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CS 349 Networks Lab 2015

Assignment 2
Group 29
Ritvik Saraf - Devendra Ratnam
120123048 – 120123013

1. List out all the protocols used by the application at different layers
(only those which you can figure out from traces) and study their
packet formats.


USED Protocol:::: eth:ethertype:ip:udp:data

eth: The Ethernet protocol is made up of a number of components, such

as the structure of Ethernet frames, the Physical Layer and its MAC
operation. This page will detail the fundamental structure of the Ethernet
Ethertype: EtherType is a two-octet field in an Ethernet frame. It is used

to indicate which protocol is encapsulated in the payload of an Ethernet
Frame. This field was first defined by the Ethernet II Framing networking
standard, and later adapted for the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet networking
ip: The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in
the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network
boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially
establishes the Internet.
udp: UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a communications protocol that
offers a limited amount of service when messages are exchanged
between computers in a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP). UDP
is an alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and, together
with IP, is sometimes referred to as UDP/IP.
Data: 128 bytes

. Highlight and explain the values of various fields of the protocols which you can see in the traces. Offset 0-5: The Destination Address  The first six bytes of an Ethernet frame make up the Destination Address. Source or destination IP address and port no. Ethernet address. etc. The Destination Address specifies to which adapter the data frame is being sent. protocol number. Example. A Destination Address of all ones specifies a Broadcast Message that is read in by all receiving Ethernet adapters. .2.

 The Destination Address format is identical in all implementations of Ethernet. . Version (4 bits) shows the IP version number which is 4. the first three bytes specify the vendor of the card. Flow Label (20 bits) is discussed later. Like the Destination Address. The first three bytes of the Destination Address are assigned by the IEEE to the vendor of the adapter and are specific to the vendor.  The Source Address format is identical in all implementations of Ethernet. Offset 12-13: The Ethertype  Following the Source Address is a 2 byte field called the Ethertype. TrafficClass (8 bits) is discussed later. See the MAC Address page for more information. The Source Address specifies from which adapter the message originated. Offset 6-11: The Source Address  The next six bytes of an Ethernet frame make up the Source Address.3 frame in that it specifies the memory buffer in which to place this frame. The Ethertype is analogous to the SAPs in the 802.

Hop Limit (8 bits) is used to limit life of a packet on the network. This is discussed later. • Service Model – Unreliable unordered datagram service – Addresses multiplexing of multiple connections • Multiplexing – 16-bit port numbers (some are “well-known”) • Checksum – Validate header – Optional in IPv4 – Mandatory in IPv6 . This is discussed later. Next Header (8 bits) identifies the type of header that follows the IPv6 header.Payload Length (16 bits) is used to assign length. Source and Destination Addresses (each 128 bits) assigns the source and destination addresses.

Data (variable): The higher-layer data payload. download. pause. For example. telecommunications. handshaking sequence occurs. The size is the total number of bytes in the packet minus the 4–8 bytes of previous Data frame fields. . It follows the physical establishment of the channel and precedes normal information transfer. play. Handshaking: In information technology. and related fields. upload. Explain the sequence of messages exchanged by the application for using several functionalities available in the application. handshaking is an automated process of negotiation that dynamically sets parameters of a communications channel established between two entities before normal communication over the channel begins. Check and explain if any handshaking sequence occurs or not. stop and so on. The length of this field MUST be inferred from the remaining size of the packet reported by the lower-level transport. 3. Yes.

No.It is usually a process that takes place when a computer is about to communicate with a foreign device to establish rules for communication. or network server. For massively multiplayer online (MMO) games. On 3G or Wi-Fi networks. Throughput: . The advantages of TCP are persistent connections. and being able to use packets of arbitrary sizes. RTT. Calculate the following statistics from your traces when you perform experiment at different times of the day: Throughput. this can cause a significant latency. and the simple reason is because its nonexistent acknowledge packet (ACK) that permits a continuous packet stream. it needs to handshake with it to establish a connection. number of UDP & TCP packets. 5. When a computer communicates with another device like a modem. printer. developers often have to make an architectural choice between using UDP or TCP persistent connections. UDP is faster than TCP. The biggest problem with TCP in this scenario is its congestion control algorithm. of packets lost. instead of TCP that acknowledges a set of packets. UDP is better for online games. Explain how a particular protocol is relevant for functioning of the application. which treats packet loss as a sign of bandwidth limitations and automatically throttles the sending of packets. 4. calculated by using the TCP window size and round-trip time (RTT). number of responses received with respect to one request sent. Packet size. reliability.

Round Trip Time .

Packets Lost Packet Size: Given in question 1 in Frame. Once the connection between the source and destination is established and the content is being directly sent from point-to-point P2P. List out the IP addresses of content providers if there exist multiple sources and explain the reason behind it. . Check if the whole content is being sent from same location/source. 6.