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MATH

© All Rights Reserved

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This equation has infinitely many solution. When we consider two linear equation together then

we say it a system of two variable x and y. such as.

5x + 3y + 2 = 0

2x - 3y + 5 = 0

Algebraic solution of system of linear equation:

1. Elimination by substitution:

Let us consider a system of linar equations:

x = (1 + 7y)/2

Putting the value of x in e.q. (2) we get

Or, 2 + 14y + 3y = 15

Or, 17y = 13

Or, y = 13/17

Putting value of y in eq (1) we get

Or, 2x = 1 + 91/17

Or, 2x = (17+91)/17

Or, x = 108/34

Or, x = 54/17

2. Elimination by equating:

Let us consider a system of equations:

----------------- (3)

and from eq. (2) we get

----------------- (4)

From (3) and (4) we get

or, 11x = 33

or, x = 3

Putting x = 3 in (3) we get

= 20/5

=4

Let us consider a system of equations:

x - 5y = 11 ----------(1)

2x + 3y = -4 ---------(2)

Multiplying equation (1) by 2 and then subtracting eq. (2) from this we get

Or, y = -2

Patting y = -2 in eq (1) we get

x = -5 (-2) = 11

Or, x + 10 = 11

Or, x = 1

<br/>

4. Solution by cross Multiplication:

Let us consider a system of equations:

Or,

Here we see that (3) and (4) are linear equation in one variable only.

Provided

and

and combining these two we get

When

value of x and y. if

to fine the

then

and

If

Or,

Or,

Which is equation (1). Here we see that every solution of equation (1) is a solution of equation

(2) hence the system has infinite solutions.

If

Or,

Or, k (-c1) + c2 = 0

Or, C2 = KC1

But this is not true. Therefore, no solution exists.

The system of equations

i. e; if

has no solution if

Solution :

Here ,

and a1b2 - a2b1

=1 x 2 - 3 x (-4)

= 2 + 12

=

The system has unique solution.

Or,

Or,

Or, x = 28/14 = 2,

Or, y = 56/14 = 4

Example 2. Find the value of p for which the following system of eqation have exactly one

solution:

Hence, the system of equations have exactly one solution for all value of a except 6.

Or, x = a

Putting x = a in equation (1) we get

x = a, y = b.

Alternative Method:-

Or, 19/v = 38

Or, 36 v = 19

Or, v = 19/38

Or, v = 1/2

Putting v = 1/2 in (1) we get

Or, 22 - 7/u = 1

Or, 21 = 7/u

Or, 21u = 7

Or, u = 7/21

Or, u = 1/3

Or, 15u = 15

u=1

Putting u = 1 in equation on (1)

Or. 2/v = 4/3

Or, 4v = 6

Or, v = 6/4

Or, v = 3/2

11/u = 1

Or, u = 11

Or,

Putting u = 11 in (1) we get

Or,

Adding (5) and (6) we get

2x = 16

x=8

Putting x = 8 in (5) we get

8 + y = 11

y=3

Solution:-

Example 8. Find the value of a and b for which the following system of equations has infinitely

many solution; [2002 C, D]

Solution:-

5b - 10 = -9

5b = -9 + 10 = 1

b = 1/5

Example 9. Determine the value of k so that the following linear equations have no solution:

Solution:-

For no solution,

Or, 3k2 - 5k - 2 = 3k2 + 3

Or, -5k = 5

Or, k = -1

Exercise - 1

1. For what value of k will the following system of linear equations have no solution?

3x + y = 1, (2k - 1)x + (k - 1)y = 2k +1

2. Determine the value of c for which the following system of linear equations has no solution:

cx + 3y = 3; 12x + cy = 6

3. For what value of k will the system of equations

x + 2y = 5; 3x + ky + 15 = 0

has (i) unique solution (ii) no solution.

4. For what value of k, the following system of equations have (i) a unique solution, (ii) no

solutions:

kx + 2y = 5; 3x - 4y = 10

5. Find the value of a and b for which the following system of linear equations has infinite

numbers of solutions:

2x - 3y = 7

(a + b)x - (a + b - 3)y = 4a + b.)

Solve the following system of linear equations

6. For the value of k, for which the following system of linear equations has in finite number of

solutions:

2x + 3y = 7

(k - 1) x + (k +2)y = 3k

solve the following system of linear equations:

7. 3x - 5y = -1, x - y = -1

8. x + y = 7, 5x + 12y = 7

9. 3x - 4y = 1, 4x - 3y = 6

10. x + y/2 = 4, x/3 + 2y = 5

11. x/3 + y/4 = 4, 5x/6 - y/8 = 4

12. 2/x + 2/3y = 1/6, 3/x + 2/y = 0

13. 2u + 15v = 17uv, 5u + 5v = 36uv

14. 3(a + 3b) = 11ab, 3(2a +b) = 7ab

15. 2x/a + y/b = 2, x/a - y/b = 4

16. x/a - y/b = 0, ax + by = a2 + b2

17. (a - b)x + (a +b)y = a2 - 2ab - b2, (a +b) (x + y) = a2 + b2

18. x/a + y/b = a +b, x/a2 + y/b2 = 2

19. ax + by = c, bx + ay = 1 + c

20. x + y = a - b, ax - by = a2 + b2

Answers

(1) 2

(4) (i)

(2) 6

(ii)

(3) (i)

(ii)

(5) a = -5, b = -1

(6) 7

(7) -2, -1

(8) 11, -4

(9) 3, 2

(10) 3, 2

(11) 6, 8

(12) 6, -4

(13) 5, 1/7

(14) 1, 3/2

(16) a, b

+ b)

(18) a2, b2

Solution: To draw the graphic of equations (1) and (2) we find three solutions of each of the

equations (1) and (2)

Or,

-2

-1

-3

Now we plot the print (1, -1) (-2, -3) and (4, 1). After joining we get a straight line.

And 3x + 4y + 1 = 0

-3

-1

-4

Again we plot the point (1, -1), (-3, 2) and ((5, -4) on the same graph paper and join then.

Now, we get see that the lines of these two equations intersect at (1, -1).

. Is the solution of the system of equations.

When

When

When

x

-3

1.5

-0.5

3.5

We plot the point (0, 1.5) (3, -0.5) and (-3, 3.5) on a graph paper and join them which is a straight

line.

And 2x +3y = -11

When

When

When

x

-1

y

-4

-3

>2

-1

-5

Again we plot the points (-1, -3), (-4, -1) and (2, -5) on the same graph paper and join then we

get a straight line which is parallel to previous line. The lines do not intersect and hence we get

no solution.

When

When

When

x

y

1

-2

3

-1

5

0

We plot the points (1, -2), (3, -1) and (5, 0) on a graph paper and join them. We get a straight

line.

Now, we take equation

When x = 1, y = -2

When x = 3, y = -1

When x = 5, y = 0.

We see the points are same as in equation (1). Hence these points line on the previous line. If we

consider the joins of these points separately, we can say that one line is totally covered by the

other hence: there are infinitely many solution of the system of equation.

and

Deter mine the vertices of the triangle formed by the lines representing these equations and the xaxils. Shade the triangular region so formed.

Solution: - Let us take the equation

When,

When,

When,

x

y

o

-4

1

0

2

4

We plot the points (0, -4), (1, 0) and (2, 4) on the graph paper and join them. We get a straight

line. Now we take the line AB.

4x + y = 121

When x = 2, y = 12 - 4 x 2 = 4

When x = 3, y = 12 - 4 x 3 = 0

When x = 4, y = 12 - 4 x 4 = -4.

-4

We plot the points (2, 4) (3, 0) and (4, -4) on the same graph paper. on joining them we get a line

CD which intersect previous line AB. at P (2, 4)

AB intersects the x-axis at (1, 0) and CD intersects the x-axis at (3, 0)

Hence the vertices of the triangle PBD are (2, 4), (1, 0) and (3, 0) . The required region is shaded.

1. Solve the following system of equations graphically:

<br/>

(i) 2x + 3y +5 = 0

3x - 2y -12 = 0

(ii) 2x + 3y =12

x-y=1

(iii) 3x + 2y = 9

2x - y + 1 = 0

(iv) 2x + 3y = 6

4x + 6y = 24

(v) 5x - y - 7 = 0

x-y+1=0

(vi) 2x + 3y - 1 = 0

(x + 3/2) y - 2 = 0

2. Solve the following system of linear equations graphically and then find the points where the

lines meet y-axis:

(i) 2x + y - 5 = 0

(ii) 2x - y - 5 = 0

x+y-3=0

x-y-3=0

(iii) 3x + y - 5 = 0

2x - y - 5 = 0

(iv) 2x + 3y -12 = 0

2x - y - 4 = 0

(v) 2x + y - 11 = 0

x-y-1=0

(vi) 2x - y = 1

x + 2y = 8

3. Solve the following system of linear equations graphically and shade the area bounded by

these lines and y-axis:

(i) x + 2y - 7 = 0

2x - y - 4 = 0

(ii) x - y = 1

2x + y = 8

(iii) 3x + y - 11 = 0

x - y -1 = 0

(iv) 2x - y = 8

8x + 3y = 24

There are some practical problems which can be sowed by reducing then to linear equations and

then sowing then. Let us try to solve some of them;

Example 14. Five years ago, Neeta was trice as old as Reeta. Ten years later, Neeta will be twice

as old as Reeta, How old are Neeta and Reeta now?

Solution:- Let present age of Neeta be x years and that of Reeta be y years.

5 years ago age of Neeta = x - 5

and 5 years ago age of Reeta = y - 5

10 years later age of Reeta = y + 10

Or,

Subtracting equation (1) from equation (2) we get

x - 2 x 20 - 10 - 0

x - 50 = 0

x = 50

Age of Neeta = 50 years and age of Reeta = 20 years

Example 15.Three chairs and two tables cost Rs 1850. Five chairs and three tables cost Rs 2850.

Find the cost of two chairs and two tables.

Solutions:- Let price of one chair be Rs. x and price of one table be Rs. y.

Price of 3 chairs and 2 tables is 3x + 2y

and price of 5 chairs and 3 tables is 5x + 3y

Multiplying equation (1) be 2 and equation (2) by 3 and then subtracting (2) from (1) we get

Example 16. The sum of two digit number and the number obtained by reversing the order of its

digit is 99. If the digits differ by 3, find the number.

Solution: Let the digit at unit's place be x and that at tens place be y .

Original number = 10y + x

Reversed number = 10x + y

Also,

When x - y = 3 ---------------- (2)

and x + y = 9

Adding we get 2x = 12

= 36

When x - y = -3 ------------------ (3)

Adding (1) and (3) we get

and from (1) we get y = 6

Original number = 10y + x

= 63

Hence the number is 36 or 63.

Example 17. A person can row downstream 20 km in 2 hours and upstream 4 km in 2 hours.

Find mans speed of rowing is still water and the speed of the current.

Solution:- Let mans speed of rowing be x km/h and speed of the current y km/h

Down stream speed = x + y

and upstream speed = x - y

Or, x + y = 10 -------------------(1)

and (x - y) x 2 = 4

Or, x - y = 2 ---------------------(2)

Adding (1) and (2) we get 2x = 12 Or, x = 6

Putting x = 6 in (1) we get 6 + y = 10 Or y = 4

Speed of man =6km/h and speed of current =4km/h

Example 18. The sum of the munerator and denominator of a fraction is 3 less than twice the

denominator. If the numerator and denominator are decreased by 1, the numerator becomes half

the denominator. Determine the fraction.

A/Q x + y = 2y - 3

or, x - y + 3 = 0 -------------(1)

and x - 1 = 1/2(y - 1)

or, 2x - y - 1 = 0 ---- -----(2)

Subtracting equation (1) form (2) we get

x=4

From (1) 4 - y + 3 = 0

y=7

Fraction = x/y = 4/7

Example 19. Two places A and B are 120 km apart from each other on a highway. A car starts

from A B and another from B at the same time. If they move in the same direction, they meet in 6

hours and if they move in opposite directions, they meet in 1 hour and 12 minutes. Find the

speeds of the cars.

Solution: - Let the speed of car at A be X km/h and speed of car at B be y km/h

Distance covered by car at A in 6 hours = 6x

and distance covered by car at B in 6 hours = 6y

Adding (1) and (2) we get

2x = 120

x = 60

Putting x = 60 in (2) we get y = 40

Speeds of car are 60 km/h & 40 km/h.

Example 21. Aftab tells his daughter, Seven years ago, I was seven times as old as you were

then . Also, three years from now, I shall be three times as old as you will be. Represent this

situation algebraically and graphically.

Solution :- Let the present age of Aftab be x and that of his daughter y.

7 years ago, age of Aftab = x - 7 and age of his daughter = y - 7.

According to question,

Or,

x - 7 = 7(y - 7)

According to question,

Or,

x + 3 = 3(y + 3)

To represent graphically, draw the graph. The points are given below:

For equation (1) :-&

14

12

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