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CHILD LABOR

(In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirements in BUS.8)

M0532

Magnaye, Aldrin
Nicolas, Zarina
Malana, Angelique
Cruz, Zaneta Vania
Martinez, Sherry Anne
Nicdao, Raymond
Abenir, Neil Christian
Bassig, Mark
Sismundo, Laurence

Professor Anita B. Dela Cruz
I. TITLE

CHILD LABOR

II. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

For the accomplishment of our research we would like to
acknowledge our Professor Anita B. Dela Cruz for giving us the
opportunity and also giving us advices and tips for the development of
our research. This Project our eyes became open about the reality of
our country is experiencing, poverty especially child labor.

We would also like to thank our co-group mates for cooperating,
combining and sharing of knowledge, ideas and information, also the
people we interviewed for devoting their time and sharing their
information, also the people we interviewed for devoting their time and
sharing their thoughts and experiences.

And lastly we would like to thank our family for their full support
and giving us the approval of using our houses for a place to work on.
And we would like to fully dedicate this research to God for the
guidance and assistance he had given us and the right knowledge to
fulfill and complete this research.

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III. Table of Contents

i. Introduction
……………………………………………………………………………
………….… 3
ii. Body of Research
……………………………………………………………………………
…….. 6
• Jurisprudence/Ruling
…………………………………………………………… 6
• Existing/Current Cases
……………………………………………………… 10
• Events
…………………………………………………………………
….…………. 12
• Photos
…………………………………………………………………
……………. 14
• News Items
…………………………………………………………………
…….. 15
• Studies/Reports
………………………………………………………………….
21
iii. Analysis
……………………………………………………………………………
……………….... 24
iv. Conclusion
……………………………………………………………………………
…….………. 26
v. Recommendation
………………………………………………………………….
……………. 27
vi. Bibliography
…………………………………………………………………………..
…………… 28

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IV. INTRODUCTION

Child labor refers to illegal employment of children below 18
years of age in risky occupations. Underage children are being forced
to manual labor to help their families mainly due to poverty. About
2.06 million to all around the Philippines are compelled to do labor
such as in crop plantations, mining caves, rock quarries and factories,
fishing, manufacturing, mining and domestic services. Child labor leads
children to suffer from malnutrition, hampered growth, and improper
biological development. Children between ages 5-17 numbered 22.4
comprising a 3rd of the overall Philippine population, working children
represent 16% of these overall populations. These working children
consist largely of boys who account of 65%.

Children are a bit like chickens they need to be kept safe,
guided, fed and loved.” Grandmother of four young children, cited in
UNICEF 2001The aphorism quoted above captures the essential feeling
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of millions of parents worldwide. Children are the objects of care and
protection, and parents generally feel responsible for them as they
move from infancy to childhood and adolescence.

The notion that parents exercise care and control over their
children defines childhood as a period of dependency. It views
children’s actions as being under the discipline of their elders, and the
scope of their independent behavior is framed within this social
expectation. Filipino families are no different. Ethnographic studies
point to the solicitous actions of parents over their children. Every child
is valued as a gift from God, deserving of care, nurturance and
protection. At the same time, parents are disciplinarians and aim to
mold their children into the socially accepted norms of society. Part of
this norm, especially in rural areas, is for children to participate early in
life in household activities. Hence, it is not unusual to find pre-school
children being asked to look after infants and younger siblings. Neither
is it exceptional for young children to help in household chores:
carrying water, gathering fuel, sweeping, washing dishes and going on
simple errands.

Children’s involvement in productive work becomes problematic
when it interferes with their physical, emotional and intellectual
development. It is in recognition of these risks that the issue of child
labor emerges. In 1973, the International Labor Organization adopted
Convention No. 138 and Recommendation No. 146 on the Minimum
Age for Admission to Employment. This Convention provides a
minimum age for admission to employment of not less than the age of
completion of compulsory schooling, but in any case, not less than 15
years of age. In 1989, all except two member- countries of the United
Nations adopted the International Convention on the Rights of the
Child. Among others, this covenant provides for “the right of the child
to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any
work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's
education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental,
spiritual, moral or social development.”

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V. BODY OF THE RESEARCH

• JURISPRUDENCE/RULING

Laws of the Philippines

A. National Child Labor Laws

In the Philippines, the minimum age for general employment is 15
years.

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• Republic Act 9231 or “ The anti Child Labor law

- The law seeks to eliminate the worst forms of child labor such as
those involving slavery: such as the sale and trafficking of
children, debt bondage, serfdom, including recruitment of
children for use in armed conflict; prostitution and pornography;
use of children for illegal activities, including drug trafficking and
any work that is hazardous and harmful to the health, safety and
morals of children.

- The law is the stipulation that children below 15 years of age, if
working in non-hazardous conditions, may work for no more that
20 hours a week, at most 4 hours day.

- The law limits children 15-17 years old to work not more than 8
hours a day or 40 hours a week. Night work from 8pm to 6 am is
prohibited.

- The law also states that children should receive and own their
wages. The child’s earnings shall be set aside primarily for
his/her support, education or skill acquisition and not more than
20% of the child’s income may be allotted for the collective
needs a trust fund from at least 30% of the earnings of the child
whose wages and salaries from work and other income amount
to at least P200,000.00 annually.

• Article 32 of Rights of a Human Child RA7658
(Prohibition of the Employment of children)

- States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected
from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is
likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education,
or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental,
spiritual, moral or social development.

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- States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and
educational measures to ensure the implementation of the
present article. To this end, and having regard to the relevant
provisions of other international instruments States Parties shall
in particular.

 Parties for a minimum age or minimum ages for admissions to
employment;
 Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of
employment;
 Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the
effective enforcement of the present article.

• Child Protection Act of 1992 and the Republic Act
No. 7610

- Children under 15 may be employed, provided that the employer
secures a work permit from the department of Labor and
employment ; the protection, health and safety and morals of the
children can be ensured; measures to prevent exploitation or
discrimination in remuneration and work schedules are
instituted; and a continuous program for training and skill
acquisitions of the child is formulated and implemented.

• The Republic Act No. 7658 amended section Article
VIII, section 12, of Act No. 7610

-Prohibiting children below 15 years of age from employment
except when they work in a family-run company or when their
participation in public entertainment is “essential”

B. Jobs Exempt from Child Labor Law Regulations

In general, children of any age are permitted to work for
businesses entirely owned by their parents, except those under 16

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may not be employed in mining or manufacturing and no one under 18
may be employed in any occupation the Secretary of Labor has
declared to be hazardous. Minors employed in the delivery of
newspapers to consumers are exempt from Fair Labor Standards Act
(FLSA) child labor provisions, as well as the wage and hours provisions.

Children employed as actors or performers in motion pictures or
theatrical productions or in radio or television productions are exempt
from Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) coverage. Therefore, FLSA rules
regarding total allowable number of work hours in one day and
allowable times of day to work do not apply.

There are other exemptions, including making evergreen wreaths at
home, so, check the DOL Exemptions from Child Labor Law Rules for
the full list.

-Findings and Policy Implications

Findings

It is considered important to derive and discuss the determinants of
child activity within two separate age groups (very young versus older
children), as one would expect interaction of age with variables
entered in the regression. Table 5 presents the results of the
multinomial logit models for all children of age 6 to 12 and 13 to 17
years. The individual coefficient results are significant for about 45 to
65 percent of the coefficients. In the case of young children the model
under-predicts the probability of combining school and work and only
working, due to the small number of children in these categories. The
discussion of results is organized by determinant of child activity,
rather than by stage in the decision making process, so that it is easier
to observe the differential effect of each determinant on the 3 stages
of the decision making process.

Child Characteristics

Both age and gender are positively correlated with the decision to
enroll in school and the effect of age (and gender for older children) is
substantial. Girls of secondary school age have a 10 percentage point
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higher probability of being only in school. Being older by one year
increases the probability of work without schooling by 13 and 5.5
percentage points respectively for primary and secondary age
children; however, these estimates on the effect of age conceal any
gender differences (see below for gender differences).

Parent Characteristics

Fathers’ education has a strong effect on both schooling and work
decisions, increasing the probability of the child only schooling and
decreasing the probability of combining school and work as well as the
probability of work without schooling. The effect of higher education of
mothers is of similar nature but less pronounced.

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• EXISTING/CURRENT CASES

CASE 1

The most common industry where child labor is practiced in
Philippines is Deep-sea fishing. About forty years ago the sea around
Philippines was plentiful of fish, the fishermen could make a
tremendous catch just along the shore. Sadly that is not the case now
as fishermen need to go miles into the sea to get a decent catch which
will get them a day's meal. Many a times they need to use cyanide,
dynamites and nets to able to catch a good amount of fish. There are
many fishermen who use young boys to help them catch the fish, who
quite unfortunately die while fishing, due to hazardous practices.

An illegal method of fishing called Muro Ami which is used
frequently in Philippines is the most common form of Child labor
prevalent today. In this method the young child dives down to deep
depths of the sea. He carries with him a rock or a pipe which he uses to
beat the delicate corals so that the huge number of fishes living in
them get startled and are driven into large nets waiting to catch them.
Many a times these young children drown and lose their lives. This
inhuman practice has also destroyed the beautiful coral reefs
surrounding Philippines.

Paaling is another fishing practice which is as widespread and life
threatening as Muro Ami. A hose is connected to a surface air
compressor and the young diver dives into the sea and drives hordes
of fish into waiting nets with the help of a virtual bubble curtain formed
by the compressor. Many agencies are now working together to abolish
the inhuman practice of child labor and provide a safe and healthy
environment for the children to grow in.

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CASE 2

The general problems facing the girl-child are common throughout
the world, although they may manifest themselves differently from
country to country. They include culturebased discrimination; poor access
to education; continuing prevalence of labour exploitation; physical,
psychological or sexual abuse; commercial sexual exploitation;
girlchildren as substitute spouses; teenage pregnancy and reproductive
health problems; girlchildren in armed conflict. Culture-based
discrimination arises from a traditional view of women as stay-at-home
wives, and from negative gender stereotypes in textbooks and the media.
Poor access to education, a common problem in developing countries, is
related to culture-based discrimination, since in some countries females
are looked upon as a second-class citizens. Many girls, especially from
rural areas, are forced to leave school as they are perceived to be
destined for a life as housewives, to whom education would be of no
importance.

The rising phenomenon of sexual exploitation and abuse is a major
problem in countries that focus on tourism. Where there is prostitution,
there is a constant demand for fresh new faces. The result: child
prostitution. Work in the tourism and catering industries is often an entry
point for commercial sexual activity for children and adolescents, who are
offered the opportunity to enhance their income by providing sexual
services. According to the International Labour Organization, 179 million
children worldwide are exposed to the worst forms of child labour
exploitation, including prostitution, pornography, drug trafficking, forced
armed military conflict and other illicit activities. The issue of girl children
as substitute spouses is prevalent in many Asian countries exporting
human resources, with an estimated 30 million Asian workers in Asian
countries other than their own and 40 million in the rest of the world. The
result is that older daughters of overseas female workers not only take on
the role left behind by the mother with respect to rearing younger siblings
but also, and worse, they become substitute spouses for the father.

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• EVENTS

(Pag-aaral ng mga Bata Para sa Kinabukasan) or TEACh (Take
Every Action for Children)

The Philippines will mark this year's celebration of the World Day
Against Child Labor (WDACL) with the implementation of a four-year
project aimed at sending child workers to school particularly in areas of
the country where there is high incidence of child labor, the
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) today said.

Labor and Employment Secretary Marianito D. Roque said the DOLE
would sign an agreement with the World Vision Development
Foundation (WDF) and the Christian Children's Fund (CCF), on Friday,
June 13, 2008, to celebrate the WDACL and provide for the
implementation of the project that would give child workers access to
educational opportunities.

The project dubbed ABK2 (Pag-aaral ng mga Bata Para sa
Kinabukasan) or TEACh (Take Every Action for Children) would be
implemented with grants from the United States Department of Labor.
It was launched at the DOLE in Intramuros, Manila in February this year
with US Ambassador to the Philippines Kristie A. Kenney in attendance.

Roque noted that the WDACL is actually commemorated around the
world every June 12 since 2002 but the Philippines would celebrate it
the following day this year in deference of the country's Independence
Day which is also being celebrated on June 12.

The Labor and Employment Secretary said representatives of the
DOLE, WDF, CCF, and other social partners in the national drive against
child labor would gather at the Bulacan State University (BSU) IN
Malolos, Bulacan where the main celebration of WDACL in the country
would be held on June 13.

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The DOLE, WDF, and CCF representatives will sign the memorandum of
agreement on the ABK2 project during the celebration, Roque said.

He said the theme of the celebration, "Education is the right response
to child labor," underscores the importance of education as a major
strategy in preventing and eliminating child labor. He said that child
workers often find themselves forced to drop out of school in favor of
working in order to supplement family income or simply support
themselves.

To help the children sustain their schooling, Roque said the ABK2
project would provide resources and access to relevant education
programs to targeted beneficiaries. Project activities would focus on
reducing child workers' barriers to attending formal school and
expanding skills and business based learning opportunities for children
ages 15-17 years old.

At the same time, the DOLE would also connect the parents of the
beneficiaries to its pro-poor programs particularly those that provide
wage and livelihood opportunities relevant to the improvement of their
economic status.

The project would be implemented in areas where there is high
incidence of child labor such the National Capital Region, Bulacan,
Camarines Norte, Iloilo, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Cebu,
Leyte, Davao del Sur, and Compostela Valley.

"Educating the children while providing their parents with income
sources are the long-term solutions seen to break the bondage of
poverty that ties child workers and their families to the cycle of child
labor," the DOLE chief said as he urged all sectors to help in the fight
against child labor to secure the future of Filipino children and the
nation as a whole.

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• PHOTOS

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• News Items

GMA SIGNS ANTI-CHILD LABOR LAW

Posted: February 2010
Contributor: Peter James Leaño V
E-mail: peter_leano_v@yahoo.com

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law Republic Act 9231
or “The Anti Child Labor Law” on December 19, 2003. The passage of
this new measure makes the Philippines the first country to present
model legislation reflective of the widely ratified International Labor
Organization Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor.143
governments or 80% of the international communities have already
ratified ILO Convention 182 in a span of three years. The law seeks to
eliminate the worst forms of child labor such as those involving
slavery: such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage,
serfdom, including recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
prostitution and pornography; use pf children for illegal activities,
including drug trafficking; and any work that is hazardous and harmful
to the health, safety and morals of children.

Among the salient features of the law is the stipulation that children
below 15 years of age, if working in non-hazardous conditions, may
work for not more that 20 hours a week, at most 4 hours a day. The
law limits children 15 – 17 years old to work not more than 8 hours a
day or 40 hours a week. Night work from 8pm to 6am is prohibited.

The law also states that children should receive and own their wages.
The child’s earnings shall be set aside primarily for his/her support,
education or skill acquisition and not more than 20% of the child’s
income may be allotted for the collective needs of the family.

Parents or the legal guardian are instructed to establish a trust fund
from at least 30% of the earnings of the child whose wages and
salaries from work and other income amount to at least P200,000.00
annually. A semi-annual accounting of the fund shall be submitted to
the Department of Labor and Employment for monitoring purposes.
The child shall have full control over the trust fund upon reaching the
age of majority.

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Employers on the other hand are instructed to provide the working
child access to al least primary and secondary education. In line with
this provision, the Department of Education shall design and make
available to working children alternative and non-formal education
courses.

The government shall also provide and make accessible to working
children free and immediate legal, medical and psychological services.
Victims of child labor shall be exempted from paying filing fees for
recovering civil damages.

The new law also provides for stiffer penalties against acts of child
labor, particularly in its worst forms. It increased the penalties against
abusers to a maximum of P5 million and 20 years of imprisonment. The
Department of Labor and Employments is given the authority to close
down business establishments found violating anti child labor
provisions of the new law. According to Ms. Ma. Cecilia Flores-Oebanda,
President of Visayan Forum Foundation, “Making child labor abuse a
very expensive crime is a way to send a strong signal to employers
and recruiters to stop abusing and exploiting children because stiffer
penalties encourage parents and the victims to seriously pursue their
complaints in court.”

The passage of the law is a great victory for the Filipino working child.
However, the real test lies in its implementation

Significant Incidence of Child Labor

02/20/2010

MANILA, Philippines—The Philippines is one of the countries with a
significant incidence of child labor in the agricultural sector, according
to a report from the US Department of Labor. The report lists the goods
produced using child and forced labor in the 77 countries studied.
According to the department Bureau of International Labor Affairs, the
hog, banana, coconut, rice, rubber, sugarcane, tobacco, corn industries
in the Philippines use child labor.

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It also noted that child labor can be found in the gold mining sector,
fashion accessories manufacturing, pyrotechnics industry, and
pornography.The report did not cite the Philippines as one of the
countries that has a high incidence of forced labor.Under international
law, child labor is defined as work performed by a person aged under
15. Work in the pornography industry by persons under 18 is also
considered child labor.

The report aims to raise awareness of the exploitation of children in
the labor sector and to promote efforts to eliminate such practices.By
identifying the goods made in exploitative conditions, the report, which
was released Thursday, hopes to discourage American consumers from
buying these products.

The most common items listed include cotton, sugar cane, tobacco,
coffee, rice and cocoa in agriculture; bricks, garments, carpets and
footwear in manufacturing; and gold and coal in mined and quarried
goods, the report noted.

"It is my strong hope that consumers, firms, governments, labor unions
and other stakeholders will use this information to translate their
economic power into a force for good that ultimately will eliminate
abusive child labor and forced labor," said US Secretary of Labor Hilda
L. Solis.Meanwhile, the Philippine Department of Labor and
Employment said it would validate the findings of the US department.
In a statement, DOLE said it has made headway in its campaign to
eliminate child labor in the Philippines.

"While we acknowledge the existence of child labor in the Philippines,
we emphasize that our efforts to address the problem have already
gone down the barangay or community level," the statement said. The
labor department also noted that it does not recognize the
methodology used in the US study, but said it would look into the
sectors cited in the report.

“As to the US DOL’s inclusion of some goods allegedly produced by
child labor in the Philippines, it may take the DOLE some time to
validate this assertion, but we have instructed our regional officers to
discuss the report with the industry sectors mentioned with the end in
view of getting their concerns so that the Department can work out
specific interventions to address these," DOLE said in a statement.
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The Philippines joins the annual celebration of the "World Day Against
Child Labor" with a renewed determination to shield children from the
menace, and rescue, rehabilitate and uplift its victims through specific
initiatives under the ongoing Philippine Program Against Child Labor
(PPACL), the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) Monday
said. Labor and Employment Secretary Marianito D. Roque said in this
regard, the DOLE-led National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) will
convene an important conference to push further the gains of the
campaign against child labor in the Philippines.

"The meeting will highlight the thrusts against the exploitation of girls
in child labor, as 2009 globally, marks the 10th anniversary of the
adoption of the landmark ILO Convention No. 182, or the Convention
Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of
the Worst Forms Child Labor," he said.

The NCLC Meeting will be led, in her capacity as the NCLC Chair, by
Labor Undersecretary Lourdes A. Trasmonte in Manila on June 15,
2009, as part of the global and national observances of the World Day
Against Child Labor (WDACL) this year.

Conscious of the global impact and continuing urgency of the global
thrusts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor endangering the
world's children, the Geneva, Switzerland-based International Labor
Organization (ILO) had earlier set the theme of the 2009 WDACL, "Give
girls a chance: End Child Labor," in a broad, multi-lingual format
notably among Hispanic peoples ("Demos una oportunidad a las niñas:
Erradiquemos el trabajo infantil"); the French-speaking nations of the
world ("Donnons une chance aux filles: Eliminons le travail des
enfants"), and other areas.

Trasmonte indicated that definitely, the NCLC Meeting will focus on a
new ILO-IPEC (International Program for the Elimination of Child Labor)
Project on Child Labor in the Philippines, in consonance with the World
Day Against Child Labor.

Trasmonte emphasized that the ILO had first initiated the World Day
Against Child Labor on June 12, 2002, as a way to highlight the plight
of the hundreds of millions of girls and boys throughout the world
engaged in work that violates their rights as children and as human
beings, and deprives them of adequate education, health, leisure and
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basic freedoms. To this end, she said the observance of the WDACL
serves as a catalyst for the growing worldwide movement against child
labor, duly reflected globally in the huge number of ratifications
affirming ILO Convention No. 182, as well as ILO Convention No. 138
on the minimum age for employment.

Mirroring the Philippines' own strong movement applied against the
menace, Trasmonte added that the NCLC Meeting will involve the
active participation of the Three Plus (3+) Social Partners, who include
government agencies, employers groups, workers' organizations,
international development organizations, as well as the prominent non-
government organizations in the thick of the fight against child labor,
which are primarily the Visayan Forum Foundation; World Vision
Development Foundation; End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography
and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT Philippines),
and others; along with the RP-based ILO-Subregional Office for South-
East Asia and the Pacific headed by Director Linda Wirth; and a child
representative.

Amidst the development, DOLE Bureau of Women and Young Workers
(BWYW) Director Chita DG. Cilindro indicated that the DOLE-led Sagip
Batang Manggagawa (or child rescue) Program succeeded in rescuing
2,711 child laborers through a total of 806 rescue operations
conducted since 1993 up to 2008.

Director Cilindro further reported that determined DOLE efforts have
also triumphantly enforced the closure of, and the filing of criminal
charges for violation of anti-child labor laws against nine
establishments exploiting child laborers in 2008 alone.

The BWYW, which Cilindro leads amidst its efforts to promote the
welfare of women and young workers, will closely assist and reinforce
the conduct of the NCLC Meeting on June 15, 2009 from 1:00 p.m. to
4:00 p.m., preceded by a Media Forum highlighting the World Day
Against Child Labor at the Max's Restaurant, Maria Orosa Street,
Manila, from 10:00 a.m to 12:00 p.m. (PNA)

International Labor Organization
02/27/2010

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MANILA (ILO News) - Child labor, especially in its worst forms, is in
decline for the first time across the globe, the International Labour
Organization (ILO) said, in a new, cautiously optimistic report 1 entitled
“The end of child labor: Within reach”.The ILO report also says that if
the current pace of the decline were to be maintained and the global
momentum to stop child labor continued, it believes child labor could
feasibly be eliminated, in most of its worst forms, in 10 years.

“The end of child labor is within our reach”, says Juan Somavia,
Director-General of the ILO. “Though the fight against child labour
remains a daunting challenge, we are on the right track. We can end
its worst forms in a decade, while not losing sight of the ultimate goal
of ending all child labor.”The new report says the actual number of
child labourers worldwide fell by 11 per cent between 2000 and 2004,
from 246 million to 218 million.

What’s more, the number of children and youth aged 5-17 trapped in
hazardous work decreased by 26 per cent, to reach 126 million in 2004
as opposed to 171 million in the previous estimate. Among younger
child laborers aged 5-14, this drop was even more pronounced at 33
percent, says the report.

Four years ago, the ILO issued the most comprehensive report to date
on global child labor. Applying the same statistical methodology used
in that report, the ILO finds a significant decline in child labor since
then.The report attributed the reduction in child labor to increased
political will and awareness 2 and concrete action, particularly in the
field of poverty reduction and mass education that has led to a
“worldwide movement against child labor.” Through its International
Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), the ILO assists in
building national capacity to deal with child labor and providing policy
advice. In addition, through direct action, the Programme over the past
decade has reached some 5 million children. These initiatives have
played a significant catalytic role, both in mobilizing action and
demonstrating how child labor can be eliminated.

Over the last five years, IPEC has helped several countries put in place
appropriate time-bound measures to eliminate the worst forms of child
labor. The report calls on all member States that haven’t done so yet
to adopt time-bound plans by 2008. According to the report, more than

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30 member States of the ILO have already set time-bound targets with
a similar or even earlier target date than 2016 to abolish the worst
forms of child labor.

Despite considerable progress in the fight against child labor, the
report also highlights important challenges, particularly in agriculture,
where seven out of ten child laborers work. Other challenges include
addressing the impact of HIV/AIDS on child labor, and building stronger
links between child labor and youth employment concerns.The report
calls for greater national efforts, involving organizations representing
employers and workers, as well as governments – the partners that
make up the tripartite ILO. It also calls for the strengthening of the
worldwide movement to make child labor history. Meeting the UN
Millennium Development Goals by 2015 would further help to eradicate
child labor, the report says.

• STUDIES/REPORTS

Effects of Child Labor

1. He suffers physical a child of a proper childhood.
2. He becomes mentally and emotionally mature too fast
which is a dangerous sign.
3. Child Labor deprives a child of a proper childhood
4. Ultimately this leads to child labor with each generation of
poor children undercutting wages.
5. Child labor creates and perpetuates poverty.

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6. It condemns the child to a life of unskilled, badly paid
work.

Child labor involves at least one of the following characteristic:

 Violates a nation’s minimum age laws

 Uses children to undermine labor standards

 Threatens children’s physical, mental, or emotional well-
being

 Involves intolerable abuse, such as child slavery, child
trafficking, debt bondage, forced labor or illicit activities.

 Prevents children from going to school

Causes of child Labor

• ORPHANS

• ILLITERACY

• OVER POPULATION

• POVERTY

• URBANIZATION

• UNEMPLOYMENT OF ELDERS

• WILLINGNESS TO EXPLOIT CHIDLREN

• PROTECTION

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• BUSINESSES

• PROPER EDUCATION

Reason why Child Labor occur;

1. Limited choices for women

2. Uncaring attitudes of employers

3. Public opion the downplays the risk of early work for children

4. Lack of other services, such as health care

5. Lack of good schools and day care

6. Abuse of the child

7. Family expectations and traditions

Ways to Reduce Child Labor:

1. Widespread, affordable, required and relevant education

2. Changes in public attitudes toward children that elevated the
importance of education

3. Enforcement of anti-child labor laws

4. Economic development that raised family incomes and living
standards

Solutions to Child Labor:

• Eliminate Poverty
• Encourage Education
• Enforce Labor Laws
• Promote Fair Trade
• Abolish Child Trafficking

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• Replace Child Workers by Adult Workers

VI. Analysis

Sample Survey Question

Name: Gender:
Age:

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1. What kind of work do you do?

Barker Garbage Collector

Houseboy, Helper, Maid Others: ________

Vendor

2. At what age did you start working?

5 to 8 13 to 15

9 to 12 16 to 18

3. How many hours do you usually work?

4hrs below 9hrs to 12hrs

5hrs to 8hrs 12hrs to 24hrs

4. How much do you earn for a day?

Php50.00 below

Php51.00 to Php100.00

Php101.00 and above

5. Where do you usually spend your hard earned money?

Food Studies

Debt Others: ________

6. Are your parents working the same as you are?

Yes No

7. Occupation of:

Mother: _________

Father: __________

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8. Which do you prefer?

Working

Schooling

In Relation To Business Ethics

Business Ethics is a kind of process of being responsible enough
in decision-making and relevant to the conduct of individuals. In
relation to child labor, mainly parents have to make decisions which
will not harm or put their children in great danger. If they are that
responsible enough they wouldn’t let them to do those kinds of chores.
They are supposed to support their children. It’s a very huge issue
about ethical behavior, because it is very unethical for the eyes of
others to let their children suffer.

And for the children, even though most of them wanted to
engage in this kind of situation, they also have their own choice in
making such decisions. They must think for their own welfare too.
Instead, they need to have enough knowledge to organize and balance
their time in studying an as well as working. Nowadays, there are
many institutions that support the less fortunate ones. And they can
really help those poor children.

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VII. Conclusion
The researchers conclude that nearly 30% of population in poor
countries are poorest of poor who are not even able to earn enough for
one day food with big family have to largely depend on children to
earn and feed. Parents of these children are mainly illiterate or semi
literate are unable to find jobs, which can provide enough salary.
Dream of education to children is impossible unless suitable
employment opportunities made available to at least one person in the
family. Simply by opening schools and providing books are not
sufficient measures. We need to understand the reason behind child
labor that is poverty and unemployment. Minimizing poverty and
creation of more and more suitable jobs to parents are the only
solution of eradication of majority of child labor problem.

We learned so many things from this research. For us children
are really not supposed to work because it is the parent’s responsibility
to find a living. We should also consider that at the present condition of
our society in which poverty prevails is that it is unwise for parents to
have more children than they could actually support. I also realized the
importance of parent’s guidance in a child’s life which is really
beneficial to the child. For children of my age if you are being forced to
work by your parents and guardians you should not be afraid to tell
authorities.

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VII. Recommendation

The researchers recommend to the government, society, parents
and to the students the following factors to minimize and control child
labor.

To the Government:
• Initiate recreational projects to divert the youth’s attention from
harmful vices.
• Strictly improve and implement laws governing child labor.
• Conduct seminars to educate the public of child labor’s status in
the country.

To the Society:
• Refrain from employing minors for work, and then contact the
proper authorities to apprehend the recruiters.

To the Parents:
• Strive hard to adequately provide for their children’s needs.
• Should have full knowledge and understanding in making a
family.

To the Students like us:
• To help the youth in any way to teach them how to educate
themselves in a simple way.
• To be more aware in the situation about child labor and
everything affecting it.

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IX. Bibliography

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23927088/Child-Labor?
secret_password=&autodown=pdf

http://www.pinoypress.net/2007/06/26/youths-commemorate-worlds-
day-against-child-labor/

http://ipecphils.tripod.com/phillaws/intro.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_labor

http://members.tripod.com/~sadashivan_nair/childlabourandsociety/in
dex.html

http://www.dole.gov.ph/labor_codes.php?id=44

http://www.aipe-cci.org/en/child-labor/en-trouver-solutions.htm

http://hubpages.com/hub/Cause-and-effects-of-Child-Labour

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