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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

CONTROL MEASURES

THEORY

Control Measures

1. 3Rs: Reduce, Recovery and Recycle

Reduce:
REDUCE is to limit the amount of waste you create in the first place. This
includes buying products with less packaging.
Waste reduction/minimisation or waste prevention is all about reducing waste at
source - not creating it in the first place Excessive waste is often due to the
inefficient use of resources or bad planning.
For example, using disposable or single-use products or buying food we dont
need on impulse or because theres a special offer and then wasting it. Waste
minimisation is not recycling. Waste minimisation actually reduces what we use
and therefore the amount of waste we discard. In terms of waste management,
it is always the best option.
Ways in which you can reduce are:

Shop smartly and try not to buy produces that have too much packaging.
For example buy loose fruit and vegetables.

Purchase 'bags for life' and use these each time you go shopping.

Avoid disposable or single-use items such as napkins, razors, plastic


cutlery, cameras and batteries etc

Use boxes with lids to store things, rather than using foil or cling film.

Buy in bulk and use re-fills.

Recycle:
RECYCLE means the product goes through a mechanical process to change its
form. This is only recommended when reducing and reusing are not possible.
Recycling is an effective way to manage waste materials once they have been

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

CONTROL MEASURES

THEORY

generated if they cant be reused. It prevents waste from being sent to landfill
and makes waste into new goods or products.

This can involve turning the old material into a new version of the same thing or
into something completely different. For example, used glass bottles can be
recycled into new bottles or they can be recycled into something different, such
as road materials for use in construction projects. Effective recycling requires us
to separate waste according to different materials so that they can be recycled
efficiently.

Recovery:
Recovery is to convert waste into resources (such as electricity, heat, compost
and fuel) through thermal and biological means.
After we have reduced, reused and recycled (including composting) as much as
possible, the rubbish left can be used to generate heat and power. This is known
as 'recovery'. By recovering the leftover energy in the rubbish, we are helping to
achieve our aspiration to send zero waste to landfill.
We must move away from our reliance on landfill for waste disposal and to use
alternative technologies to improve material recovery, re-use and recycling,
which can bring value to local communities and the broader economy.
Different types of rubbish are best suited to different types of treatment such as
anaerobic digestion, which is the breaking down of garden and kitchen wastes by
bacteria in the absence of air; and energy from waste. Different types of
treatment can create different types of energy, from biogas to electricity.

2. Use of Approriate Technology for Sustainable Development


The goal of Appropriate Technology (AT) is to increase the standard of living for
the developing world without requiring excessive resources and to use
sustainable materials appropriate to the cultural aspects of the local community.
Appropriate Technology is one step beyond the basic concept of sustainable
development because it is culturally sensitive and does not impose western
technology ideology on developing nations; rather it works within the native
concepts and resources to achieve economic development.
The goal of Appropriate Technology (AT) is to increase the standard of living for
the developing world without condescension, complication, or environmental
damage. Typical AT inventions are more labor intensive, require fewer resources,
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

CONTROL MEASURES

THEORY

and use low cost or readily available materials wherever possible. Special
attention is paid to the social, cultural, and ethical aspects of the communities
the technology is intended for.

Case Study: Hippo Water Roller project


In some African villages, fetching potable water can take most of an entire day,
and is typically a chore left to women and children. The Hippo Roller is a simple
tool for transporting water from distant watering-holes back to homes and
villages an alternative to the traditional 5-gallon-barrels-on-heads approach.
The product itself is similar to a barrel with a handle that you push ahead of you
like a steamrollers drum, and has a capacity of 90 liters / 24 gallons. Thats
nearly a 5X increase in productivity. In the past 15 years, the Hippo Roller Water
Project has distributed over 30,000 rollers, directly benefitting over 200,000
people.
Other examples of Appropriate Technology are Solar Cookers and Hybrid Cars.

3. Environmental education
It is our duty as an individual or as a citizen of any country that we should not
harm the Environment and the Ecosystem.
There are three very clear reasons for studying this course:
1. Need for information that clarifies modern environmental concepts such
as the need to conserve biodiversity. The need to lead more sustainable
lifestyles and the need to use resources more equitably.
2. There is a need to change the way in which we view our own environment
by a practical approach based on observation and self-learning.
3. There is the need to create a concern for our environment that will trigger
pro-environmental action; including activities we can do in our daily life to
protect it.

4. Resource utilization as per the carrying capacity


Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals of a defined species
that a given environment can support over the long term.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

CONTROL MEASURES

THEORY

The carrying capacity concept was pioneered by Thomas Malthus in the year
1798. He predicted that the earth can only hold a definite amount of human
growth for a definite time. This concept holds a crucial position in determining
the quality and state of an ecosystem with respect to the pressures meted by
the demands of the dwelling population. It is basically an ecological concept that
also embraces the socio-economic parameters.
If we go on defining carrying capacity then it will be a herculean task because
the concept itself is very vast and has different perspectives, like social, cultural,
political, ecological etc. In simple terms, the carrying capacity of an area can be
defined as the maximum number of people that can be supported by the
environment of that area through optimum utilization of the available resources.
In other words carrying capacity of an area refers to an extreme limit. This limit
defines the population carrying capacity of the area. If this limit is crossed then
the nature will react by imposing pressure to resist the abrupt growth and
development of the people resulting into equilibrium. These pressures can be in
the form of floods, droughts, landslides, famine etc.
Carrying capacity is not fixed. It can increase or decrease phenomenally. There
are many factors that can influence the carrying capacity of a region. The
pattern and extent of resource usage serves to be the primary factor that affects
the carrying capacity a lot. This indeed depends highly on the socio-economic
status of the people. Secondly, the use of technology also influences the carrying
capacity, i.e. if technology is used in a positive manner than definitely the
carrying capacity will get increased manifold or may be degraded vice versa.