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CHAPTER: 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 OVERVIEW
Leaves fall every autumn and then the major clean-up around- the-yard process begins. But
if the leaves you collect could be repurposed and made into fire logs instead of making their
way into the seasonal yard waste collection trucks. It is common knowledge that dry leaves
burn easily, so an economical home heating solution is to make fire logs from them. We took
the concept to action by developing the low-profile, renewable and energy-efficient Leaf Log.
You can save a lot of money by making your own fire logs with leaves from your backyard.
Leaf Logs are environmentally friendly Eco log products, a renewable and sustainable source
of energy in the form of solid fuel which is suitable for homes and industry.
Leaf log products offer a number of benefits, they are:

Easy to use/light :- Simply place any Leaf log product on the grate, light the bag and
sit back and enjoy the warmth of a real fire. Providing immediate ignition from an
open flame, the ecologs require no kindling or firelighters and produce a clean smoke
free flame.

Clean: - Our ecologs are very clean with a low ash residue, the fine dust which is left
(less than 1%) can then be used to fertilize gardens.

Versatile: - The Leaf log ecology range can be used on wood burning /multi fuel
stoves, chimneys and for recreational use such as camp fires.

Easy to handle and store: - Our eco logs are conveniently wrapped in old
newspapers. Each log weighs approx. 200grams and a dozen will last indefinitely if
stored in a dry place.

Value for money: - Independent test results of Leaf Log provided a net calorific value
of 27,840 kJ per kg proving that Leaf Log burns as hot as coal and 3 times longer than
wood (weight for weight).
Cost effective:-The Leaf log ecologs range is competitively priced. When the cost of
the coal plus the periphery requirements such as firelighters and kindling are added
on, our ecologs are much cheaper than other fuels in price comparisons.

Ethical: - There are other natural products on the market, such as soft or hardwood
logs. However, unlike our ecologs, for those products to exist, something has to die.
Even some logs made of sawdust are made directly from trees that have been cut
down in order to produce the logs.

Environmentally friendly: - Independent tests revealed less than 1% sulphur content


in each ecolog. As the Leaf Log range uses foliage, they are 70% carbon neutral

which automatically places it as a kinder alternative to burning conventional fuels


such as wood and coal.
Unlike some other sawdust or straw based products that still need chemical based
Products such as paraffin fire lighters to light them, the Leaf Log products ignite immediately
from an open flame, just light the bag.

1.2 SCOPE OF WORK


The Leaf Log ecolog range is 70% carbon neutral which automatically places it as a kinder
alternative to burning conventional fuels such as wood and coal. There is a huge need for
Governments and individuals globally to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels and to find
alternative renewable and sustainable fuels from more natural resources within the
environment. India provides 7% of total annual coal production. It is the 5 th largest coal
consumer in the world. Total annual production of coal in India is 222.4 million tons of oil
equivalents and consumption is 295.6 million tons of oil equivalents. Based on this
information, India consumes more coal than it currently produces and therefore it has to
import.In addition, deforestation accounts for 25% of CO2 emissions across the globe.
Deforestation costs more than global banking meltdown and researchers from The Economics
of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) project have told the World Conservation Congress
that the disappearance of the worlds forests costs between $2 trillion and $5 trillion each
year more than the current Wall Street estimate of losses since the start of the global banking
crisis.
But we no longer need to cut down trees for fuel, nor do we need to use valuable land space
to grow crops for fuel as leaves are naturally produced every year without fail. Leaf Log
takes what would currently be regarded as green waste into a sustainable and environmentally
friendly bio fuel. Leaf log use waste leaves sourced from stockpiles. Turning the annual leaf
collection (thousands of tonnes) into Leaf Log not only eliminates the need to landfill this
organic waste, but also reduces the release of methane gas into the environment when the
foliage is decomposing in landfills. Methane gas is twenty times more harmful than carbon
dioxide which significantly contributes to climate change.
Using a renewable energy source like the Leaf Log ecology product range reduces the
planets dependence on energy sources that significantly contribute to climate change, which
is of course at present a very prominent concern for future generations.Nothing needs to die
for Leaf logs to exist. The Leaf Logs ecologs consist purely of dried leaves which have been
gathered from parks and other locations, this product will burn for up three hours
independently. Nothing needs to die for this product to exist and each year nature provides us
with an abundance of leaves. Typically, dead leaves are dumped in masses in landfills and
one of the problems with leaving wet leaves to decompose like this is that they give off
methane (a 20 times more poisonous gas than carbon dioxide). In contrast, when leaves are
burnt, they only give off the carbon they absorb while on the tree they add nothing extra to
the environment.
Leaf Log ecologs do not cost more to the end user than any other manufactured heat log.
When the cost of the coal plus the additional requirements such as firelighters and kindling
are added on, Leaf Log ecologs are much cheaper than other fuels in price comparisons. Test
results of Leaf Log provided a net calorific value of 27,840 kJ per kg proving that Leaf Log
burns as hot as coal and 3 times longer than wood (weight for weight).
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1.3 SURVEY
Why we should not burn leaves:

Because of the moisture that is usually trapped within leaves, they tend to burn slowly
and thus generate large amounts of airborne particulatesfine bits of dust, soot and
other solid materials. These particulates can reach deep into lung tissue and cause:
coughing, wheezing, chest pain, shortness of breath and sometimes long-term
respiratory problems.
Leaf smoke contains hazardous compounds such as:
1. Carbon Monoxide This can bind with haemoglobin in the bloodstream and reduce
the amount of oxygen in the blood and lungs.
2. Benzopyrene - This has been believed to be a major factor in lung cancer caused by
cigarette smoke.
Breathing in leaf smoke can irritate the eyes, nose and throat of healthy adults, it can
really wreak havoc on small children, the elderly and people with asthma or other
lung or heart diseases.

There are various alternatives to burning:

Mulching of Leaves
Soil Enrichment, Water Conservation, Insulation and Mulch prevents compaction and
erosion of soils from wind and rain.

Composting

Put Leaves out for collection

Or use Leaf Packing Machine

CHAPTER: 2
INTRODUCTION TO MECHANISMS
2.1 CONCEPT OF DEGREE OF FREEDOM
In the design or analysis of a mechanism, one of the most important concern is
the number of degrees of freedom (also called movability) of the mechanism. It is defined as
the no. of input parameters which must be independently controlled in order to bring the
mechanism into a useful engineering Purpose.

Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body in a Plane


The degree of freedom (DOF) of a rigid body is defined as the no. of independent
movements.
Figure shows a rigid body in a plane. To determine the DOF of this body we must consider
how many distinct ways the bar can be moved. In a two dimensional plane, the bar can be
translated along the x axis, translated along the y axis and rotated about its centroid.

Fig 1: Rigid body in plane

Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body in Space


An unrestrained rigid body in space has six degrees of freedom:
Three translating motions along the x ,y and z axes and three rotary motions around the x ,y
and z axes respectively.

Fig 2: Rigid body in space


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2.2 KUTZBACH CRITERION EQUATION


Consider a plane mechanism with l number of links. Since in a mechanism one of the links is
to be fixed, therefore the number of movable links will be (l-1) and thus the total number of
degrees of freedom will be 3(n-1) before they are connected to any other link. In general, a
mechanism with l number of links connected by j number of binary points or lower pairs (i.e.
single degree of freedom pairs) and h number of higher pairs (i.e. two degree of freedom
pairs) , then the number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is given by
n = 3(l-1)-2j-h

-equation 1

This equation is called Kutzbach criterion for the movability of a mechanism having plane
motion. If there are no two degree of freedom pairs (i.e. higher pairs), then h=0, substituting
h=0 in equation 1, we have
n=3(l-1)-2j

2.3 FOUR BAR CHAIN MECHANISM


The simplest and the basic kinematic chain is a four bar chain or quadratic cycle chain, as
shown in below figure. It consists of four links p, q, l and s, each of them forms a turning
pair. The four links may be of different lengths. According to Grasshofs law for a four bar
mechanism, the sum of the shortest and longest link lengths should not be greater than the
sum of the remaining two link lengths if there is to be continuous relative motion between the
two links.

Fig 3: Four bar chain mechanism


According to Grasshofs law for a four bar mechanism, the sum of the shortest and longest
link lengths should not be greater than the sum of the remaining two link lengths if there is to
be continuous relative motion between the two links. A very important consideration in
designing a mechanism is to ensure that the input crank makes a complete revolution relative
to the other links. The mechanism in which no link makes a complete revolution will not be
useful. In a four bar chain, one of the links, in particular the shortest link, will make a
complete revolution relative to the other three links, if it satisfies the Grasshofs law. Such a
link is known as crank or driver.
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2.4 SINGLE SLIDER CRANK MECHANISM


A single slider crank chain is a modification of the basic four bar chain. It consists of one
sliding pair and three turning pair. It is, usually, found in reciprocating steam engine
mechanism. This type of mechanism converts rotary motion into reciprocating motion and
vice versa.

Fig 4: Single Slider Crank Mechanism


In single slider crank chain, as shown in below fig the links 1 and 2, links 2and 3,
and links 3 and 4 form three turning pairs while the links 4 and 1 form a sliding pair. The link
1 corresponds to the frame of the engine, which is fixed. The link 2 corresponds to the crank,
link 3 corresponds to the connecting rod and link 4 corresponds to cross-head. As the crank
rotates the cross-head reciprocates in the guides and thus the piston reciprocates in the
cylinder.

DEGREE OF FREEDOM OF DIFFERENT LINKS

LINK

MATERIAL

DEGREE OF
FREEDOM

CRANK
(crank pedal arm of a

Chromoly Steel

1
(Rotational motion along x
direction)

Mild steel electro galvanised

2
(Translation motion along x
and y direction)

Carbon Steel
Sheet Metal

0
(neither translation motion
nor rotation motion along
any direction)

Wood
Iron
Sheet Metal

1
(Translation motion along x
direction)

bicycle)
COUPLER
(made up of hand pump rod)

FIXED LINK
Bicycle frame
cuboid

SLIDER
Wooden block
Rod
Cuboidal piston

Table 1: Links and their Degree of Freedom

2.5 DEGREE OF FREEDOM OF WHOLE SYSTEM


The degree of freedom of the slider crank mechanism as a whole system can be found out by
Kutzbach Criterion Equation given below
n = 3(L-1)-2j-h
where,
L= no. of link
j= no. of binary joint
h= no. of higher pair

In the four bar slider crank mechanism,


There are 4 links, i.e. fixed link, crank, coupler and slider. Hence, L=4
There are 4 binary joint present , j=4
There are 0 higher pair, h=0
Hence, according to Kutzbach Criterion Equation
n=3(4-1)-2(4)-0
n=1

Hence for slider crank mechanism, the degree of freedom is 1


Kinematic Pair
The following kinematic pair is used in the slider crank mechanism
1) Turning pair
2) Sliding pair
There are three turning pair and one sliding pair
The turning pair is present in between the following links
1) Bicycle frame (fixed) and Crank pedal arm
2) Crank pedal Arm and coupler
3) Coupler and wooden block
The sliding pair is present in between the piston and the metal sheet cuboid.

2.6 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS ON LEAF-LOG MECHANISM


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AC MOTOR
An AC motor is an electric motor driven by an alternating current (AC). The AC motor
commonly consists of two basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with
alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the
output shaft producing a second rotating magnetic field. The rotor magnetic field may be
produced by permanent magnets, reluctance saliency, or DC or AC electrical windings.

Fig 5: AC Motor
An industrial type of AC motor with electrical terminal box at the top and output rotating
shaft on the left. Such motors are widely used for pumps, blowers, conveyors and other
industrial machinery. Less commonly, linear AC motors operate on similar principles as
rotating motors but have their stationary and moving parts arranged in a straight line
configuration, producing linear motion instead of rotation.

OPERATING PRINCIPLE
AC motors operate with two rotating (or moving) magnetic fields on the rotor and stator
respectively. Pulling or pushing the poles of the two magnetic fields along, the speed of the
stator rotating magnetic field (Ws) and the speed of the rotor rotating magnetic field (Wr),
which is relative to the speed of the mechanical shaft (Wm), must maintain synchronism for
average torque production by satisfying the synchronous speed relation (i.e., Ws Wr =
Wm). Otherwise, asynchronously rotating magnetic fields would produce pulsating or nonaverage torque.

The two main types of AC motors are classified as:1) Induction Motor
2) Synchronous Motor

1) Induction Motor
The induction motor (or asynchronous motor) always relies on a small difference in speed
between the stator rotating magnetic field and the rotor shaft speed called slip to
induce rotor current in the rotor AC winding. As a result, the induction motor cannot
produce torque about synchronous speed where induction (or slip) is irrelevant or ceases
to exist. In contrast, the synchronous motor does not rely on slip-induction for operation
and uses either permanent magnets, salient poles (having projecting magnetic poles), or
an independently excited rotor winding.

2) Synchronous Motor
The synchronous motor produces its rated torque at exactly synchronous speed. The
brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed synchronous motor system has an independently
excited rotor winding that does not rely on the principles of slip-induction of current. The
brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed motor is a synchronous motor that can function exactly
at the supply frequency or sub to super multiple of the supply frequency.

Other types of motors include eddy current motors, and also AC/DC mechanically
commutated machines in which speed is dependent on voltage and winding connection.
The rpm of an AC motor can be calculated with the help of tachometer
The tip of tachometer can be connected to the shaft of an AC motor to determine the rpm.
Hence,
The rpm of ac motor = 1480

The rotor of an AC motor is directly connected to the rear tires of the cycle with the help of a
pulley.
The rear tyre of the cycle is rotating with an rpm of 138 when the pulley is made in direct
contact with the rear tyre. The rpm of tyre can be noted down with the help of tachometer.
Now, to calculate the rpm of crank, it is compulsory to calculate the gear ratio.

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GEAR RATIO
The gear ratio of a gear train, also known as its speed ratio, is the ratio of the angular velocity
of the input gear to the angular velocity of the output gear. The gear ratio can be calculated
directly from the numbers of teeth on the gears in the gear train. The torque ratio of the gear
train, also known as its mechanical advantage, is determined by the gear ratio. The speed
ratio and mechanical advantage are defined so they yield the same number in an ideal
linkage.

GEAR TRAIN WITH TWO GEARS


The simplest example of a gear train has two gears. The "input gear" (also known as drive
gear) transmits power to the "output gear" (also known as driven gear). The input gear will
typically be connected to a power source, such as a motor or engine. In such an example, the
power output of the output (driven) gear depends on the ratio of the dimensions of the two
gears.

Formula
The teeth on gears are designed so that the gears can roll on each other smoothly (without
slipping or jamming). In order for two gears to roll on each other smoothly, they must be
designed so that the velocity at the point of contact of the two pitch circles (represented by v)
is the same for each gear.
Mathematically, if the input gear GA has the radius rA and angular velocity
with output gear GB of radius rB and angular velocity
, then,

, and meshes

The number of teeth on a gear is proportional to the radius of its pitch circle, which means
that the ratios of the gears' angular velocities, radii, and number of teeth are equal.
Where NA is the number of teeth on the input gear and NB is the number of teeth on the output
gear, the following equation is formed:

This shows that a simple gear train with two gears has the gear ratio R given by

11

This equation shows that if the number of teeth on the output gear GB is larger than the
number of teeth on the input gear GA, then the input gear GA must rotate faster than the output
gear GB.

This gear ratio can be determined by calculating the number of teeth in the front sprocket and
the rear sprocket.

Now, number of teeth in rear sprocket= 44


Number of teeth in front sprocket= 16
Now, to calculate the rpm of crank, the following method of gear ratio will be used
Rpm of crank= (16/44)*138
i.e., rpm of crank = 50

Fig 6: RPM of crank

12

Now, to calculate force on each member of the link, first we will draw the layout of the
mechanism,

Fig 7: Layout of Mechanism

Here, Link 1 represents the fixed frame which includes the frame of bicycle and the support
on which the cuboidal cylinder is mounted.
Link 2 represents the crank of the mechanism which is the crank pedal arm of the bicycle.
Link 3 represents the connecting rod.
Link 4 represents the slider which compromises a wooden block, an iron rod and the cuboidal
piston of wood.
Let be the angle between the crank and the fixed link and be the angle between the
connecting rod and the slider.

Now, the dimensions of the following links are as follows


Crank radius= 0.19m
Length of connecting rod=0.24m

The force on each individual links is given below


The force on link 2 is as follows
It consists of F12 and F32 which are at a distance of h apart.

13

Fig 8: Force on Link 2

Here, force F12 and F32 form a couple which is equal to the applied torque and the
perpendicular distance between these two forces is h.
Force F12 is the force applied by the link 1 on links 2 and the force F32 is the force applied
by the link 3 on link 2.

The force on link 3 is as follows

Fig 9: Force on Link 3

The forces F23 and F43 are of same magnitude which is acting along the same line and are in
opposite direction
Force F23 is applied by the link 2 on link 3 and is equal to the force F32, force F43 is applied
by the link 4 on link 3.

14

The force on slider link 4 is as follows

Fig 10: Force on Link 4

Here, F34 is the force applied by link 3 on link 4 which is equal to the F43 and the force F14
is applied by the fixed link 1 on slider 4, normal force and F is the force which is applied on
the piston i.e., piston effort.

Calculation part
Now, the rpm of an AC motor=1480
Power of an ac motor= 373 W
Therefore, torque produced by the motor is given by the following formula
P = T

i.e.

P= (2NT60)
373 = (21480T) 60
Therefore, T = 2.41Nm
The rpm of rear tyre having diameter of 0.72m is made in direct contact with a pulley of
diameter of 0.08m.
Since, according to speed ratio,
The rpm of tyre should be (R2 R1) 1480
i.e., (0.040.36) 1480
Rpm of tyre= 164
But, when, it is calculated with the help of the tachometer it is found to be 138 because some
of its energy is lost in friction, heat etc.
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Hence, rpm of tyre is 138.


The rpm of front pedal crank arm which is acting as a crank is 50 and the torque measured on
the crank pedal arm is found to be of 2.5Nm.

Fig 11: Torque on crank Pedal arm

The value of h when determined graphically, founds out to be 0.153m


Hence, h=0.153m
Now,
F32 h = T
i.e., F32 0.153 = 2.5Nm
F32 = 16.34N
Since,
F32=F12=F23=F43=F34
Therefore, F32=F12=F23=F43=F34= 16.34N

16

Now, to calculate the horizontal force on the piston considering the free body diagram of
piston.

Fig 12: Free Body diagram of piston

Resolving the horizontal and vertical components of this slider, we get


On resolving the vertical component, we get
F34sin(23.32) + mg = F14
Now, on resolving the horizontal component, we get
F34cos (23.32) = F
i.e., F = 16.34cos (23.32)
Hence, F = 15N

Therefore, the driving force of the piston which compresses the leaf log up to 70%
reduction in its volume is of 15N.

CHAPTER: 3
17

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN AND FABRICATION

3.1 SKETCHING AND DRAWING SELECTION


From the existing ideas, only 3 sketching had been chosen to be considered as the final idea,
which are:

CONCEPT 1

Fig 13: Pneumatic force to compress the leaves


This concept is using the pneumatic force from above to compress the leaves entered from
sides to fill the container below with corresponding layers of compressed leaves. Holes are
incorporated in the container to supply oxygen and heat to be used for burning purpose.

CONCEPT 2
18

This concept uses hydraulic force from right side to compress piston inside the cylinder and
compress the leaves entered from above through hopper in multiple stages.

Fig 14: Hydraulic force to compress the leaves

CONCEPT 3
This concept uses a slider crank mechanism to compress a piston inside cuboid and slits are
introduced in between to compress leaves introduced through hopper in stages and avail easy
access to output.

Fig 15: Slider Crank Mechanism to compress the leaves

3.2 CONCEPT GENERATION AND EVALUATION


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CRITERIA

CONCEPT
1

CONCEPT
2

CONCEPT
3

BEST
CONCEPT

Portable
Light weight
Good looking
Easy to
manufacture
Reliable
Easy to use
Material cost
Safety
Strength
Easy to maintain
Product stability

****
***
*
***

*
**
***
****

*
**
***
**

1
1
3
2

**
**
***
*
*
**
*

***
***
*
***
****
***
****

****
****
****
***
****
****
***

3
3
3
3
3
3
2

Table 2 : Concept generation and Evaluation\

Three concepts were developed and are evaluated under twelve criteria of importance. Study
of concept selection reveals that CONCEPT 3 scores highest value.

3.3 FINAL DESIGN


Concept3 is manufactured with following design and dimensioning.

Fig 16: Final Design

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DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Concept 3 is the best design that can be evaluated. Table below is the detail product design
specification of concept 3.

S.NO MATERIAL

TYPE

SIZE(cm)

QUANTITY

IRON STRIPES

SHEET METAL

MILD STEEL

SHEET METAL

Height-53.5
Base -41.5
11.5*11.5*64

3
4

WOOD
PLASTIC

CARDBOARD
THIN PLASTIC BOX

2
1

WOOD

CARDBOARD

10.5*15*0.5
Dia.-15
Height-18
10.5*10.5*10.5

IRON ROD

IRON

WOOD

WOODEN BLOCK

Length-44
Dia.-0.5
14.5*5*8

8
9

WOOD
STEEL ROD

117.5*41.5*2
Length-24
Dia.-0.6

1
1

10

STEEL ROD

CARDBOARD
MILD STEEL
ELECTRO
GALVANISED
CHROMOLY STEEL

11

STEEL PLATE

CHROMOLY STEEL

Length-12.5
Dia.-0.4
Dia.-20

12

STEEL ROD

CHROMOLY STEEL

13

STEEL FRAME

CARBON STEEL

Length-18.5
Dia.-0.6
Multiple dim.

14

RUBBER TYRE

RUBBER

Dia.-67

15

STEEL
SPROCKET

CHROMOLY STEEL

Dia.-9

Table 3: Design Specification

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3.4 FABRICATION
After design phase fabrication processes takes place. These processes are about using
material selection and make product based on design by following design dimensions. Many
methods can be used to fabricate a product like Welding, Drilling, Cutting, Bending,
Grinding, Finishing and many more. This process includes part by part fabrication and
assembling of components.
Processes involved:
In order to transform our design into reality, fabrication needs to be done first. The fabrication
starts from dimensioning the raw materials until it finishes as a desired product. The
processes that involves are:
1. Getting material
Our project includes various material like Sheet Metal (Mild Steel), Wood, Iron rod, Plastic
for hopper, Cardboard, Rubber tyre etc.
2. Measuring and marking
After getting the material, the next step is measuring and marking. The Equipment used are
measuring Tape, Engineers Square, Spirit Level and ruler.

Measuring tape
A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth,
plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings. It is a common
measuring tool.

Fig 17:

Measuring
tape

Engineers Square
A machinist square or engineer's square is the metalworkers' equivalent of a try
square. It consists of a steel blade inserted and either welded or pinned into a heavier
body at an angle of 90

22

Fig 18: Engineers Square

Spirit Level
A spirit level, bubble level or simply a level is an instrument designed to indicate
whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb)

Fig 19: Spirit level

Ruler
A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is an instrument used in geometry,
technical drawing, printing as well as engineering and building to measure distances
or to rule straight lines.

Fig 20: Ruler

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3. Cutting material
After measurement and Marking various tools are used like Metal and Wood Saw, Metal
Sheer Cutter, Plier and Shearing machine for cutting material.

Wood saw
A saw is a tool consisting of a hard blade, wire, or chain with a toothed edge. It is
used to cut through relatively hard material, most often wood. The cut is made by
placing the toothed edge against the material and moving it forcefully back and forth.
This force may be applied by hand, or powered by steam, water, electricity or
other power source.

Fig 21: Wood saw

Shearing Machine
Shearing machines (sheet metal) use a shearing or scissor-like action to cut metal into
sheets or strips.

Fig 22: Shearing Machine

Pliers

24

Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly. They are also useful for bending and
compressing a wide range of materials.

Fig 23: Pliers

4. Drilling
Vertical drilling machine was used with various bits of varying sizes for Drilling holes in
Wood, Mild Steel etc.

Fig 24: Different drill bits

Upright Drilling Machine


25

A upright drilling machine, called a drill press, is used to cut holes into or through
metal, wood, or other materials. Drilling machines may be used to perform other
operations. They can perform countersinking, boring, counterboring, spot facing,
reaming, and tapping.

Fig 25: Upright drilling Machine

5. Bending
After marking sheet metal, iron rods etc. was beaten on Anvil to bend along the marked lines
by using Mallet and hammer.

The London Anvil


An anvil is a basic tool, a block with a hard surface on which another object is struck.

Fig 26: The London Anvil

Mallet and Hammer


26

A mallet is a kind of hammer, often made of rubber or sometimes wood, that is


smaller than a maul or beetle and usually with a relatively large head.
Hammer is a tool with a heavy metal head mounted at right angles at the end of a
handle, used for jobs such as breaking things and driving in nails.

Fig 27: Mallet and Hammer

6. FINISHING TOOLS
Various pieces after cutting are finished to remove sharp edges by using tools like Jack
planar, Wood & Metal files and Grinding Machine.

Jack Plane
A jack plane is the general-purpose bench plane, used for general smoothing of the
edges, sizing of timber but only making it smaller to correct size.

Fig 28: Jack Plane

27

Wood and Metal files


A file is a metalworking, woodworking and plastic working tool used to cut fine
amounts of material from a work piece.

Fig 29: Wood and Metal Files

Grinding Machine
A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or
machine tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive
wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small
chip from the work piece via shear deformation.

Fig 30: Grinding Machine

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3.5 PROCESS OF MAKING LEAF LOG

Fig 31: Process of making leaf log

STEP-1: Collect dry leaves


Dry and brittle leaves are collected from bottom of Trees are shredded into smaller pieces
and stored in Large bags.

STEP-2: Prepare binding agent


Binding Agent is prepared by mixing 2 parts of Maida (All Purpose Flour) with 1 part of
Water. Also mix natural, biodegradable binding substances like Resins.

STEP-3: Blend binding agent with leaves


Blend binding agent prepared in previous step with shredded dry leaves collected in bags to
create mushy, sticky consistency.

STEP-4: Feed the blended mixture into leaf packing machine


Feed the blended mixture into leaf packing machine through Hopper provided in middle of
compressor in between the return stroke piston.

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STEP-5: Compression of leaves


Blended mixture of dry leaves and binding agent is compressed in multiple stages due to slits
provided inside cuboidal block by sliding piston action of slider crank mechanism. This helps
total volume of leaves to be reduced by up to 70% thus making the leaves easy to handle.

STEP-6: Dry leaf log


Compressed form of leaves are available as output from the leaf compressor. This block of
compressed leaves is sun dried for one afternoon to be available as a moisture free source of
clean and green energy.
Thus many such leaf logs can be stacked for future to be used together for various
applications.

Fig 32: Dry Leag Log

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CHAPTER: 4
APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE
4.1 APPLICATIONS
1) Industrial Application
Cement and steel industries uses coal and its ash in furnaces which can be
substituted by renewable source of energy leag log.
2)Cook Food
Traditional chulha in rural areas uses wood that promotes deforestation which can
easily be substituted by cleaner energy resource.
3)Thermal Power Generation
Thermal Power Stations uses high calorific value pulverised coal which is nonrenewable and air polluting fuel and this makes it easier to replace it with
environment friendly leaf logs.
4)Warm our homes
Fireplaces are used in winter to warm our homes, offices, hotels, etc which uses
conventional wood or gelled isopropyl alcohol. These are either expensive or nonrenewable which makes leaf logs perfect fireplace fuel.

4.2 FUTURE PLANS


The Future plan in the area of:a. Design is to make the size of leaf packing machine more compact and introduce
wheels into the base to make it easily movable.
It is also required by absolute necessity to incorporate more leaves into the leaf log
and make it denser. So, the total volume is reduced further from 70% to 75% or more.
b. Final product is to make use of easy to dry binding agents. So, the leaf log will dry
quickly, thus reducing the drying time and making it ready to use.
c. Manufacturing is to reduce the cost per unit of product. So, it is easy to target the
rural population which is mostly responsible for deforestation to burn chullah in their
homes and warm there houses in winter.
d. Efficiency of leaf packing machine is to reduce the time required to make a leaf log
by increasing the force in every stroke of piston inside the compressor.

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It will be efficient practice to introduce a shredder with the feeding mechanism through
hopper, to reduce time required to shred the leaves.

CONCLUSION
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This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use our limited
knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning, purchasing,
assembling and machining while doing this project work. We feel that the project work is a
good solution to bridge the gates between institution, industries and rural areas.
We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully. The Leaf
Log Maker is working with satisfactory conditions. We are able to understand the difficulties
in maintaining the tolerances and also quality. We have done to our ability and skill making
maximum use of available facilities.
In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more lines about our impression
project work. Thus we have developed a Leaf Log Maker which helps to know how to
achieve low cost alternative fuel source with simple products which can easily available at
any place so that many people can utilises our project. The application of reciprocating
mechanism produces smooth operation. By using more techniques, this project can be
modified and developed according to the applications.

REFERENCES
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1. http://www.leaflog.com/
2. http://www.logmaker.org.uk/
3. http://www.ehow.com/how_6969367_make-firelogs-out-leaves.html
4. http://inventionsusa.blogspot.in/2013/07/leaf-pacleaf-log.html
5. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article1226943/British-inventors-green-idea-using-leavesmake-logs.html

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