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You are on page 1of 22

**Electrical Circuit Behavior
**

Section III

In this Section we will introduce the following information:

**• Theory behind Circuit Behavior
**

• Construction of all circuits

• Series Circuit Behavior

• Parallel Circuit Behavior

• Series/ Parallel Circuit Behavior

• Introduction to Meter Application in Circuits

2

Electrical Circuits

Series Circuits

A series circuit uses a single path for

current to flow. When the switch is

closed, the current flows from the battery

through the fuse, through the switch and

then back to the battery. If the path is

broken anywhere in the circuit, the lamp

will go out.

3

Series Circuits

Series Circuit Rules

wwww

1. The Resistance Total will always be

Load 1

equal to the sum of all of the load

resistances in the circuit.

--

----

2. The total circuit Voltage Drop will

wwww

-- Battery Load 2

---- always be equal to the applied source

--

---- voltage.However, each load will have

a different voltage drop based on it’s

individual resistance value.

fuse

3. The Current flow in the the circuit

is the same regardless of where it

is measured.

**A Series Circuit is considered a Voltage Dividing Circuit
**

4

Series Circuits

wwww

RT = The sum of all Resistance

Load 1

Current is the same everywhere

--

---- 2 Ohms

wwww

2 Ohms

-- Load 2

---- Battery

Resistance Total is the sum

--

---- of each load resistance

**fuse Voltage Drop across the total circuit
**

equals the applied source voltage

**2 Ohms + 2 Ohms = 4 Ohms Total
**

5

Series Circuits

Vdr = Voltage Drop

wwww Voltage drop equals the applied

12 Volts

Load 1

12 Volts source voltage.This is the voltage

consumed or used by the circuit

-- --

-------- 6 Volts components or resistors.

wwww

6 Volts

-- --Battery Load 2

--------12 Volts Current is the same everywhere

-- --

--------

**Resistance Total is the sum of each load
**

12 Volts 12 Volts

resistance

fuse

**Voltage Drop across the total circuit equals
**

the applied source voltage

**6 Volts + 6 Volts = 12 Volt Voltage Drop
**

6

Series Circuits

It = Intensity Total

wwww

This refers to the total current

Load 1

4 Ohms (amps) flow through the circuit.

-- --

-------- 3 Amps Current is the same everywhere

-- --Battery

--------12 Volts

-- --

-------- Resistance Total is the sum of each load

resistance

**Voltage Drop across the total circuit equals
**

the applied source voltage

3 Amps

12 Volts 4 Ohms = 3 Amps

**Note: When calculating Amps, an ammeter
**

is placed in series with the circuit.

7

Series Circuits

Using Ohms Law calculate the amount

of amp flow in the circuit below

R1

wwwwww

3 Ohms

12

Volts

Amps ?

**E = Volts Volts ÷ R1 = ? Amps
**

E

R = Ohms

I = Amps 12 Volts ÷ 3 Ohms = 4 Amps ? R

8

Series Circuits

Using Ohms Law calculate the amount

of amp flow in the circuit below

R1

wwwwww

6 Ohms

12

Volts

wwwwww

4 Amps R2

Amps ?

**E = Volts Volts ÷ R1 + R2 = ? Amps E
**

R = Ohms

6 Ohms + 4 Ohms = 10 Ohms ? R

I = Amps

12 volts ÷ 10 Ohms = 1.2 Amps

9

Series Circuits

Using Ohms Law calculate the amount

of resistance in the circuit below

R1

wwwwww

? Ohms

12 Volts

10 Amps

**Volts ÷ Amps = Resistance
**

E = Volts E

R = Ohms 12 Volts ÷ 1.2 Amps = 10 Ohms I ?

I = Amps

10

**Series Circuit Review
**

Ohm’s Law can be applied to a series circuit to find unknown

values as long as you have at least two of values required to

work the formula and, you remember the following rules for a

series circuit.

**1. Since there is only one path for current to flow through,current through
**

each load(resistance) is the same regardless of the number of loads in

the circuit or where the current is measured in the circuit.

**2. The total resistance in the circuit will equal to the sum of the individual
**

load resistances in the circuit.

**3. The voltage drop at each load will vary depending on it’s resistance,
**

however, the total voltage drop will be equal to the applied source

voltage.Source voltage is divided completely by all the loads, therefore

a Series Circuit is referred to as a Voltage Dividing Circuit.

11

Parallel Circuits

Parallel Circuit

A parallel circuit has two or more paths

for current to flow through. The

amount of current through each

branch is determined by the load

resistance of each branch. If the circuit

is broken after a load, only that load

will cease to operate.

12

Parallel Circuits

Parallel Circuit Rules

1.The source voltage and the voltage

12

volts

12

volts

applied to or measured across each load

resistance is the same.

2.The current through each load is

wwww

wwww

12 R1 R2

volts determined by its resistance.

4Ω 4Ω

**3. The resistance total of the circuit will
**

always be less than the lowest resistance

in the circuit.

**4. The total current in the circuit will be
**

equal to the sum of the branch currents

through each individual load.

**A Parallel Circuit is considered a Current Dividing Circuit
**

13

Parallel Circuits

**Load resistance determines
**

current through each load

Source Voltage(Sv) is the same thru

R1 R2 both loads.

wwww

wwww

12

volts Resistance Total(Rt) will be less than

4Ω 2Ω

lowest value of individual resistor.

The Total Current (It) in the circuit will

equal the sum of the branch current flow

**E= Electromotive Force (EMF) or Volts
**

R1 R2 R= Resistance or Ohms (Ω )

E

I = Intensity of Current (quantity ), (A),

I= V/R I=V/R ? R or amps (short for amperage)

12 v/ 4Ω =3 amps 12 v/ 2 Ω = 6 amps

14

Parallel Circuits

Total Circuit Resistance will

always be less than the

lowest individual resistance

in the circuit.

R1 R2 Source Voltage(Sv) is the same thru

wwww

wwww

12

volts both loads.

4Ω 2Ω

The Total Current (It) in the circuit will

equal the sum of the branch current flow.

**NOTE: Individual resistor value does not
**

matter in a parallel circuit, only when

calculating current flow thru one load using

ohms law does it matter.

**Rt = (R1 X R2) / (R1 + R2) E= Electromotive Force (EMF) or Volts
**

E R= Resistance or Ohms (Ω )

(4 X 2)=8 / (4+2)=6 I = Intensity of Current (quantity ), (A ),

I R or amps (short for amperage)

8 /6 = 1.33 ohms

15

Parallel Circuits

**Total circuit current equals
**

the sum of the branch

currents

R1 R2

wwww

wwww

12

volts

4Ω 2Ω

Source voltage and the voltage applied

to each load is the same

Load Resistance determines current

3 amps 6 amps though each load

Total circuit resistance less than lowest

load resistance

**It = the sum of the individual branches
**

3+6=9 amps

16

**Parallel Circuit Review
**

Ohm’s Law can be applied to a series circuit to find unknown

values as long as you have at least two of values required to

work the formula and, you remember the following rules for

a parallel circuit.

1. The source voltage and the voltage applied to a load (resistance) is

exactly the same and cannot vary.

**2. The current through each load is determined by the resistance value of
**

each resistor.

**3. The resistance total of the circuit will always be less than the lowest
**

resistors value.

**4. The total current flow in the circuit will be equal to the sum of the
**

branch currents through each resistor.The total current in the circuit

is divided between the loads, therefore, a parallel circuit is sometimes

referred to as a Current Dividing Circuit.

17

Series Parallel Circuits

**Series Parallel Circuit
**

As the name implies, the series-parallel is

a combination of of both types of circuits.

One or more of the loads is in series, while

the others are in parallel.

18

**Series Parallel Circuits
**

Series-Parallel Circuit Rules

12 volts 6 volts 6 volts

WWWW

1. The Resistance Total of the circuit is

Dimmer

equal to the sum of the parallel resistance

plus the series resistance.

wwww

wwww

12

volts 2. The Current in the series portion of the

circuit is equal to the sum of the branch

currents.

**3. The Voltage Drop across the series
**

resistance will reduce the voltage supplied

to the parallel branches.

19

**Series Parallel Circuits
**

The Resistance Total of the circuit

is equal to the sum of the parallel

Series Resistance Set at resistance plus the series resistance.

R1 2 Ohms

WWWW

(R X R )

Dimmer 2 3

R

tp = ------------

(R + R )

2 3

wwww

wwww

12 Parallel Parallel

volts Resistance Resistance

R2 6Ω R3 3Ω (6 Ω X 3 Ω )

R

tp = ---------------

(6 Ω + 3 Ω )

18 Ohms

R

tp

= ---------

9 Ohms

R

tp = 2 Ohms

**Circuit Total Rt = R + R 2 Ω + 2 Ω = 4Ω R = 4 Ohms
**

tp ts t

20

Series Parallel Circuits

**Series Resistance Set at
**

Current in the the series portion of

R1 2 Ohms the circuit is equal to the sum of

WWWW the branch currents.

Dimmer

12

volts

wwww

Parallel Parallel

wwww

Resistance Resistance Sv

R2 6Ω R3 3Ω

I

t = -----

Rt

I 12 Volts

t = ------

4 Ohms

I

t = 3 Amps

21

**Series Parallel Circuits
**

6 Volts Voltage Drop

**The Voltage Drop across the series
**

Series Resistance Set at

resistance will reduce the voltage

R1 2 Ohms 6 volts 6 volts supplied to the parallel branches

WWWW

Dimmer

12

volts

wwww

Parallel Parallel

wwww

**Resistance Resistance Vdr = R X It
**

R2 6Ω R3 3Ω

Vdr = 2 Ohms X 3 Amps

Vdr = 6 Volts

22

**Series Parallel Circuits Review
**

Ohm’s Law can be applied to a series-parallel circuit to find

unknown values as long as you have at least two of values

required to work the formula and, you remember the following

rules for a parallel circuit.

**1. The Resistance Total of the circuit is equal to the sum of the parallel
**

resistance plus the series resistance.

**2. The current in the series portion of the circuit is equal to the sum
**

of the branch currents.

**3. The Voltage Drop across the series resistance will reduce the voltage
**

supplied to the parallel branches.

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