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John C. Yang | 1

Chapter 10: Computation Methods: Calculators, Mental


Computation, and Estimation
Possible Questions for Assessment and Evaluation
1.

T or F Historically, elementary school mathematics has emphasized


mental computation far more than other methods.
Answer: F
Sec Ref: Introduction
Page Ref: 215

2.

T or F Children tend to use written computation even when they could


use a more efficient method.
Answer: T
Sec Ref: Introduction
Page Ref: 215

3.

According to your text, which of the following should always be used to


check the reasonableness of the result?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

written computations
calculators
teachers
estimations
classmates

Answer: D
Sec Ref: Introduction
Page Ref: 215
4.
T or F Computational estimation is a prerequisite for mental
computation.
Answer: F
Sec Ref: Introduction
Page Ref: 216
5.

Discuss the two essential decisions involved in every computation.


Answer: Deciding on the type of result needed and deciding on the
best method for getting that result. The first decision involves the
question of whether an estimate is appropriate or an exact answer is
needed and the second involves selecting the best method to get the
result.
Sec Ref: Introduction

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2009 John Wiley & Sons

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John C. Yang | 2

Page Ref: 216


6.
to:

Instructional goals for teaching computation include teaching children


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

master one method for solving multiple problems


develop competence with each of the computational methods
determine the reasonableness of a result
all of the above
only B and C

Answer: E
Sec Ref: Introduction
Page Ref: 216
7.

As a mathematics teacher, what are some instructional goals that you


should have when teaching computation?
Answer: Help students to develop competence with each of the
computational methods; help students to choose a method that is
appropriate for the computation at hand; help students to apply the
chosen method correctly; and help students to use estimation to
determine the reasonableness of the result.
Sec Ref: Introduction
Page Ref: 216

8.

T or F More than 80% of all mathematical computations in daily life


involve written computation and estimation, rather than mental
computation.
Answer: F
Sec Ref: Balancing Your Instruction
Page Ref: 217

9.
According to research, what percentage of instructional time is devoted
to written computation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

10
30
50
70
90

30%
50%
70%
90%
100%

Answer: D
Sec Ref: Balancing Your Instruction
Page Ref: 217
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2009 John Wiley & Sons

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10.

11.

In terms of teaching mental computation, written computation, and


estimation, how much time would you devote to each and why?
Answer: Answers vary.
Sec Ref: Balancing Your Instruction
Page Ref: 217
Upon learning that the children in your classroom will be using
calculators, a parent expresses concern. Summarize three points you
might make to defend the use of calculators in your classroom.
Answer: Students still have to think when using the calculator;
calculators can raise students achievement; calculators are useful as
instructional tools.
Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 218

12.

T or F Using calculators always makes computations go faster.


Answer: F
Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 218

13. Give one example to illustrate the idea that using calculators requires
thinking.
Answer: Answers vary.
Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 218
14. Which of the following statements is not a fact regarding the use of
calculators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

When using calculators, students must still do the thinking.


Calculators can raise students achievement.
Using calculators always makes computations faster.
It is sometimes faster to compute mentally.
Calculators can be useful as instructional tools.

Answer: C
Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 218
15.

Give one example to illustrate a situation where calculators are not


always the fastest way of doing computations.

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Answer: Answers vary.


Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 218
16.

What does it mean to use the calculator as an instructional tool, as


compared to a computational tool?

Answer: Computation is mainly to get the result; instructional is to


help students understand the concepts, processes, and patterns
associated with computation.
Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 220
17. Which of the following is an appropriate way to use the calculator as an
instructional
tool?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

to
to
to
to
to

facilitate problem solving


facilitate a search for patterns
ease the burden of doing tedious computations
remove anxiety about doing computations incorrectly
provide motivation and confidence

Answer: B
Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 220
18. All of the following are appropriate ways to use the calculator as a
computational tool,
except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

to
to
to
to
to

facilitate problem solving


facilitate a search for patterns
ease the burden of doing tedious computations
remove anxiety about doing computations incorrectly
provide motivation and confidence

Answer: B
Sec Ref: Calculators
Page Ref: 220
19.

Compare and contrast mental computation and written computation.


Answer: Mental is done all in the head.
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 220

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20.

T or F When we talk about mental computation, we are talking about


computation that is done mostly in the head with the use of a
calculator or paper and pencil in some instances.
Answer: F
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 220

21.

Barry explained how he mentally solved the problem, 24 + 23. He


said, I added 20 plus 20 which makes 40 , added 4 plus 3 which
makes 7, and then added 40 plus 7 to get 47. Which mental
computation strategy is Barry using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

adding from the left


counting on
making tens
doubling
bridging

Answer: A
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 221
22.

Katrina explained how she mentally solved the problem, 37 + 44. She
said, I added 3 plus 37 which makes 40, and then added 40 to 40
which makes 80 and then added 1 more to get 81. Which mental
computation strategy is Katrina using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

adding from the left


counting on
making tens
doubling
bridging

Answer: C
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 221
23.

What are some of the benefits of using mental computation?


Answer: Encourages flexible thinking, promotes number sense, and
encourages creative and efficient work with numbers.
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 221

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24.

Give an example to illustrate each of the following strategies for whole


number addition: adding from the left, counting on, making tens,
doubling, making compatibles, and bridging.
Answer: Answers vary.
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 221

25.

T or F When teaching mental computation, students should all be


encouraged to use the same strategy to solve problems.
Answer: F
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 222

26.

What are some guidelines that you should keep in mind when
developing students mental computation skills?
Answer: Encourage students to do computations mentally, learn which
computations students prefer to do mentally, find out if students are
applying written algorithms mentally, plan to include mental
computation systematically and regularly as an integral part of
instruction, keep practice sessions short, develop childrens
confidence, and encourage inventiveness.
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 223

27.

Which of the following statements about the teaching of mental


computation is not a recommendation?
encourage students to do computations mentally
learn which computations students prefer to do mentally
find out if students are applying written algorithms mentally
encourage all students to use the same strategy for solving a
problem
E. encourage inventiveness
A.
B.
C.
D.

Answer: D
Sec Ref: Mental Computation
Page Ref: 223
28.

What is the difference between computation and estimation?


Answer: Computation is getting an exact answer.
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 225

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29. T or F Students who are proficient at written computations are also


usually good
estimators.
Answer: F
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 225
30. Some words used in connection with estimation include all of the
following, except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

about
approximate
exact
close enough
almost

Answer: C
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 225
31.

Give an example to illustrate each of the following types of estimation


strategies: front-end, front-end with adjustment, compatible numbers,
and clustering.
Answer: Answers vary.
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 226

32.

A student solved the problem, 132 + 222 + 348 + 435, in the following
manner: 100 + 200 + 300 + 400. Which estimation strategy is he
using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

front-end
compatible numbers
clustering
front-end with adjustment
none of the above

Answer: A
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 226
33.

A student solved the problem, 24 x 9, in the following manner: 24 is


close to 25 and 9 is close to 10, therefore, 25 x 10 is 250. Which
estimation strategy is she using?

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A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

front-end
compatible numbers
clustering
front-end with adjustment
none of the above

Answer: B
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 227

34.

T or F Different estimation strategies can work for the same problem.


Answer: T
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 230

35. What are five guidelines that should be followed when teaching
estimation?
Answer: Give students problems that encourage and reward
estimation; make sure students are not computing exact answers and
then rounding to produce estimates; ask students to tell how they
made their estimates; fight the one-right-answer syndrome; and
encourage students to think of real-world situations that involve
making estimates.
Sec Ref: Estimation
Page Ref: 230

To a c c o m p a n y H e l p i n g C h i l d r e n L e a r n M a t h 9 e , R e y s e t a l .
2009 John Wiley & Sons