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Reaction Mechanisms
e.g.
2 NO(g) + O2(g) Æ 2 NO2(g)

Kinetics 15.4

es

Most reactions do not happen in one step.

Occurs in two elementary steps

Reaction Mechanisms
Catalysis

2 NO(g) Æ N2O2(g)
N2O2(g) + O2(g) Æ 2 NO2(g)

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Reaction
Mechanism

2 NO(g) + O2(g) Æ 2 NO2(g)

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Reaction Mechanisms are the series of steps that sum
to the overall reaction.

Determining a Rate Law

Consumed

e.g. Consider this overall reaction.
NO2(g) + CO(g) Æ NO(g) + CO2(g)
Rate = k [NO2]2 [CO]o
Rate = k [NO2]2

of

2 NO(g) + O2(g) Æ 2 NO2(g)

Produced

St

2 NO(g) Æ N2O2(g)
N2O2(g) + O2(g) Æ 2 NO2(g)

• The rate law for an overall reaction can
only be found experimentally.

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en

Reaction Intermediate
• A substance that is produced and then
consumed during the overall reaction.

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Reaction Mechanisms

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N2O2 is a reaction intermediate

Determining a Rate Law

Overall Reaction: NO2(g) + CO(g) Æ NO(g) + CO2(g)

Overall Reaction: NO2(g) + CO(g) Æ NO(g) + CO2(g)

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Determining a Rate Law
But, rate laws for elementary steps are predictable!
2 NO2(g) Æ NO(g) + NO3(g)
Same rate law as
Rate = k1 [NO2]2

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Sa

Step 1.

Step 2.

the overall reaction!

NO3(g) + CO(g) Æ NO2(g) + CO2(g)
Rate = k2 [NO3][CO]

For any elementary step…
aA + bB Æ dD + eE
Rate = k[A]a[B]b

Step 1.

2 NO2(g) Æ NO(g) + NO3(g)
[Slow]
Rate = k1 [NO2]2

Step 2.

NO3(g) + CO(g) Æ NO2(g) + CO2(g) [Fast]
Rate = k2 [NO3][CO]

NO3 is consumed
as soon as it is
produced.

Adding CO does not increase
the rate, making it zero order
in the overall reaction.

The rate of the overall reaction is always equal
to the rate of the slowest elementary step.

© 2009 High School Chem Solutions. All rights reserved.

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g. thereby increasing the reaction rate.hschemsolutions. Cl(g) + O3(g) Æ O2(g) + ClO(g) ClO(g) + O(g) Æ O2(g) + Cl(g) Cl is back Cl reacts with O3 ts Catalysis A catalyst provides a mechanism with a lower activation energy. Catalysis and Activation Energy Cl O3(g) + O(g) Æ 2 O2(g) to react with another O3 no catalyst O3(g) + Cl(g) Æ ClO(g) + O2(g) with a catalyst Ea Ea St O3(g) + O(g) Æ 2 O2(g) O3(g) + O(g) Æ 2 O2(g) ud en The destruction of ozone. e. pl e Catalysis and Equilibrium A catalyst lowers the activation energy for the forward and the reverse reactions. C op y of Each Cl(g) atom will destroy about 100 ozone molecules before it reacts with something else and leaves with stratosphere. es 2) They use the rate law to figure out what the elementary steps are. • Catalysts are not produced or consumed in the reaction. O3. Catalysis Homogeneous Catalyst • The catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants. (Cl. Synthesis of ammonia. The destruction of ozone. and O are all gases) Heterogeneous Catalyst • The catalyst is in a different phase than the reactants. • They are there before the reaction starts.g. Sa m no catalyst with a catalyst Ea Ea Keq for a reaction is the same at the same temperature. All rights reserved. e. – Then they try to figure out what the fast steps are. 2 .www. with of without the catalyst. and they return when the reaction is complete. • A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reactions by providing a mechanism with a lower activation energy. N ot 1) Chemists determine the rate law through experimentation.com Determining a Rate Law Catalysis 'L ec tu re – The rate law tells them what the slowest step is. (solid and gas) © 2009 High School Chem Solutions.

hschemsolutions. 3 .www. C op y of H So lid Tr an sit N2(g) + 3 H2(g) Æ 2 NH3(g) ud en N2(g) + 3 H2(g) Æ 2 NH3(g) Heterogeneous Catalysis pl e H H N N2(g) + 3 H2(g) Æ 2 NH3(g) Sa m H So lid Tr a ns it ion al M eta ls H N H H Desorption • Products enter the gas phase. N N So lid H H H Tr H an sit ion al M eta ls Bonds within each gas molecule break. H H H N es H N ot H Heterogeneous Catalysis ts Heterogeneous Catalysis H H N Migration H N H H • Atoms move around on the surface of the metal. © 2009 High School Chem Solutions. Bonds form between the metal and the individual atoms. St H ion al M eta ls H N So lid H Tr an sit Reaction H N H H ion al M eta ls • Nitrogen atoms form bonds with hydrogen atoms. Catalyst is a solid. All rights reserved. 'L ec tu re So lid Tr a Reactants slam into the surface.com Heterogeneous Catalysis Heterogeneous Catalysis N2(g) + 3 H2(g) Æ 2 NH3(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) Æ 2 NH3(g) H N H ns it H ion al M eta ls Reactants are in the gas phase.