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Management Models

How to Understand and Apply the World's


Most Powerful Business Tools

Fons Trompenaars and


Piet Hein Coebergh

Mc
Graw
Hill
New York Chicago San Francisco Athens London
Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi
Singapore Sydney Toronto

Contents

Preface

xi

Introduction

The Goals of this Book

Evolution of Management Theories and Models

Conceptual Models: Handle with Care

11

Applying Models in Practice

14

Dilemmas

14

PART 1 SUSTAINABILITY

25

Model 1 Stakeholder Management, Edward Freeman (1984)

29

Model 2 Seven Levelsof Sustainability, Richard Barrett (1998)

31

Model 3 The Seven Faces of Mount Sustainability, Ray Anderson (1999)

33

Model 4 The Bottom ofthe Pyramid, C.K. Prahalad (2002)

36

Model 5 Cradle to Cradle, William McDonough and Michael


Braungart (2002)

38

Model 6 The Sustainable Value Framework, Stuart Hart and


Mark Milstein (2003)

40

Model 7 Multiple Stakeholder Sustainability, FonsTrompenaars and Peter


Woolliams (2010)
43
Reflections on Sustainability

47

PART 2 INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP

73

Model 8

Flow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1975)

77

Model 9

Adaption-Innovation Inventory, Michael Kirton (1976)

79

Model 10 The Entrepreneurial Process, JeffryTimmons (1989)

81

Modeln DisruptiveInnovation,ClaytonChristensen(1995)

84

Model 12 Serious Play, Michael Schrge (1999)

86

100+ MANAGEMENT MODELS


Model 13 Open Innovation, Hienry Chesbrough (2003)

88

Model 14 Reverse Innovation, Vijay Govindarajan (2009)

91

Reflections on Innovation and Entrepreneurship


PART 3 STRATEGY AND P0SITI0NING

93
123

Model 15 Product/Market Growth Matrix, Igor Ansoff (1957)

127

Model 16 3C: Company, Customer, Competition, Kenichi Ohmae (1975)

129

Model 17 Crafting Strategy, Henry Mintzberg (1978)

132

Modell 8 Five Forces, Michael Porter (1979)

134

Model 19 75:Tom Peters, Robert Waterman, Julien Phillips (1980)

136

Model 20 Gore Competencies, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad (1990)

138

Model 21 Brand Equity, David Aaker (1991)

141

Model 22 Value Discipline, MichaelTreacy and Fred Wiersema (1993)

143

Model 23 Blue Ocean Strategy, W. Chan Kim and Ren6e Mauborgne (2005) 145
Reflections on Strategy and Positioning

149

PART 4 DIVERSITY 0F CULTURES

177

Model 24 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Isabel Briggs Myers and


Katharine Cook Briggs (1962)

181

Model 25 Corporate Culture, Charles Handy and Roger Harrison (1976)

183

Model 26 Hofstede's Cultural Dimension;, Geert Hofstede (1980)

186

Model 27 Belbin's Team Roles, Meredith Beibin (1981)

188

Model 28 Competing Values Framework (CVF), Robert Quinn and


Kim Cameron (1981)

190

Model 29 Three Levels of Culture, Edgar Schein (1985)

193

Model 30 Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS),


Milton Bennett (1986)

195

Model 31 Spiral Dynamics, Don Beck and Chris Cowan (1996)

198

Model 32 Seven Dimension; of Culture, Fons Trompenaars and


Charles Hampden-Turner (1993)

201

Model 33 The ColourTheory of Change, Lon de Caluwe and


Hans Vermaak (2006)

204

Reflections on Diversity and Culture

vi

207

CONTENTS
PART 5 CUSTOMERS
Model 34 Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), Milton Rokeach (1973)

241

Model 35 Consumer Behaviour, John Howard and JagdishSheth (1969)

243

Model 36 3RsRetail, Reputation, Relationship, Corstiaan Marinus


Storm (1987)

246

Model 37 Strategie Purchasing, Peter Kraljic (1983)

248

Model 38 Total Perceived Service Quality, Christian Grnroos (1984)

250

Model 39 Customer Satisfaction, Noriaki Kano (1984)

252

Model 40 Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), Richard Petty and


John Cacioppo (1986)

254

Model 41 Service-Profit Chain, James Heskett, Thomas Jones,


Gary Loveman, Earl Sasser and Leonard Schlesinger (1994)

257

Model 42 Customer Loyalty, Thomas Jones and Earl Sasser (1995)

259

Model 43 Six Stages of Social Business Transformation, Charlene Li and


Brian Solls (2013)

261

Reflections on Customers

265

PART 6 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

291

Model 44 Gainsharing, Joseph Scanion (1948)

294

Model 45 Two-FactorTheory, Frederick Herzberg (1959)

296

Model46 TheoryXandTheoryY, DouglasMcGregor(1960)

299

Model 47 Evolutionary Growth of Organizations, Larry Greiner (1972)

301

Model 48 AMO: Abilities, Motivation, Opportunities, Thomas Bailey (1993) 303


Model 49 HRM Roles, David Ulrich (1997)

306

Model 50 The Happiness Factory, Maurits Bruel and Clemens Colson (1998) 309
Model 51 Contextually Based HR Theory, Jaap Paauwe (2004)

311

Model 52 Competence-Based Employability, Claudia van der Heijde and


Beatrice van der Heijden (2006)

314

Reflections on Human Resource Management

317

PART 7 BENCHMARKING AND RESULTS

343

Model 53 Management by Objectives, Peter Drucker (1954)

346

Model 54 BCG Matrix, Bruce Henderson (1968)

348

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100+MANAGEMENT MODELS
Model 55 GE-McKinsey Matrix, General Electric and McKinsey
Consulting (1971)

350

Model 56 The Value Chain, Michael Porter (1985)

352

MOdel 57 Identity and Image, Klaus Birkigt and Marinus Stadler (1986)

354

Model 58 Business Process Management (BPM), Michael Hammer (1990)

357

Model 59 Balanced Scorecard, Robert Kaplan and David Norton (1992)

359

Model 60 Social Media ROI Pyramid, Jeremiah Owyang (2010)

361

Reflections on Benchmarking and Results

365

PART 8 LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATION

395

Model 61 Managerial Grid, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1964)

398

Model 62 Situational Leadership, Paul Hersey and Kenneth


Blanchard (1969)

401

Model 63 Servant Leadership, Robert Greenleaf (1970)

403

Model 64 8-Step Change, John Kotter

405

Model 65 Situational Crisis Communication Theory, Timothy


Coombs (1995)

408

Model 66 Level 5 Leadership, Jim Collins (2001)

411

Model 67 Cynefin, David Snowden and Mary Boone (2007)

413

Model 68 Communication and Employee Engagement, Mary Welch (2011) 416


Reflections on Leadership and Communication

419

PART 9 MODELS F0R IMPLEMENTATION

455

Model 69 Ethos, Pathos, Logos, Aristotle (350 BC)

458

Model 70 AIDA, Elias St. Elmo Lewis (1898)

460

Model 71 DuPont Model, Frank Donaldson Brown (1914)

462

Model 72 Continuous Improvement, William Edwards Deming (1948)

464

Model 73 Brainstorming, Alex Osborn (1953)

466

Model 74 Leary's Rose, Timothy Leary (1957)

468

Model 75 Bi-sociation, Arthur Koestler (1964)

470

Model 76 Small Group Development, BruceTuckman (1965)

472

Model 77 360-Degree Feedback, Edward Lawler (1967)

474

Model 78 Lateral Thinking, Edward de Bono (1967)

476

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CONTENTS
Model 79 The Conscious Competence Ladder, Lewis Robinson (1974)

478

Model 80 FCB Grid, Richard Vaughn (1980)

480

'

Model 81 SWOT, Heinz Weihrich (1982)

482

Model 82 Means-End Analysis, Jonathan Gutman (1982)

484

Model 83 Learning Style Inventory, David A. Kolb (1984)

486

Model 84 Six Principles of Influence, Robert Cialdini (1984)

488

Model 85 Serum, Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka (1986)

490

Model 86 The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, Stephen


Covey (1989)

492

Model 87 Benchmarking, Robert Camp (1989)

494

Model 88 EFQM Excellence Model, The European Foundation for Quality


Management (EFQM) (1991)

496

Model 89 Strategie Dialogue, Mathieu de Vaan, Steven ten Have and


Wouter ten Have (1996)

498

Model 90 Strategie Personnel Flanning, Gerard Evers and Cornelis


Verhoeven (1999)

500

Model 91 Mapping, Bridging, Integrating (MBI), Joseph DiStefano and


Martha Maznevski (2000)

502

Model 92 Yellow Box, Mark Raison (2002)

504

Model 93 Elements of Website User Experience, Jesse James Garrett (2002) 506
Model 94 MDA Design for "Gamification,"Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc
and Robert Zubek (2004)

508

Model 95 Business Model Canvas, Alexander Osterwalder (2008)

510

Model 96 Sustainability Roadmap, Ram Nidumolu, C.K. Prahalad and M.R.


Rangaswami (2009)
512
Model 97 Balancing Transparency, Piet Hein Coebergh and
Edi Cohen (2009)

514

Model 98 Blue Leadership, Jan Moen and Paul Ansems

516

Model 99 The Blue Economy, Gunter Pauli (2010)

518

Model 100 Eight Routes for Culture Change, Jaap Boonstra (2013)

520

Reflections on Models for Implementation

523

Conclusion

525

Aboutthe Authors

531

OurThanks

532
ix

100+ MANAGEMENT MODELS


Bibliography

533

Sources for the Visualizations of Models

559

Index

567