters of the carry of naturalism are Bzen,
Comenius, Herbert Spencer and Rousseau.


Educational Views:
Aims and objectives of Education:
Man is born with certain natural tendencies, his potentialities
should be developed through a system of education. He will discover the
secrets of nature and will gain vast knowledge Nature will prepare him for
life. His power of observation and thinking abilities will be developed
through education.

The Role of Teachers and Students:

Man is a part of nature, he is the highest product of the universe.
Teachers will have the qualities of scholars. They will be men of character.
They will be scientific minded. Teacher will promote values and prepare
students for social life. Teacher will inculcate a sense of unity and progress
in students the students will develop thinking power, they will have a love
for knowledge. They will learn to share to cooperate with others. They will
struggle for good life and hold values high. They will study nature and
learn by experiences and experiments.

Subjects of study emphasized by naturalists are biology,
psychology, medicine and social sciences. It will provide knowledge of
nature and man.

Teaching Methods:
Students will learn everything by scientific methods of
observation and experimentation.

Naturalists stand for human freedom, students will have freedom
in learning. They will make visits and ask questions of man. Moreover,
there exists a university as man, if he wants freedom, it will depend on the
freedom of others.
Fight: Man is always in the making, he is not an end in himself. Man
cannot achieve perfection.
There are two views of existentialism, one is theistic and the other
is atheistic. The first view is that human beings have a desire for an
ultimate being a God, although it will not prove the existence of God.
People would freely choose to live their lives by a faith in God. The
atheistic school of thought believed that man should not live in world of
imagination for the performance of their moral duties. The universe is
indifferent to the plans and wishes of human beings. Man will give
meaning to life according to this individual thinking.
Existentialists focus attention on the concept of future life that the
presence of man in this world is purely temporary. Being aware of the
concept of death, the individual will make his choices regarding freedom
and slavery, love and hate, peace and war.



Aims of Education:
The following aims will be achieved will be responsible for the
education of the public.


Education will determine a meaning to life and will develop a to



Education will create among people a of self-awareness, to plan

life and make contributions to life.

The Role of the Teachers and Pupils:


A conducive learning environment will be created where the

students will develop a concept of self-actualization.


Thinking power of the students will be developed about life and to



There will be a free discussion about values to be considered

higher in life.


The meaning of life, love and death will be discovered.


A concept of future life will be developed.

The Curriculum:
Existentialists judge whether or not it contributes and satisfies an
individuals quest for understanding the meaning of life.
A large variety of subjects will be introduced in order to meet
individual needs desires. In addition to other subjects of study importance
will be given to literature and biography as individuals sense of value will
be expressed through these subjects.


Methods of Teaching:
Methods of instruction will be based on self learning the
individual approach towards learning will be respected. Students will be
allowed to talk and discuss the subject matter freely.

Teaching techniques will be based on.

a. Question Answers



c. Pair work


Group discussion

e. Drama






Meaning of Ethics:
Ethics is also called moral philosophy as it is concerned with the
moral conduct of man. It tries to differentiate between right and wrong,
good and evil Philosopher are greatly interested in determining a standard
of morality, what is the ideal at which man should aim in his life. Ethics
deals with the ultimate or supreme end to which our whole lives are
directed. Knowledge, love, goodness are considered as ultimate ends.
Ethics provides some general principles according to which man should
head his life. It is a systematic study of what man ought to do? That a
moral standard has to be maintained n all institutions of man:

Regard and considerations in the family,


Respect and obedience in the school,


Honesty and hard work in employment,


Trust and patience in marriages,


Justice and truthfulness in law courts,


Fair play and loyalty in government organizations.


Scientifically, ethics is discussed apart from religious beliefs, but

morality spring from the foundations of religions belief, all religions
preach morality.

Ethical questions are the following:


What are our obligations?


Should we seek enjoyment while others are staring?


Can we control our emotions of anger and jealousy?


It will include three areas of ethics and some ethical issues. The

three areas are:

Meta-ethics, which will investigate ethical principles in our social life, e.g:
What is truth?
What is the will of God?
What is the role of reasoning in ethics?
Normative Ethics, it will determine a moral standard to be observed by all
e.g. ,
What are good habits?
What are our duties?


What should be our behavior towards others?

Applied ethics, it examines issues like, should we have war?
Are there animal rights?
Is capital punishment (death) justified?
Discussion of Ethical Issues:
Ethics explains and discussed common moral issues of mans life, these


Description of Virtues:
Virtues refer towards goodness of character behavior i.e. to be

kind, polite, truthful, honest, helpful, sympathetic, forgiving etc. Plato,

talked about four cardinal virtues, namely wisdom courage self
control and justice. Aristotle, talks about Intellectual and Moral virtues, the
first refers towards the attainment of true knowledge and second refers
towards control of emotions and desires.

Importance of Ethics:
Ethics is based on a moral code a good actions of an individual, to
be kind, polite, truthful, honest, sincere and responsible in family, school
and society. We live in a social environment where we have to observe
certain moral standards. We have to show respect to the other persons
ideas, feelings and possessions, in this manner we can slive in harmony
with others.


It is through a process of education that students can be given

training in becoming truthful, responsible and helpful. They also learn to
share and cooperate with class fellows , show respect and regard to
teachers and obey school rules and regulations. There should be a
discussion of good actions, virtues, rights and duties, moral and non-moral
actions in the class and in the assembly in order to develop awareness of
ethical code in life. A brief description of such moral issues is given

Description of Virtues:
Virtues refer towards, goodness of character or behavior of an

individual to be polite, honest, kind, helpful, sympathetic, forgiving and

truthful. Plato mentioned about four coordinal virtues, these are

Wisdom (to differentiate between right & wrong),


Courage (to sacrifice ones life and property for others),


Self-control (to exercise control over emotions of jealous anger),


Justice (it is fair play, a result of wisdom, courage and self-control).

Aristotle talks about Intellectual and Moral virtues. Intellectual refers
towards gaining knowledge. Moral refers towards control of emotions and

Description of Rights and Duties:

We after talk about our rights for safety, security, education,

health, recreation etc, but we often forget to perform duties. Awareness of

duties is equally important as it is said a right implies a duty. Duties to pay

taxes, to save energy resources, to observe traffic laws, to pay bills on

time, to take care of children and the old etc.

Description of moral and non moral actions:

Moral actions are many which we have to perform in everyday

life, polite speech, regularity, punctuality, obedience, respect, truthfulness

etc. Non-moral actions are those which have no relation with morality, ego abusing, lying, stealing, killing, smuggling, abduction etc.

Instinctive and customary Morality:

Instinctively man knows what is right and what is wrong, there

exists a moral law is the mind of man. Man can differentiate between good
and evil actions. Instead of quarrelling and beating, it is better to have a
discussion on dialogue to settle down an important matter. Customary
morality is based on customs and traditions of different societies. Once in
Hinduism it was considered valuable for a woman to be burnt alive at her
husbands death. It was due to the customs of that time.

Theories of Good life.

Many theories of good life have been put forward by philosophers

among them three are well known. These are the following:

Hedonism: (Pleasure seeking)

This theory believes in the greatest happiness of the greatest

number. That such actions should be performed which bring happiness to

a large number of people. When fundamental needs of all the members of
the society are satisfied, the result will be good life. It appears as if


emphasis has been put on the achievement of material gains. Bentham and
Mill were great supporters of this theory.

This theory refers towards perfection of the self, it is a realization

of ones strengths and weaknesses. The role and function everyone has to
perform in this society for the improvements of human life. It is based on
self improvements to be cooperative, kind, helpful and just in relations
with others. It is said that there can be no self realization, without selfsacrifice supporters are Plato, Aristotle and Green. When every individual
examines himself life the result will be good life.

This theory states that the human mind intuitively knows what is

right and what is wrong. The moral law is within us, our conscience leads
us to the right path. German Philosopher Immanuel Kant is the greatest
supporter of this theory. He said a good will or a good motive is valuable.
When every individual listens to the voice of his conscience, the result will
be good life.




State & Individual

The moral life of an individual begins in interaction with other
human beings. First he is a member of a family, then of a society and
finally of a state a country. In all these institutions of his life, he has to
observe certain moral standards for peaceful living. Our moral ideas are

constantly criticized and modified by the opinions of others in the society.

A good society and a good state works for the good of the people. The
state has to work for the common good, not the good of an individual. The
wealth of the state is used for the satisfaction of all citizens. The moral
duty of the citizens is to obey the low of the state and remain loyal to the
country by being willing to sacrifice his life and property for the sake of
the state. The state provides the following services:

Transport for safe movement and travel.

Street heightening

Protection and safety and life & possessions

Provision of gas and electricity facilities

Education by establishing schools & colleges.

Health by establishing hospitals & dispensaries.

Recreation by arranging cinemas & parks.

Promotion of culture, e.g. aret gallaries etc.

Development of Moral life
The development of moral life and the relation of individual and
state dates back to 500 B.c.
The total period is divided into 3 areas:

The Greek Ethics



The Medieval Ethics


The Modern Period of Ethics


Greek Ethics:
Greek Ethics started some 500 B.C., there were small states in

Greece. At that time the protection of the state was a great problem,
producing good citizens call things good merely because they suit
ourselves or the majority of markind. Sourates, the founder of western
philosophy regarded knowledge as virture that without knowledge we
cannot differentiate between good and evil. Moreover, virtue is also related
to human nature, it is the exercise and control over human deserves.
Socrates further elaborated it by saying know they self, it means that we
must think over what is right and what is wrong, we must analyses
ourselves, not to be involved in harmful activities. For Plato, the most
fundamental of the realities is the idea of the good, the four coordinal
virtues wisdom courage self control and justice. He described these
in his famous book the Republic. Aristotle too, fully realized the
importance of ethical knowledge and made an analysis of Intellectual and
Moral values in his book Ethics. Aristotle defined virtue as
moderation as the golden principle of life. The intellect or prudence
would determine the right action to be performed. It in the use of reason as
well as the control of desires.


Medieval Ethics:
This period is known for the spread and influence of religion in

determining the moral life of the individuals. The standard of right and

wrong was given in the revelation of Gods law as interpreted by the

religious leaders. It was emphasized that faith in God would lead to
heaven. The ethical code consisted of prayer to God, rights of neighbors,
obedience to parents and avoidance of evil doing such as lying, stealing,
killing etc No one could question the word of God. St. Thomas Aquinas
was the religions philosopher of the time. No one could question the word
of God. It was in the 16 th century that the religious leaders lost their
authority saint Augustine found that the presence of evil in the universe
was no problem because God is all good and perfect, man cannot
understand the good hidden in an evil act.
St. Thomas Aquinas said that evil is lack of good. The best way to
attain goodness is to abandon worldly goods and seek the love of God.
Consequently, the good life is one which strives to return to the divine
unity and become one with God. The problem of evil and the sin is related
with the world, not with God. The concept of good and evil could not be
solved because God is the source of all good, but the Devil also exists and
people are put to tests.


Modern Period of Ethics:

In the 16th and 17th centuries Reflective thinking took the place of

religion, individual freedom and mans power of reasoning were

emphasized. Those standards of right and wrong were accepted which
made an appeal to human reason, these can be classified as follows.

Some thinkers maintained that the difference between right and wrong was
merely subjective. It could be proved on the basis of reasoning.


In the 18th century some philosophers regarded the concept of right and
wrong on the basis of Intuition, that we can know it by direct insight.


Some thinkers presented the view that moral law existed in the nature of
man, and he has an ability to differentiate between good and evil. Another
group of philosophers emphasized that the moral law is based on
reasoning, and it is called a law of reason. German philosopher Kant gives
three principles of ethical standards:

Principle of universality (a good action is universally accepted


ii. Principle of Humanity (Human beings should not be used for

the achievement of life goods).

A group of English philosophers known as utilitarians put emphasis on the

principle of pleasure leaking. According to them the greatest happiness of
the greatest number should be the basis of moral standards.

Ethical Code of Individuals in Society:

When we discuss the moral ideal in a society and the relations of
an individual with other human beings, the concepts of Egoism,
universalism and Altruism are discussed.

Egoism is the view that by nature every individual thinks in terms

of achieving his own good. In the words of Hobbes, Man
naturally seeks his own good. According to Egoistic Ethics, the
man tries to achieve perfection and that is the purpose of his life.
While aiming at common good, he will attain the best for himself.

The hedonists said that man may be greedy and ambitions by

nature, but at the same time he also possesses instincts of
sympathy and pity.
Aristotle rightly said that man is a social animal, if he, while
seeking his own good does not help others, then he is not a human
Spencer rightly ported out that pure egoism is injurious to man, if
he does not show consideration to others in the society, how can
he expect consideration from them. Egoism puts emphasis on
mans self and individuality as an end in itself.

Universalism holds that it is the moral duty of an individual to

seek the good of the community as a whole. He may think about
his own welfare, at the same time he should given importance to
the community in which he lives. In other according to
universalism preference show given to the good of the society over
individual good. The objective of his life should be the good of the
country and the good of the people of the world. While aiming at
his own good, he should take the whole community along that he
should be willing to share material objects for the welfare of the
whole community. The question arises whether everybody would
be willing to share their food, weather property? In universalism,
individual freedom is denied. Altruisms is based on achieving a
moral standard of self-sacrifice for the sake of other human
beings. That one should always think beyond ones self. It should
be taken as the chief objective of life to be involved in performing

goodness for other people in the society. That one should consider
it his duty to contribute in life by helping others. This concept is
based on social service of other human beings in the world. It
means that one should be willing to make all sacrifices for the
people without any fear. As many doctors die while curing a
patient with in infections disease.
Altruism states that there is something intrinsically good in self sacrifice.


While dealing with the ethical behavior of the individual, the

problem of punishment and justification for it, is a concern of ethics. The

nature, kind and extent of punishment is discussed by ethics. The
psychological theories of punishment are given below:
1) The deterrent (2) the Reformative (3) Retributive


The Deterrent Theory:

According to this theory the purpose of punishing a person who

has done some wrong is to deter (stop) others from doing the same wrong.
Its common example is the cutting one hand of a person who is proved to
be stealing in Saudi Arabia. Ethics would ask whether it is justified to cut
the hard of a human being, when it is a body organ, for the reason that
others would learn a lesson from his punishment sometimes a child is
beaten harshly in schools in order to stop other students from misbehavior
in the class. This punishment may be more severe than the child actually
deserves. It is clearly a moral issue to inflict on an offender greater

suffering than that he deserves and no argument can justify this being
done. There is no doubt that most people punished by the law feel that
punishment beyond a certain limit a particular crime is unjust. This theory
may be accepted in case of a serious crime for capital punishment..


The Reformative Theory:

According to this theory, the aim of punishment is to reform the

character of the offender himself. This view is popular, but it is also misunder stood. It is based on the concept that the offender needs some
education and counseling, not to be involved in evil actions and live a
better life in future. The individual has to undergo some kind of pain by
solitary confinement or social dis-approval. The reformative value of such
suffering lies in its capacity for making the offender see the evil of his
wrong doing this theory may not be suitable for all kind of offences, it is
difficult to decide whether the offender is going to benefit from this kind
of education.


The Retributive Theory:

This theory of punishment in its simplest form holds that the aim

of punishment is to make the offender suffer the same amount of pain

which he has caused to the victim. It is a natural tendency or instinct which
exists in the nature of man to take revenge of the wrong doing. In primitive
society the leader of the tribe used to take such decisions, but in the
modern society vengeance is rejected all together. Now people are not
allowed to take the law in their hands. The state or government has
developed certain rules and regulations for all kind of crime and people are

punished after a thorough trial in the court, judgment about the nature of
punishment is given according to the law.



The Nature of Rights

The concept of rights and duties is a concern of ethics. Right can
be defined as a claim of a person to obtain or possess something or to act
in a certain way. Rights are of two kinds, minal and legal, morally we
should be loved and respected by others; legally, no one should deprive us
of our life and property. If rights is a claim to have something, the ethical
question is what are the moral grounds on which the claim to do or have
something is justified? The answer to this question provided by
philosophers is that its justification is the common good. The idea of a
right exists in a society, a certain right is allowed for the good of the
general public that every individual should be granted the same right.
Might is right is a law of the jungle and not that of civilized people.
Therefore, the enjoyment of rights are based on mutual understanding and
for the peace of the public.
There are certain fundamental rights of human being which are
internationally accepted, these are also called Five Freedoms Mackenzie
lists them as follows:
a. Right to life
b. Right to hold property
c. Right to freedom

d. Right to education
e. Right to contract
These rights are justified on the grounds that by enjoying these
rights, the individual has on opportunity to attain perfection by realizing
his abilities when we talk about universal good, then the right to education
leads to general good, as it will give mental maturity to the public to have
regard for each other. Close contact of rights and duties.
All our rights have a close relationship with our duties because the
right of one person is the duty of the other person. It is correctly said that
a right implies a duty, it is quite true with reference to society. If we
want to enjoy a right we should be willing to perform our duties. We often
think about our rights but we ignore many of our duties we think it our
right to have facilities of health education and transport, but we hesitate to
pay our taxes to the state. The relationship between rights and duties is a
contract by which the individuals agree to perform certain duties because
by doing so they acquire certain rights. The child has a right to education,
so it is the duty of the parents or the state to provide him with education
observance of rights and duties is essential because it leads to common
good and peace of the society.


Since the beginning of the society; the moralists make statements

of universal duties, Mackenze mentioned these duties under the following



1. Respect for life

2. Respect for property
3. Respect for freedom
4. Respect for character
5. Respect for social order
6. Respect for truth
7. Respect for progress
By nature, man feels that he has to performance certain duties, parents
consider it their duty to look after their children, students respect their
teachers, people show regard to the elders and old people, people also feel
like helping the poor and the needy. All these are our moral duties. It is the
moral duty of the doctor to treat the patient kindly,, it is the duty of the
teacher to each devotedly, it is the duty of worker to reach the office on
A duty becomes an obligation when force is used in the
performance of duties. For example we are forced to respect the life and
property of other persons, otherwise we will be punished by law.
Moreover, a duty becomes a virtue when an element of sacrifice is
involved in it. A man who does something outstanding by self sacrifice is
called a virtue. The individual who is always involved in public welfare is
a virtues person.


With reference to duty, German Philosopher, Immanuel Kant

makes an interesting observation. He said that the performance of duties
may not by very pleasant, still one has to do it, e.g. parents to tolerate a
grown up rule son, office worker to reach office on time, troublesome old
people. All these duties are unpleasant, but cannot be avoided.



The Meaning of Virtue:

The word virtue (opery) is derived from Greek language, which
means excellence of any kind. In ethics virtue is a quality of character or
an attitude to do what is right in a particular direction or a habit of correct
action. Honesty in dealings, to be faithful in married relations, to be
always true to your words, are all examples of virtue. There is no great
difference between duty and virtue, when a duty is performed with an
extra sense of responsibility, it is called virtue.
The concept of virtue may change in different situations. The
virtue of courage in a soldier may have a different meaning as courage
of a ruler, a soldier may courageously sacrifice his life, while a ruler/king
may suppress a rebellion courageously. Virtue is always relative to
circumstances. Lets take justice as a virtue ruler will be just if he seeks
the good of his subjects and not his own good, in this case he possesses the
virtue of justice.
According to Socrates, knowledge is virtue, knowledge will enable
and individual to differentiate between good and civil, he will follow the
right path. This will be possible through a process of education. In addition

to other subjects, importance will be given to literature (music) and

gymnastics a the study of these subjects will create a harmony between
strength and softness of character. The individual will turn out to be a
strong and powerful person, but he will not be cruel. He will be
compassionate and sympathetic in his treatment of others.
Socrates further explains three parts of human nature, there is a
rational part which is called brain/mind, its virtue is wisdom, it is the
thoughtful attitude of the individual to know what is right and what is
wrong in life. The second one is the spirited part, it keeps a control over
emotions and appetite, it is called the guts its characteristic is courage,
which is the virtue of the fighting part of human nature. The third and the
largest part of human nature is the appetitive part, it consists of appetites
and desires, called instincts, its virtue is temperate, i.e. to keep a balance
and not to go to an extreme. Justice is the result of all parts of an
individual working in harmony. Socrates stated that justice is the normal
healthy condition of the soul and vice or injustice is a diseased condition.

Platos Cardinal Virtues:

Platos great contributions to ethical thought are his recognition
that goodness consists in the natural and proper functioning of our human
nature, and his view of society as the normal background of the moral life.
In his book Republic, Plato described the four cardinal virtues, wisdom,
courage, self-control and justice, the word cardinal has a Latin origin
cardo which means a hinge or support, as we have hinges of doors, in the
same manner the four cardinal virtues give a support to the moral life of
man in a society. A brief description of the four virtues is given below:68


Wisdom: it has supreme place in the life of man, it is based on

natural intelligence and on acquired knowledge. Natural
intelligence includes at least an analytical ability and a synthetic
ability to understand the problems of universe and of life.
Acquired knowledge is gained by the study of a large variety of
subjects such as Mathematics, Astronomy, Logic, philosophy,
polities and literature. In other words, wisdom comes by
knowledge and experiences of life. A wise person will have an
outstanding ability and knowledge, this will enable him to
differentiate between good and evil, right and wrong. In all walks
of life he will be reasonable, thoughtful, objective and open
minded. He will have a high sense of responsibility and live a
good life.


Courage: Wisdom has the first place in directing the man, courage
has the second place to assist the wisdom. Courage is to accept
pain and misery for a right course. Example is of Socrates, who
drank poison for supporting truth, and died to establish truth, he
said, what if I die, the truth will remain the truth.
Courage is of two types, active courage passive courage. Active
courage is to experience pain in following the right path. Passive
courage is to bear un-avoidable ________ without complain.


Self- control or Temperance: Temperance is the third virtue

presented by Plato. It refers towards exercising control over
emotions of anger, jealousy and selfishness. We can have deserves
but we have to limit them, because there is no end to desires.

Temperance demands a reasonable moderation of all faculties of

man, it seeks guidance from wisdom to what extent these desires
needs satisfaction. Each human desire is to be satisfied to its
proper degree and the whole moral life will have harmony.
Temperance means that on access of everything is bad, we should
not go to an extreme in meeting our desires.


Justice: Wisdom, courage and self control are the virtues of an

individual, justice is primarily a virtue of the society. There will be
justice in the society when every individual works honesty
according to his ability when every person works wisely, when he
has sacrificing attitude, when he exercise control over emotions,
the result will be good life in the society.

Aristotles Conception of Virtue

Aristotles great contribution was his moral philosophy. In his words
virtue is a state of the will and not of the reason It means that the will of
man is very strong if he wants to do good, he can do it. He also added that
mind and matter cannot be separated, these depend on each other, one
cannot exist without the other. He further said that every object in the
universe had four causes:
First is the formal cause it is the main idea of the object
Second is the material course, it is the matter on which the idea is
Third is the efficient course, it is the use of tools.


Fourth is the final cause, it is the purpose for which the object is made.
Aristotle called virtue the final cause, which is there in the reality of the
external world. When he said that virtue is a state of the will and not of
reasons he is pointing at the golden mean that is Moderation in all
walks of life is to be adopted. Do not go to an extreme, always follow the
middle way between emotions and reasons. Keep a balance in the
performance of your actions. For example the virtue of courage is
between cowardice and foolishness. According to Aristotle, a good man
will be noble, just honest and considerate.
Man will do these things because he desires to do them from the depth of
his own being. He is not forced to act in this way by some authority
outside him. In the words of Aristotle, virtue is a habit, involving
deliberate purpose, consisting in a mean that is relative to ourselves, the
mean-being determined by reason a as a president (wise) man would
determine it to conclude good life is rational and consistent.




Islam is an Arabic word which means surrender or submission to
God. It is derived from the word Islam, which means peace or union with
God. Islam is a faith in one, true and the only God. It is a belief in the Holy
Quran, the Holy Prophets, Angels, Holy Books, future life and the Day of
Judgment. Five Pillars of Islam are Faith, Prayer, Fasting, Pilgrimage and
Alms giving.
Muslim philosophy is called Sufism or Mysticism, Sufis or
Mysteries are those who disclose the mysteries / secrets of heaven and
earth and do deep thinking. Some of the famous Muslim philosophers are
Alkindi, Al-Forabi, sina, Ghazali and Rushd. According to Muslim
philosophy, this word is a preparation for the future eternal world. Life is a
journey in quest of truth Human beings will be judged and rewarded as per
their actions by God after death. This life is journey towards eternal world,
for successful future, man has to undergo three stages light knowledge
love light refers towards close contract with God, His light will enter a
pure heart, when it is purged out of all evils knowledge refers towards
understanding God when man passes through ten states, viz: 1 Nearness
-2- Intimacy -3- Meditation -4- contemplation -5- longing -6- certainty, -7Tranquility -8- love -9- fear -10- hope


Love refers towards complete union with God, after passing

successfully through ten states. It is the highest stage of moral and spiritual
perfection of man.

Concept of Reality:
All philosophers are in search of truth and reality. They want to
reach to one absolute reality. According to Muslim philosophy, God is the
final, ultimate and absolute reality. He is the creator and contrdler of the
universe, he is all powerful and self-existing being. God has many
1. He is no parents and no family.
2. He is compete and perfect and will never perish
3. He has created all living and non-living things
4. He is infinite (un-limited) and in-divisible
5. He is permanent and will never change
6. It is by his orders that the whole system move.
7. He is Omniscient, He knows everything and all knowledge comes
from Him.
8. He is Omnipotent, He has all powers to do anything
9. He is Omnipresent, He lives and works everywhere
10. He is Just-kind-Loving-Forgiving and Merciful
11. He is Sovereign and Master of the Day of judgment

12. Man is to pray to Him and thank for His blessings.

Concept of Knowledge:
How do we know? What do we know? Can man have all
knowledge? These are Epistemological questions. According to Muslim
philosophy, God is the source of knowledge, He has given reasoning
power to man to speech for knowledge but man cannot achieve perfection
the Holy Prophet said, the first thing God created was knowledge. Iqra is
the first world received by the Holy Prophet through the Angel, i.e. to
read, or acquire knowledge.
Attainment of knowledge has always been emphasized by the
Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In his words, Acquire knowledge
because, he who acquires knowledge in the way of the lord, performs and
act of piety.
In the Holy Quran, man has been asked to acquire knowledge from
cradle to grave. To
1. Observe the phenomena of Nature.
2. Study the alterations of Day and Night
3. Study the properties of Earth, Air, Fire and water
4. Disclose the mysteries of birth, death, growth and decay
5. Distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil
6. Realize an order and system in the whole creation great
importance has been attached to the seeking of knowledge by the

Holy Prophet. He said, the best amongst you is one who seeks
knowledge and imparts it is to others. He also said, seeking of
knowledge is the duty of every Muslim man and woman. At
another place He said, can those who know and those who do
not know be equal? At another place He said, He who leaves his
home in search of knowledge, walks on the path of the God.
In Islam Revelation is the best
Source of knowledge, it comes from the Holy Book and the Holy
Prophet, it is true and complete knowledge Reasoning and sense
observation are next in importance.

Concept of Value
Islam present a complete code of life, the highest value emphasized is
that of Piety and Fear of God. The tem used for value in Islam is called
Qadar. Every man will be judged by his conduct at the Day of judgment.
The people asked the Holy Prophet about the good man. He said, A good
man is one who gives away his wealth to the kinsmen to orphan the
needy and keep up prayer. It emphasizes the two-fold duties of man,
towards God and towards Human beings Ethical code of Muslim
Philosophy is summarized in the 4th Surah of the Holy Quran as given:

Be good to your parents


Be kind and helpful to orphisms


Forgive those who do wrong to you


Worship God alone and pray to him



Be good to kinsmen, neighbourers and travelers


All Muslims are brothers, do not hate or harm them.


Remain constant in charity.


Paradise is prepared for those who bridle their anger.


When in power, do justice, irrespective of colour, creedorses


Give alms, openly or secretly, both are good


Do not commit adultery; it is foul and evil action.


Be kind to all human beings.


Guard yourself against evil, anger and passion.


Be true in your thought, deed and action


Be patient in difficulties.


Be merciful in giving punishment.


He who imparts learning, never dies.


He who sees his own faults, is the wisest of men.


The people of paradise are three:

a. A just kind,
b. A doer of good to the people,
c. An affectionate and virtuous man.


The duties of a Muslim are six:


a. When you meet, say Assalamalakum

b. When you are invited, accept theinvitation.
c. Give advice when it is asked for
d. Visit the sick and enquire his welfare.
e. When he dies, go to his bier.


Assist every oppressed person


The chief aim of Education in Islam as to develop a balanced

personality and to build the character of the students Education would

develop fear of God and love of human beings. Moreover, students should
be informed from the very beginning that life is temporary and it is a
preparation for the future life and they will be rewarded as per their good
actions. The following aims of education are emphasized:


Balanced Personality:

Education helps students to head a balanced personality. That they

have to develops the both sides that is the material and the spiritual.
They can take interest in the affairs of the world, at the same time
they should keep before them the principles of Islam and say their
prayers five times a day. They need not to be so religious minded as
to neglect their family responsibilities Moderation is the golden


Character Building:
According to Islam, the teacher should be a model of high moral

character, he should observe and talk about faith, prayer, fasting, Haj and
Zakat. Inform students that stealing, gambling, drinking, bribery, cruelty
are Sims in Islam. Qualities of character are prayer, polite speech, honesty,
truthfulness, kindness, patience, respect etc.


Islam Ideology and Culture:

The students should be informed about the true spirit of Islam and

Islamic culture, that one should do good and keep up prayer and thank God
for all His blessings. Islamic habits of eating, drinking and greeting. That
all Muslims are brother there is no difference between rich and poor, high
and low. That all Muslims are brother these is no difference between rich
and poor, high and low.


Awareness of Rights and Duties.

There are many rights and duties of parents, teacher and neigh

Dont be angry with parents, be kind to them in old age Respect and obey
the teachers, they are spistual parents. Do not harm the neighbor, help
Ehen and give them gifts.


Discipline and Emotional Control:

Students learn disciple by regular prayers of five times. By

keeping a fast, they from emotional control over hunger, thirst and anger
and prevented from evils.


Curriculum and Content

Islam presents a very comprehensive curriculum, it has 3 aspects:
knowledge of God m of self of universe It emphasizes on the oneness
and supremacy of God as the cration and controller of man and universe.
Man is the vice-gerent of God on this earth, and he is to lead his life
according to the Holy Quran. The purpose of his life is to perform duties
towards God and toward shuman being and Follow teaching of Islam. Pray
to God and do good to human beings.
A large number of subjects of study were given importance by
Muslim Educationists like Ghazali, Ibn-e-Khuldum and Dr. Sir
Muhammad Iqbal. These are Reading writing-calligraphy-Astronomy,
Hygien Medicine Mathematic Arabic language and literature

Primary Education:
1. Cultiration of Islamic values and love and God.
2. Familiarity with basic concepts Islamic way of living
3. Basic subjects are of language, Islamyat, Hygiene, Maths, Reading
and written.

Higher Education:
It will have two areas General and Specific Education.

General Education will include study of Holy Quran, compiling of

Hadith, Explanation of Quran, Islamic Law, comparative Religion,
Arabic language and literature.


Specific Education will involve the study of philosophy,

logic, History, sociology, Medicine, Astronomy, Technology.

The role of the Teacher

The teacher has a great significance in Islamic system of
education. It is not sufficient to give verbal instruction to the students. The
teacher will be a role model for the students as they are greatly impressed
by the attitude and behavior of the teachers. The teacher will exhibit a high
moral character by being polite, encouraging, honest, just, sincere and
hardworking. The students will be able to develop the same virtues in their
personality. The teacher should also act upon the basic principles of Islam.
According to Islam some of the characteristics of good teachers are the

Keep a serious attitude in the class and avoid irrelevant talk. Use gestures
within limits.


Be regular and punctual in the performance of duties.


Speak clearly and loudly in the class.


Repeat and explain the lesson three times.


Not be greedy to expect money or gifts.


Love to seek knowledge and keep on increasing knowledge.


Be careful in the use of language, no insulting remarks to be used.


Treat all students on equal level



Give respect to students.


Keep a check on the moral behavior of students.


Visit a sick puil and enquire his welfare.


Do not treat students harshly.

Teachers are like spiritual parents, besides providing knowledge,
they should give them training for good life. Iqbal said the Education is a
builder and what he builds is the human soul.

The teaching and learning strategies

According to Islamic system of education the teaching and
learning process was based on an element of interest and discussion. The
Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was himself a model and great teacher
as he explained difficult concepts with examples and drawings. He
(PBUH) and his four caliphs kept an encouraging attitude towards the
seers of learning. All kinds of questions and discussion was allowed upto
their satisfaction.
Imam Ghazli emphasized on the method of proceeding from
simple to complex and from known to un-known. Ibn-e-Khudum was
against memorization on the part of the students, he was in favour of
discussion until every point is understood and made clear. Early morning
was considered to be the most suitable time for the purpose of learning.
The following teaching strategies were recommended.

Discussion and Questioning.

Were the mostly, common methods used

by teachers, it is called Bahis o Hull.



Exemplification: concepts by giving many examples and drawings.


Story telling was a method used by teachers to remove the element of



Lecture method was also used to provide factual knowledge to the



Reading and Recitation was another method for the study of the verses of
the Holy Quran.


Curiosity and creativity was encouraged by the teaches, until the students
were satisfied.





In Islamic system of education, the school and society have the
most important function to make people familiar with the true spirit of
Islamic Ideology. The children get training in Islamic way of life in the
school and later they become members of the society. There is a close
relationship between school and society in propagating the teachings and
basic principles of Islam of in creating an Islamic environment.

Family as a Part of Society:

The first training centre of the child is the family where he is born
and grows, he learns by observations and imitation the Islamic ways of life
as praised by his parents and relatives. If he is provided an environment
where all the members of the family observe all the basic teachings of
Islam (Faith, Namaz, Roza, Haj & Zakat0, he follows them and turns out
to be a good Muslim

School as a Part of the Society:

As compared to family, the school has a more serious and
systematic function in spreading the teachings of Islam 1- Teachers
presenting a mode 2- subject of Islamyat -3- learning of Arabic language
-4- seminars on Islamic Brother-hood and unity -5- knowledge of Islamic
values by conducing speech completion.