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Knowledge Base

Database

Rule: IF-THEN

Fact

Inference Engine

Explanation Facilities

User Interface

User

problem solving. In a rule-based expert system, the knowledge

is represented as a set of rules. Each rule specifies a relation,

recommendation, directive, strategy or heuristic and has the IF

(condition) THEN (action) structure. When the condition part

of a rule is satisfied, the rule is said to fire and the action part is

executed.

The database includes a set of facts used to match against the

IF (condition) parts of rules stored in the knowledge base.

Inference engine

37

The inference engine carries out the reasoning whereby the expert

base with the facts provided in the database.

The inference engine is a generic control mechanism for navigating

through and manipulating knowledge and deduce results in an

organized manner.

Inference engine the other key component of all expert systems.

Just a knowledge base alone is not of much use if there are no facilities

for navigating through and manipulating the knowledge to deduce

something from knowledge base.

A knowledge base is usually very large, it is necessary to have

inferencing mechanisms that search through the database and deduce

results in an organized manner.

The Forward chaining, Backward chaining and Tree searches are some

of the techniques used for drawing inferences from the knowledge base.

Forward Chaining Algorithm

Forward chaining is a techniques for drawing inferences from Rule base.

Forward-chaining inference is often called data driven.

The algorithm proceeds from a given situation to a desired goal,adding

new assertions (facts) found.

A forward-chaining, system compares data in the working memory

against the conditions in the IF parts of the rules and determines which

rule to fire.

Data Driven

Given : A Rule base contains following Rule set

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Rule 2: If A and E Then G

Rule 3: If B Then E

Rule 4: If G Then D

Problem : Prove

If A and B true Then D is true

Solution :

(i) Start with input given A, B is true and then

start at Rule 1 and go forward/down till a rule

fires'' is found.

First iteration :

(ii) Rule 3 fires : conclusion E is true

new knowledge found

(iii) No other rule fires;

end of first iteration.

(iv) Goal not found;

new knowledge found at (ii);

go for second iteration

Second iteration :

(v) Rule 2 fires : conclusion G is true

new knowledge found

(vi) Rule 4 fires : conclusion D is true

Goal found;

Proved

39

base. Backward-chaining inference is often called goal driven.

The algorithm proceeds from desired goal, adding new assertions

found.

A backward-chaining, system looks for the action in the THEN clause

of the rules that matches the specified goal.

Goal Driven

Given : Rule base contains following Rule set

Rule 1: If A and C Then F

Rule 2: If A and E Then G

Rule 3: If B Then E

Rule 4: If G Then D

Problem : Prove

If A and B true Then D is true

Solution :

(i) Start with goal ie D is true

go backward/up till a rule "fires'' is found.

First iteration :

(ii) Rule 4 fires :

new sub goal to prove G is true

go backward

(iii) Rule 2 "fires''; conclusion: A is true

new sub goal to prove E is true

go backward;

(iv) no other rule fires; end of first iteration.

new sub goal found at (iii);

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Second iteration :

(v) Rule 3 fires :

conclusion B is true (2nd input found)

both inputs A and B ascertained

Proved

Searches

So a knowledge base may be represent as a branching network or tree.

Many tree searching algorithms exists but two basic approaches are

depth-first search and breadth-first search.

41

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