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or energy is converted[1][2]

If ΔW is the amount of work performed during a period of time of

duration Δt, theaverage power Pavg over that period is given by the

formula

It is the average amount of work done or energy converted per unit

of time. The average power is often simply called "power" when the

context makes it clear.

The instantaneous power is then the limiting value of the average

power as the time interval Δt approaches zero.

In the case of constant power P, the amount of work performed

during a period of duration T is given by:

In the context of energy conversion it is more customary to use the

symbol E rather than W.

Power

Power is defined as the rate at which work is done upon an object. Like all

rate quantities, power is a time-based quantity. Power is related to how fast a

job is done. Two identical jobs or tasks can be done at different rates - one

slowly or and one rapidly. The work is the same in each case (since they are

identical jobs) but the power is different. The equation for power shows the

importance of time:

Power = Work / time

P=W/t

The unit for standard metric work is the Joule and the standard metric unit

for time is the second, so the standard metric unit for power is a Joule /

second, defined as a Watt and abbreviated W. Special attention should be

taken so as not to confuse the unit Watt, abbreviated W, with the quantity

work, also abbreviated by the letter W.

Combining the equations for power and work can lead to a second equation

for power. Power is W/t and work is F•d•cos(theta). Substituting the

the equation can be re-written as P = F • v • cos(theta) where v is the constant speed or the average speed value. we might as well use this great location and learn a little bit about the different phases of matter. isn't it? The white sand. What Is A Fluid? Let's take a trip to the beach. Thus. The d/t ratio is the speed value for a constant speed motion or the average speed for an accelerated motion.just thinking about it makes me want to do some physics! Okay. the fresh air . . but while we're here. If this equation is re-written as P = F • cos(theta) • (d/t) one notices a simplification which could be made. that was a mean trick. A few of the problems in this set of problems will utilize this derived equation for power. the blue water.expression for work into the power equation yields P = F•d•cos(theta)/t. It's quite relaxing here.

their bodies are the same pressure as the surrounding fluid. Fish experience the same thing underwater . This is because there is more space between those gas particles. the more pressure you feel. or in equation form: density = mass/volume. Properties Of Fluids There are certain properties that fluids share. you can't keep the water on just one side because it flows to cover all the space of the tub. millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and Newton per meter squared (N/m^2). This is the force exerted over a given area. but a liquid only does so beneath its surface. It all depends on the force and the area you're measuring. In a liquid. you don't feel it because your body is the same pressure as the surrounding air. Likewise. In other words. When you put air in your car tires. The same principle is true for atmospheric gases. while the liquid particles are already about as close together as they can get. though the specifics of these may be slightly different for each type of fluid. They also both flow when moved around. One property that all fluids do share is that they have density. the pressure comes from the weight of the fluid and the weight of the air above it. they both conform to the shape of their container. which we call the atmosphere. This important difference helps us understand that a gas is compressible. Pressure is another important characteristic of fluids. like pounds per square inch (psi). when you fill your bathtub. . This is simply the amount of matter in a given space for that substance. There are many different units that can be used to express pressure. you can more easily press gas particles together than you can the particles of a liquid. The lower in elevation you are. while a liquid is incompressible. which means its volume can easily be increased or decreased. Solids are pretty different from liquids and gases because they hold their shape. But even though these gases are constantly putting pressure on you. the more weight and pressure you experience. Both will spread out to fill their container. and any material that flows is called a fluid. meaning its volume cannot easily be changed. This is because there is more weight pressing down on you from above as you increase your depth.You are probably quite familiar with these already because they are solids (the sand). You can't put a square block into a round hole because the block is solid and won't conform to the shape of the hole. liquids (the water) and gases (the fresh air). You feel this pressure when you swim under water. Liquids and gases are more similar to each other because unlike solids. so they don't notice the constant pressure the water exerts on them. The deeper you go. they stay inflated because the gas particles fill the entire space inside. The main difference between the two fluids mentioned here is that gas particles are much farther apart than the particles of a liquid. Another way of saying this is that the density is the amount of matter per unit volume.

also because of buoyancy. which is usually felt by some object in that fluid. The volume of displaced fluid is equivalent to the volume of an object fully immersed in a fluid or to that fraction of the volume below the surface for an object partially submerged in a liquid. whereas water is not as viscous because it flows more easily. and a hot air balloon rises into the sky . honey is a very viscous fluid because it flows very slowly. For example. physical law of buoyancy. discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. But since the pressure from below is greater (because that part of the object is deeper).Buoyancy is another common characteristic of fluids. or buoyant. Buoyancy in a fluid comes from the pressure of the fluid itself. Archimedes’ principle Contributors Archimedes’ principle. stating that any body completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward. The buoyant force on a body floating in a liquid or gas is also equivalent in magnitude to the weight of the floating object and is opposite in direction. . lifting it in the fluid and against the force of gravity. For example. Remember how I said that all fluids flow? Well. Thicker fluids are more viscous than thinner ones because they don't flow as easily. This is the upward force from a fluid. it sinks deeper. force the magnitude of which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. As the ship is loaded. a ship that is launched sinks into the ocean until the weight of the water it displaces is just equal to its own weight. viscosity describes the resistance of a fluid to flow. The weight of the displaced portion of the fluid is equivalent to the magnitude of the buoyant force. and so the magnitude of the buoyant force continuously matches the weight of the ship and its cargo. the object neither rises nor sinks. Viscosity is yet another important property of fluids. it creates an unbalanced force on the object and it's pushed upward. An object submerged in a fluid experiences pressure from all sides. You float in a pool because of buoyancy. displacing more water.

the object rises. in some accurate weighings. though it sinks when released. pressure. as in the case of a block of wood that is released beneath the surface of water or a helium-filled balloon that is let loose in air. The buoyant force. The result is buoyancy. This increasing pressure applies a force on a submerged object that increases with depth. in the physical sciences. The absolute pressure exerted by the air within the tire. An object heavier than the amount of the fluid it displaces. . a correction must be made in order to compensate for the buoyancy effect of the surrounding air. or the stress at a point within a confined fluid. the gauge pressure. An absolute pressure of zero corresponds to empty space or a complete vacuum.e. the perpendicular force per unit area. i. has an apparent weight loss equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. The pressure exerted on a floor by a 42-pound box the bottom of which has an area of 84 square inches is equal to the force divided by the area over which it is exerted. Measurement of pressures by ordinary gauges on Earth. In SI units. including atmospheric pressure. The weight of the Earth’s atmosphere pushing down on each unit area of the Earth’s surface constitutes atmospheric pressure.000 pascals. it is one-half pound per square inch. Atmospheric pressure is close to 100. which always opposes gravity. is 45 pounds per square inch. expresses pressure in excess of atmospheric. is nevertheless caused by gravity. Pressures less than atmospheric are negative gauge pressures that correspond to partial vacuums. Thus. pressure is measured in pascals. one pascal equals one newton per square metre.. which at sea level is about 15 pounds per square inch.If the weight of an object is less than that of the displaced fluid. including the effect of atmospheric pressure. Absolute pressure of a gas or liquid is the total pressure it exerts. a tire gauge may indicate a pressure of 30 pounds (per square inch). In fact. The pressure exerted by a confined gas results from the average effect of the forces produced on the container walls by the rapid and continual bombardment of the huge number of gas molecules. such as a tire-pressure gauge. Fluid pressure increases with depth because of the (gravitational) weight of the fluid above.

the layers one over other. or pressure.Hydrostatic pressure is the stress. It is the only stress possible in a fluid at rest. For Example: . Floating is the result of the above concept. in the upward direction. Buoyancy Force Back to Top If we consider a single column of liquid then it can be considered as the mixture of many overlying layers. it will tend to sink. this is because as we go down in the liquid the number of overlying layers of the liquid . the stress exerted on a body of rock by surrounding rock. See Pascal’s principle. increases. if its density is greater. that has been immersed. The pressure at the bottom of the liquid would be greater than at the top. This force leads to the acceleration of the object. there tends to be an imaginary force acting in the upward direction. Lithostatic pressure. Due to the difference in the pressure between the layers. Lithostatic pressure increases with depth below the Earth’s surface. We can also say that the magnitude of the upward force is basically equal to the difference in the pressure of the top and the last layer and also equal to the weight of the liquid that has been displaced. is a pressure in the Earth’s crust somewhat analogous to hydrostatic pressure in fluids. otherwise. one over the other with varying pressure. exerted equally in all directions at points within a confined fluid (liquid or gas). The force isalwaysin vertical direction. The material should be less dense than water.

Similarly. Now the force of buoyancy exerted back by water is 3 Newton. because the pressure is different at different levels. the force is the pressure multiplied by the area of the side. Buoyancy is identical to the Water Displacement Method. The buoyant force is present whether the object floats or sinks. The buoyant force When an object is placed in a fluid. The buoyant force comes from the pressure exerted on the object by the fluid. but the analysis is basically the same for a submerged object. On each side. although a similar (more complicated) analysis leads to the same result for funny-shaped objects. the pressure on the bottom of an object is always larger than the force on the top . Then the Net force exerted by the rock is 20 â€“ 3 = 17 Newton.hence the net upward force. the fluid exerts an upward force we call the buoyant force. . It is quite easy to pull object through water then to actually lift them from the bottom of water pool. The force on the left side is tricky to calculate. The object experiences forces on each of its six sides. We'll also consider a rectangular block.If we have a rock which is hanging on the thread in a pool and initially a force of 20 Newton is exerted by it. Fortunately we don't have to calculate it because this force is equaland-opposite to the force on the right side. Because the pressure increases as the depth increases. Let's consider a floating object. and is directed perpendicular to the side and toward the inside of the object. the forces on the front and back cancel.

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics which deals with the study of nature and properties of flow of fluid.Fluid Dynamics Let us consider a fluid. Fluid Dynamics is a branch of Fluid mechanics which stresses more on the fluid flow. It includes: . What is Fluid Dynamics? Back to Top It is a part of fluid mechanics which signifies fluid flow. how far it can be stopped and to what extent it will flow? To know this we should know the concept of Fluid Mechanics. a drop of this fluid is falling and we can see that something is dragging it backward making it not to fall.

fluid resistance refers to forces that oppose the relative motion of an object through a fluid.. To determine the flow rates of material like petroleum from pipes. 2... Fluid Dynamics Equations Back to Top Let the flow of the liquid be incompressible hence we will consider ρ = constant... The component perpendicular to this direction is considered lift.1. Pρ + g z + v22 = K Or Pρg + z + v22g = K Or Pρg + v22g + z = K ... Drag forces depend upon velocity.It is concerned with the study of liquids in motion. To find and calculate the forces acting upon the air plane.. Therefore....It is concerned with the study of air in motion.. the drag is the component of the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces acting opposite to the direction of the movement....... Applications : It can be used in traffic engineering (traffic treated as continuous liquid flow).(a) where.. Hydrodynamics . Pρg = pressure energy per unit weight fluid or pressure head V22g = kinetic energy per unit weight or kinetic head .. For any solid object moving through a fluid... drag opposes the motion of the object.. a liquid or gas. In fluid dynamics. These drag forces act in an opposite direction to the flow of velocity.. Aerodynamics ..

........ Here.... Here.. q = dynamic pressure Po = total pressure P = Static pressure Fluid Flow Back to Top . the flow of fluid particle along a stream line in the S direction is considered...(b) Here..... now the flow of the compressible fluid is constant: dPρ + V dV + g dZ = 0 ∫ (dPρ + V dV + g dZ) = K or ∫ dPρ + V22 + g Z = K The Bernoulli equation is different for adiabatic as well as isothermal processes......z = potential energy per unit weight or potential head P = pressure ρ = Density K= constant This is called Bernoulli's Equation... Z = elevation point and ρ = Density of fluid We can write the equation in other form: q + P = Po . The resultant or net force in the S direction is equated to the mass of fluid particle and its acceleration.......

→ Read More Archimedes Principle Back to Top The Archimedes Principle states that: When an object floats into the fluid then it displaces its own weight of fluid.... i. For incompressible it is: A1V1 = A2V2 For compressible fluid it is: p1A1V1 = p2A2V2 where... the pressure applied in a confirmed incompressible fluid will be transmitted equally in all directions in the fluid. the law becomes: When an object or body is immersed in a liquid fully or partially then it experiences an upward force which is in correspondence with the amount of water or fluid displaced. hole etc. It talks about properties of incompressible as well as compressible fluid when under flow..e.. We can also say that. We will also study about the continuity equation which is different for both types of fluid... The fluids can be liquids and gases but not solid. A1 and A2 are Areas p1 and p2 are pressures V1 and V2 are Volumes Fluid Flow is categorized as. (i) Streamline or laminar flow (ii) Turbulent flow Pascal's law : It states that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid....The Science of fluids in motion is called Fluid Flow.. Hence. Fluid flow basically signifies the flow of a fluid under various situations like through a pipe. Now it should be noted that gas is also a kind of fluid. Buoyancy = the weight of the fluid displaced..(a) .

. Density is defined as: Density = MassVolumeIt is represented by a symbol called ρ.. . → Read More Buoyancy Back to Top The Upward force experienced by the fluid on the body or the object when it is inserted or immersed in the fluid is called Buoyancy. Mathematically.... the balloon as well as the basket displaces a fluid that is heavier than both of them..(b) → Read More Density Back to Top Density is described as the mass of a substance per unit volume.. There is buoyant force acting on the system and so...For example: The hot air balloon rises in the air as the density of the warmer air inside the balloon is lesser than the cool air outside the balloon.... This is the reason balloons tend to fly better in the morning as the surrounding air is cool. For example: Wood floats on water because it has a lower density than water.. The apparent weight of the object = The original weight – the buoyant force exerted.. The point where the force of Buoyancy is exerted or the point on the body where the force acts is called the Center of Buoyancy. It was discovered by Archimedes. The Units are kg / m3....

According to it the speed and pressure of the flowing fluid are inversely proportional to each other. for a unit mass of the moving fluid the Bernoulli's equation is given by: v2 + pδ = constant gh + 12 . Thus. kinetic and pressure energies of a moving liquid must be constant. the sum total of potential. We have many forms of Bernoulli equation according to the flow of the liquid. Hence according to the principle: For a Horizontal flow if the velocity would increase then the pressure exerted by the fluid would decrease. It should be noted that the force of buoyancy is a vertical force and hence the center of buoyancy is the point located on the center of the gravity of the liquid that is being actually displaced by the object immersed. pressure and height of the flowing non viscous fluid in a horizontal flow. the smaller its pressure.Why do you think the crown in water feels lighter than it actually is? When we immerse the body in a fluid then an upward force is experienced by the body. It reveals that the principle of conservation of energy as applied to moving liquids. This force is exerted by the fluid on the body which makes it to rise up and is called the Force of Buoyancy. It is a consequence of the law of conservation of energy. the greater the velocity of a fluid. According to Bernoulli's Principle. This principle basically gives us a relation between velocity. The magnitude of this force is exactly equal to the amount or weight of the liquid displaced. → Read More Bernoulli's Principle Back to Top The Bernoulli's principle was formulated by Daniel Bernoulli.

.7 lbs.03 kg and weight of about 10. the ratio of pressure to density is the pressure energy per unit mass of the moving liquid.1 N (2. Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted on a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). has a mass of about 1.e. Even the sum of the potential and kinetic energy follows a constant value. Likewise. so that atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation.. there is less overlying atmospheric mass. or about 65. as elevation increases.28 lbf) (A column one square inch in crosssection would have a weight of about 14. measured from sea level to the top of the atmosphere. On average. if we add all the energy components of the flowing fluid along the streamline then we would get a constant value for it throughout the flow of line. On a given plane. i. low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above their location. According to Bernoulli's principle. pδ. In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressurecaused by the weight of air above the measurement point.4 N). a column of air one square centimeter in cross-section.Here. whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location.

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