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Thursday, May 21st 2015

The changing map of India from 1 AD to the 20th century

Scroll Staff (/authors/8)  · May 03, 2015 · 10:30 am
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Photo Credit: Thomas Lessman

Battles were fought, territories were drawn and re-drawn. An amateur historian has caught these
shifts in a series of maps.

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India’s history is speckled with the ruins of empires. Kingdoms have periodically risen here,
expanded and fallen, reshaping with them the region’s culture and identity.

Amateur historian Thomas Lessman, who has been researching world history for over 20 years, has
created a series of maps of India showing these shifts from 1 AD till the rule of the Delhi Sultanate.
On his website ( Lessman says he “became frustrated while
researching history because it's hard to find great maps. The best maps are in books that cost more
than I make in a week... So I realised if I want free World History Maps, I’d have to make them

The maps provide a vivid history tour. They start from the time the Sakas or Indo-Scythians firmly
established their presence in India.

The Indo-Parthian and Indo-Synthian era: 1 AD

Indo-Greeks ruled India for over two centuries, during which time the fusion of Indian and
Hellenistic influences flourished. This map shows the Indo-Parthian rule and the Indo-Synthian
kingdom. The Indo-Scythians were descendents of the Scythians who had migrated from southern
Siberia and displaced the Indo-Greeks.

The Kushan Empire: 100 AD

The Kushan Empire was founded under Kujula Kadphises but it was under his grandson, the
Buddhist emperor Kanishka, that it reached its peak. Kanishka expanded the kingdom till as far as
Varanasi and captured areas in present-day China.


some believe. astronomy and math flourished in the region and much of the subcontinent was unified under one kingdom. The Huna Empire extended from parts of eastern Iran to northwestern India. literature. referred to by some as the Golden Age of India. This proximity is the reason why. the Huna tribe finds a mention in the Mahabharata. art. . During this time.500 AD This was the period of the domination of the Gupta Empire.The Gupta and Huna Empire – 400 .


Down south.After the collapse of the Gupta Empire. . the Kalabhras kingdom crumbled. a minor line of the clan ruled in Magadha.

. In the north. the Chachas dynasty began ruling over Sindh by 700 AD.The Chalukyas ruled southern and central India from the 6th century to the 12th century. as did Chalukyan architecture. Kannada and Telugu literature thrived in this era.

Meanwhile. in 900 AD. spread its kingdom from Rajasthan to the east in India.   . the Deccan was under the Rashtrakuta dynasty.The Gurjar-Pratihara dynasty.



The Ghaznavid Empire gradually moved in and conquered India and later the Delhi Sultanate. the fall of which eventually led to the Mughal rule in the country. a Delhi-based Muslim kingdom that stretched over large parts of India from 1206–1526. .

the Rajput states had established their presence. We welcome your comments at (mailto:? Subject=The%20changing%20map%20of%20India%20from%201%20AD%20to%20the%2020th%20century& .By 1500 AD. The Vijayanagar Empire in the south was still strong.

com (/authors/1497) · Today · 09:30 pm Photo Credit: Nicholas Kamm/AFP In a speech in New York this Raghuram Rajan warned major central banks that their aggressive and competitive monetary policies are a risk.india.20th.indiafrom.(whatsapp://send? ( text=The%20changing%20map%20of%20India%20from%201%20AD% u= (mailto:? (https://plus.php? ( Subject=The%20changing%20map%20of%20Ind url= (http://www.20th.20th- century) century) century&via=scroll_in) century) century) century&title=The%20changing%2 WONKY POLICY (/TAGS/32024/WONKY-POLICY) The man who predicted the financial crisis has some advice for the world’s central banks Madhura Karnik.1-adtothe- tothe- tothe- tothe- tothe- tothe- 20th.1-ad. .1-ad.from1-ad.

crisis.crisishas. “I fear that in a world with weak aggregate demand.the. is risky for financial markets and also ignores the needs of developing nations.has. he was the former chief economist of the International Monetary Fund who famously predicted (http://time. India’s central banker has some advice for his counterparts elsewhere in the world: Aggressive and competitive monetary policies are a text=The%20man%20who%20predicted%20the%20financial%20cris u= (http://www. “We are thereby also creating financial sector risks for when unconventional policies (mailto:? (https://plus.the.reddit.php? ( he is spurring major central banks around the world into a dangerous struggle for stronger domestic growth.(whatsapp://send? ( banks) banks) banks&via=scroll_in) banks) banks) banks&title=The%20man%20who Before Raghuram Rajan became the governor of the Reserve Bank of India.the.the.some. In a speech at the Economic Club of New York on May” Rajan said ( Subject=The%20man%20who%20predicted%20 url= .some.” In recent the source of the global financial meltdown in 2005.whopredictedpredictedpredictedpredictedpredictedpredictedthe. It’s another matter that few listened.the.facebook.crisis. Now. we may be engaged in a risky competition for a greater share of it.the. This struggle. central banks in major economies have held interest rates ( Rajan argued that the “spectre of deflation” ( man.some.crisis.crisis.

But now. and a possibility of an interest rate hike in the US.effect-of-cheap-oil) to near zero and embarked on asset-purchasing programmes in a bid to lower the cost of borrowing. equity markets – especially in India – have been extremely volatile (http://www. continues to be poor.. with the end of the bond-buying programme.ece). Read more FOOD FOR THOUGHT (/TAGS/10895/FOOD-FOR-THOUGHT) More poor children in (/authors/1233) · Today · 07:30 pm Photo Credit: Manjunath Kiran/AFP A new study shows positive trends in school enrolment. Rajan a . but 30% suffer malnutrition Saumya Tewari. IndiaSpend. especially in villages. However. .. nutrition and sanitation.

8% had moved on to vocational or post-secondary education and a third had started university.php? (https://twitter. has not improved much.poor.indiaspend. 9% had yet to complete secondary in three aspects: text=More%20poor%20children%20in%20school%2C%20but%2030% u= ( especially young women. The study has released preliminary data (http://www. .com/share? (mailto:? (https://plus. the situation of youth. However.and socially-marginalised children and those in rural especially in Subject=More%20poor%20children%20in%20sc url=http://scroll. up from 89% in 2006.but.but. an international study of childhood poverty involving 12.but. * 49% of older children were still in school at the age of of a pilot study in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana by Young a significant drop in enrolment at the highersecondary level in India. * Almost a third of children continue to show signs of malnutrition at age 12 with high rates for economically.000 children in four countries over 15 These are some of the findings (http://www.(whatsapp://send? (https://www.but30- 30- 30- 30- 30- 30- suffer. IndiaSpend has reported (http://www. continues to be poor.younglives. Education and Learning While significant improvement has been found in enrolment in schools for 12-year-olds by the Young Lives study. The report shows positive trends in school enrolment and some indicators like access to clean drinking water.but. nutrition and sanitation.suffer. health and development.suffermalnutrition) malnutrition) malnutrition&via=scroll_in) malnutrition) malnutrition) malnutrition&title=More%20poor * 97% of 12-year-olds were enrolled in elementary schools in 2013.poorchildrenchildrenchildrenchildrenchildrenchildrenininininininschool-school-school-school-school-schoolbut. Also.suffer.

.younglives. Doherty.. big cities are the perfect place to meet this challenge. As the most creative places on the planet. The Conversation (/authors/1960) · Today · 04:30 pm Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons Nobel Laureates met recently in Hong Kong to sign a memorandum calling for cities to help guard against climate change. Read more ASIAN SKYLINE (/TAGS/31996/ASIAN-SKYLINE) We need a smart urban revolution. . and Asia is just the place to do it Peter C.Source: Young Lives study ( The Young Lives study also found that there has been considerable progress in addressing inequalities in school .

com/share? (mailto:? (https://plus.need.smarturban. not just in Asia but right around the globe? Our Hong Kong meeting – the fourth Nobel Symposium on Global Sustainability ( Subject=We%20need%20a%20smart%20urban% url= As more of the world’s people call cities Hong Kong is the evolving model for Asian urbanization.php? ( climatologists.the. That rose to 2. Much of this growth will be in billion by 2010 and is predicted to hit 5 billion by 2030 ( text=We%20need%20a%20smart%20urban%20revolution%2C%20an u=http://scroll.need.needaaaaaasmart.the. senior government officials. and business leaders from Hong Kong and mainland China – both defined the problem and .smart. behavioural scientists. the challenge is to transform urban areas so that they offer a safe and sustainable place to live for generations to the number of people living in cities was about 750 million ( asiais- asiais- asiais- asiais- asiais- just- just- just- just- just- just- so the way Asian cities are designed.(whatsapp://send? ( it) it&via=scroll_in) it) it) it&title=We%20need%20a%20sma Back in the 1950s.need.theplace.and. So it’s fitting that Hong Kong was the place where I and several fellow Nobel Laureates signed a memorandum (http://www.facebook. How will cities do this. attended by Nobel Laureates. With 8 million people crammed into what is an increasingly vertical ( constructed and powered will clearly have a major influence on global efforts to moderate greenhouse gas emissions and diminish the impact of global warming.and. architects.and.urban. engineers.pdf) endorsing the need for cities to take a central role in minimizing the harm caused by climate change.and.

the sources that generate it – largely coal and automobile exhausts – also release greenhouse gases that raise temperatures in the longer term. any argument that selling coal is likely to drive the economies of the future seems unrealistic. of And sea-level rise. With storm surges. the first rule of capitalism is “don’t kill your (which co-hosted the meeting) pointed out. Successive speakers at the symposium made it very obvious that China is determined to cut its coal use. The rising tide of action A major concern for big coastal cities if not long before. Then Nobel-winning chemist and director of Japan’s RIKEN research . That has to happen.pdf)) and. including Hong Kong – is also very vulnerable to flooding (http://www. Pollution and power As climate scientists John Schellnhuber and Johan Rockstrom of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (https://www.enb. Hong Kong itself currently generates half of its electricity from coal (see figure 6 here (http://www. While the browny-grey clouds of particulate pollution that hang over these cities partially blot out the Sun and have a cooling effect. an increase of only 15 cm will evidently inundate much of Bangkok. with its focus on solar and wind technology plus the new China Development Bank (http://www.pdf).who. according to local executive Christine Apart from being on the wrong side of heavily industrialised Pearl River Delta – home to several megacities. will be doing the “right thing” (both globally and in its own self interest) by supporting the dissemination of renewable energy in emerging and Jiang Kejun of China’s Energy Research Institute emphasized that the aim is to source 70% of its electricity from renewables by 2050. while China’s low-lying.” But people in cities are already dying from respiratory disease (http://www. will cut that to 20% by 2020 ( Nobel-winning economist Jim Mirrlees estimates that China’s GDP will fall dramatically if CO2 emissions continue unchecked. China has famously pledged to peak its total greenhouse emissions by 2030 (https://theconversation. Apart from the human costs. Anyone who has visited an Asian city will understand that this is a consequence of massive air pollution.discussed strategies.

All such micro-generation techniques will be made easier with the advent of affordable storage systems. From For instance. At a more direct level. An image of a light pole topped with a solar collector and a small wind generator illustrated how cities might also use their streetlights to generate power.html) developed at the University of New South Wales. 15 million are at acute risk of ocean and river flooding. Embracing ambitious ideas will inevitably help innovative cities stay at the forefront of moves to decrease energy costs and clean up the atmosphere. Dennis described how Los Angeles has achieved a 63% cut in its lighting bill (http://bsl. Hong Kong architect Peter CooksonSmith discussed underground water storage for cities and described how skyscraper foundations can serve as hybrid ventilation and heating/cooling New York-based political theorist Benjamin Barber is doing his utmost to establish a Global Parliament of Mayors (http://www. which will meet for the first time in Britain in October.html) simply by switching to LED streetlights.lacity. like that recently unveiled by Tesla (https://theconversation. pointed out how building such technology into and as such their politicians can afford to be adventurous. ACT Labor MP Simon Corbell described how. too. told us that his city is well on its way to being carbon-neutral by 2025 ( The buildings and even the streets will need to be smart. Columbia and LSE academic . is already heating and cooling itself using highly efficient central facilities and has 45% of its commuting population on Meanwhile Roger Dennis. Top priority for snow clearing goes to the greatly enhanced system of bike lanes! Far-sighted vision Cities are dynamic places. pavements and the like can be used to moderate energy usage. told the symposium that of the 34 million people in the greater Tokyo Ryoji Nyori. using a high feed-in tariff (reimbursement of people generating power from solar on their roof) Australia’s capital is driving rapidly towards its 90% renewable energy target (http://www. or the new vanadium redox flow battery (http://www. Copenhagen’s Mayor of Technical and Environmental Affairs.environment. who leads the Sensing City Project in Christchurch.yale. Morten Kabell. Frustrated with the inaction of national governments in thrall to vested interests.

government and. delivered by Asia’s burgeoning megacities.need. the future belongs to those with the courage to embrace in a sense.urban.needa- a- a- a- a- a- ( Subject=We%20need%20a%20smart%20urban% url=http://scroll.urban.urbanrevolutionrevolutionrevolutionrevolutionrevolutionrevolutionand.the. are right in Australia’s need. focused on (and by) text=We%20need%20a%20smart%20urban%20revolution%2C%20an u=http://scroll.Saskia Sassen suggested that every surface in the emerging global city should be have an environmental function.000 laboratories” – (mailto:? (https://plus. Clearly this massive transition is both an enormous challenge and offers incredible economic opportunities we just need to point ourselves in the right This article was originally published on The Conversation ( We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.the. “living” green walls.and.the. in “ What did she mean? Solar energy generation. include the expanding cities of our planet. passive heating and or other applications that may as yet be just a flash of barely perceived insight in some innovator’s mind? For all this to happen. interactive urban environments and driven by a spectrum of innovators working in industry. As always. the world will need to witness a Third Industrial Revolution. while the fearful who turn resolutely to the past set us all up for asia- asia- asia- asia- asia- is- is- is- is- is- is- just- just- just- just- just- just- Australia’s cities can help too – we have both the creativity and the awareness. as Schellnhuber it) it&via=scroll_in) it) it) it&title=We%20need%20a%20sma .facebook.smarturban.php? (https://twitter. (mailto:? Subject=We%20need%20a%20smart%20urban%20revolution%2C%20and%20Asia%20is%20just%20the%20 (whatsapp://send? (https://www.the.

in/article/728985/m Muslim%20candidates'%20to%20'We%20have%2071%20Muslims%2 u= url=http://scroll. But the company founder blames it on the actions of a lone employee. a human resources . (whatsapp://send? ( text=What%20changed%20from%20'We%20hire%20only%20non(https://www.php? text=What%20changed%20from%20'We%20hire%20on Subject=What%20changed%20from%20'We%20 ('%20to%20'We%20have%2071% Muslim%20candidates'%20to%20'We%20have% url=http://scroll. In response. an applicant with a master’s in business (mailto:? (http://www.a-job.facebook. wrote to Hari Krishna Exports on Tuesday for a position in the Internal Business division.being. Zeeshan Ali Khan.being- APARTHEID (/TAGS/32059/RELIGIOUS-APARTHEID) What changed from 'We hire only non-Muslim candidates' to 'We have 71 Muslims in our firm' Shoaib Daniyal (/authors/362) · Today · 04:26 pm Photo Credit: @ANI_news via Twitter A young MBA was denied a job for being a Muslim.muslim&title=What%20changed% muslim) muslim) muslim&via=scroll_in) muslim) muslim) Muslim%20candidates'%20to%20' A job applicant was denied employment by a Surat and Mumbai-based diamond export house on the grounds of being a Muslim.a-job.

company founder Savji Dholakia denied any institutional discrimination at play and blamed it on the actions of a lone employee. regretting their actions. rejecting his candidature. explaining why his application had been turned down. who he claimed has recently joined the company. Tike’s profile shows that she has been with Hari Krishna for five months now. Screengrab of the email Khan received from Hari Krishna Exports. Speaking to Scroll. Dipika Tike. however. Khan then posted his experience on Facebook.executive emailed him back. where it caused outrage eventually compelling Hari Krishna Exports emailing Khan on Wednesday. LinkedIn. Diverse over the phone. “We regret to inform you that we hire only non-Muslim candidates. On professional networking website. Haridwar yatras Dholakia claimed that  diversity lies at the heart of Hari Krishna and they already have Muslims .” the email read.

the temperature of the metal sheets reaches as high as 250 degrees celsius.working for it."We have 71 Muslims in our firm along with people from all castes such as Patels and Marwaris"." said Dholakia. refusing to elaborate on the matter further. Read more HOT JOBS (/TAGS/29805/HOT-JOBS) In the steel mills of Delhi. He claimed that this charge of religious discrimination is absurd since they have great HR policies in p .. 86 taluqas and 386 villages who work for us. . workers faint Anumeha Yadav (/authors/1721) · Today · 03:00 pm Photo Credit: Anumeha Yadav Even in cold rolling mills.. Dholakia said they had to count them after this controversy broke. "We have people from 26 districts. as the heat sizzles. When asked how he knew the exact number of Muslims working for his company.

.heat. With the furnaces taking long to fire up.delhi. and acid treatment units where breathing becomes hard.php? ( the- the- the- the- the- the- (mailto:? ( Subject=In%20the%20steel%20mills%20of%20D url=http://scroll. Workers from Wazirpur's steel mills have gathered in their lunch break in Raja Park.steel. In a few minutes. Inside Wazirpur's steel mills. in an operation that almost never stops.reddit.000 workers are employed here in hot rolling mills and cold rolling mills. transported and introduced between rollers to again be compressed and squeezed.(whatsapp://send? (https://www.mills.heat.heat. the workers will return inside the steel mills to slog for hours beside furnaces running at 900 degrees celsius. semi-finished slabs of steel are re-heated nearly to melting point. treated with acid.steel. often without a weekly off. they sit on the lawns together to eat and the patchy lawns in the centre of north Delhi's Wazirpur Industrial Estate are teeming.delhias- as- as- as- as- as- the- the- the- the- the- the- heat. The cold rolling mill's name is a bit of a misnomer as even in this process the temperature of the metal sheets reaches 50 to 250 degrees.delhi.steel. are used to make containers and text=In%20the%20steel%20mills%20of%20Delhi%2C%20as%20the% u=http://scroll.delhi. longer (http://www.mills. Hot rolling process involves rolling the steel at extremely high temperatures.heatsizzles-sizzles-sizzles-sizzles-sizzles-sizzlesworkersworkersworkersworkersworkersworkers- faint) faint) faint&via=scroll_in) faint) faint) faint&title=In%20the%20steel%20 At noon. most factory owners prefer running the furnaces 24 hours requiring workers to be on 12-hour shifts. a few in casual shirts.heat. Blazing heat Over 14. which is higher than steel's recrystallization Dressed in grey and brown uniforms. These steel Some nap in the shade of trees.steel. typically above 926 degree celsius. once cut and polished.millsofofofofofofdelhi.facebook.steelmills. rolled into thinner.

The Conversation (/authors/1961) · Today · 02:30 pm . Read more ANIMAL RIGHTS (/TAGS/27118/ANIMAL-RIGHTS) Johnny Depp's dogs show evolving ideas of animal 'citizenship' Simon Coghlan... an identity card. as the temperature in Delhi crossed 45 degrees and the heat made 12-hour shifts unbearable. Organising themselves as the Garam Rolla Mazdoor Ekta Samiti.Last June. Wazirpur's workers brought the whizzing machines to a stop. Hundreds of them walked from plant to plant demanding what many take for granted – a minimum wage for skilled work. . a payslip. (https://twitter. (http://www.html): If we start letting movie stars even though they’ve been the ‘sexiest man alive’ twice to come into our It citizenship) citizenship) citizenship&via=scroll_in) citizenship) citizenship) citizenship&title=Johnny%20Depp The media storm created by Johnny Depp’s ultimately unsuccessful attempt ( (mailto:? ( url=http://scroll. then why don’t we just break the laws for everybody? It’s time that Pistol and Boo buggered off back to the United States. (whatsapp://send? (https://www. however.ideas. a member of Tony Abbott’s government who was responsible for the text=Johnny%20Depp's%20dogs%20show%20evolving%20ideas%20o u='s%20dogs%20show%20evolving Subject=Johnny%20Depp's%20dogs%20show%2 url= Barnaby Joyce warned (http://www.ideas.dogs. like the federal budget wash-up.skynews.Photo Credit: Leon Neal/AFP Behind the uproar over Johnny Depp's dogs lies a serious and evolving idea: our animal companions have an important place in our lives that entitles them to rights akin to a sort of to sneak his dogs into Australia took some air from other political stories.

org petition (https://www. that Australia was at any real risk from Depp’s deception. No-one doubted that Depp had acted irresponsibly. which protect us from diseases like rabies. Within 24 to protest Joyce’s threat. Animals are important in our lives Over recent decades there has also been a move. especially once the dogs were located and animal stories like this are rather trivial (http://www. to treat our relations with animals as worthy of sustained attention.change. Of course.there is an emerging ethic that treats our relations with animals with more albeit an often resisted move. For many in the media. Yet few people seriously believed. the media take seriously the fact that our country has strict quarantine policies (http://www. We can see evidence of this on both the “science” side and the “humanities” side of academia and in certain professions. thousands had signed the change. notwithstanding Joyce’s John Oliver was among many in the media who lampooned the story of Johnny Depp’s dogs. the agriculture minister threatened to have Depp’s dogs killed – unless they were removed from the country within days.Rejecting suggestions that the dogs be . Although many people still regard animal stories as trivial – and certainly the media often renders them trivial .

Many people regard them as family members and actually feel closer to them than to some of their human relatives. For being used for biomedical experimentation in New that this research is inconclusive.html). According to the Australian Veterinary Association ( scientists are now effectively treating our close. Even more radically. we have referred to animal “owners”. One effect of the way we now take humananimal relations more seriously is that this kind of language is being questioned ( who has written influentially on liberalism and multiculturalism. Our relations with animals are being re-imagined in various humanities disciplines. Language and law mark shift in relations Traditionally. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention names lowered blood pressure and reduction in loneliness (http://www. health and social improvements and assistance for people with special needs”.cdc. some lawyers are pushing to re-define animals from property to legal persons. The most recent case involves two chimpanzees ( It is true. but as an important part of our lives. the media have reported on studies into the way that people grieve for their animal companions ( as just two possible A dramatic example comes from Canadian political philosopher Will In the book Zoopolis: A Political Theory of Animal Rights (http://www. the benefits of this bond include “companionship. the veterinary profession has come to regard as highly important research into what has been called the “human-animal bond”. Kymlicka (with writer Sue Donaldson) argues that the time has come for recognising certain animals as genuine .For example. as some have claimed (http://theconversation. Some have argued that we should speak of animal “guardianship” rather than “ownership”.ava. emotional relationships with animals not as aberrant or foolishly sentimental behaviour.

com/johnny-deppsdogs-show-evolving-ideas-of-animal-citizenship-41968). They would possess these rights insofar as they can respond with appropriate co-operation. Nevertheless. Citizenship in the “Zoopolis” would certainly mean that politicians do not threaten dogs. But it does mean that certain animals should be granted some of the rights that go with citizenship. say. even visiting dogs who are citizens of other countries. sociable. For example. it is a product and a dimension of our changing ethic towards human-animal relations. complex relationships – namely. Of This article was originally published on The Conversation (https://theconversation. This does not mean that they should be granted the rights to vote or run for parliament. we may have strong obligations to teach our dogs to be sociable and well-adjusted. (mailto:? Subject=Johnny%20Depp's%20dogs%20show%20evolving%20ideas%20of%20animal%20'citizenship'&to=lett . and to allow them more access to parks and other life-enriching community amenities. We welcome your comments at letters@scroll. with being killed just because it suits their political purposes. to wild animals – should be recognised as fellow citizens. which is why he attracted the opprobrium of many people in Australia and around the world. the domesticated animals as opposed.members of society. He argues that animals with whom we can live in co-operative. Barnaby Joyce failed spectacularly to understand the modern change in human-animal relations. the “Zoopolis” is an idea that is presently far ahead of community opinion. any more than young children should have those rights. text=Johnny%20Depp's%20dogs%20show%20evolving%20ideas%20o u=http://scroll.dogs.ideasof- of- of- of- of- of- animal-animal-animal-animal-animal-animal- citizenship) citizenship) citizenship&via=scroll_in) citizenship) citizenship) citizenship&title=Johnny%20Depp .com/share? ( ( ('s%20dogs%20show%20evolving% Subject=Johnny%20Depp's%20dogs%20show%20 url= (mailto:? (https://plus.