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Determination of formation water in a

productive oil well by the determination of
water content and salinity, the effect of
asphaltene, carbonate, and clay mineral
contents
on water cut and also the rheological
properties of films in water – oil interfaces
ABSTRACT
The main aim of this paper is to demostrate how to determined the water content
and salinity in a producying oil well, also to determine the effect of asphaltene,
carbonate, and clay mineral contents on water cut determination in water–oil
emulsions, and the rheological properties of films in water – oil interfaces. The water
content and salinity where analized by capturing time domain transmissometry
(TDT) pulse signals by the newly developed coplanar waveguide (CPW) probe using
eigendecomposition technique. The role of asphaltene, carbonate, and clay contents
on the stability of water–oil emulsions and water cut determination was evaluated
via both IR analysis and physicochemical properties of the tested mixtures. And the
development and use of an interfacial film viscometer designed especially for
rheological investigations at oil-water interfaces.
Keywords:
Coplanarwaveguide;
Eigendecomposition;
Eigenvalues;
Oil
reservoir;Water content; Salinity; Asphaltene; Kaolinite; Bentonite; Water-in-oil
emulsions; Water cut; Total acid number; Gravity; Viscosity; Viscometer; Rheological
properties.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

1. Introduction
Formation water is the presented
water in oilfields, emulsified with
either crude or not. Below a certain
depth, all porous rocks are filled
with a fluid which is generally
water, in these porous rocks is
where
hydrocarbons
after
formation
and
subsequent
displacement settle .
When
oil
perforation
and
explotation begins in productive oil

wells, formation water starts to
come together with oil to the
surface, changing their conditions
of pressure and temperature. As
the pressure and temperature
shrinking, the formation water that
was
at
reservoir
conditions
becomes supersaturated along the
production tubing and on the
surface. Moreover, such conditions
of pressure and temperature , and
collisions with the walls of the pipe
in the extraction (turbulent flow),

This brings us to analize that in an oil well we can find formation waters two ways basically. 2000) Clay particles have been shown to stabilize waterin-oil emulsions. where conditions are least 1 conductive. Since water– oil emulsions with an excess of base over acid or acid over base. free water or free emulsion. M. and carbonates) on the changes of the physicochemical properties (API gravity. (Yarranton. . as a result. R. 1988) In the first study this paper will demonstrate the potential usability of the CPW probe to determine the water content and salinity of a producing oil well by analyzing captured TDT pulse signals using eigendecomposition technique. emulsion occurs when crude oil and produced water or injected steam is mixed in the 1 “Determination of water content and salinity from a producing oil well using CPW probe and eigendecomposition”. and transportation of crude oil. well bore. In conventional and heavy oil production. Zekri. and emulsion with oil. Abdulrazag Y.act as an emulsifier between formation water and oil. The second study is designed to investigate the effect of each sediment type (asphaltene. (Menon. clays. surface facilities. Elgamal. In refineries. So.A. are expected to alter the degree of wettability by 2 “Effect of asphaltene. Crude oil and water form emulsion. or surface facilities. well bores. water-in-oil emulsions are deliberately created and then broken to bwash out bcontaminants that are present in the produced water emulsified in the crude oil. reservoir. and in many locations such as hydrocarbon reservoirs. kinematic viscosity) of the water–oil emulsions. Also. Maisa El Gamal. as measured by the total acid and base numbers.A. which can be encountered at many stages during drilling. and clay mineral contents on water cut determination in water–oil emulsions. the formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a problem that can arise during the recovery. transporting and processing of crude oil. treatment. like it was said in the abstract this paper will study the effect of asphaltene. transportation systems and refineries. Mohameda. carbonate. Said.M.O. an inverse water-in. AbdelMohsen O. producing. carbonate.2 The stability of water-in crude oil emulsions depends mainly on a rigid protective filmencapsulating the water droplets. and clay mineral contents on water cut determination in water–oil emulsions”.oil (W/O) is formed. Determination of water content in crude oil relies on obtaining measurements at the wellhead. Mohameda.

wish to. One sample was from the Veit So. using infrared spectroscopy analysis. first. to interpret the data from a geochemical point of view. third. 2.1. they used two types of oils from Southern Illinois Fields. Asphaltenes . the first type is crude oil.1. Experimental Methods 2. Oils In the first study a light crude oil was used which was obtained from Al Bab oil reservoir. is investigated. while the second type is an improved formula of heavy duty diesel engine oil for API services. 0.3. The physicochemical properties of the used oil are shown in Table 2. The other was obtained from J. it was used two types of oil. the physicochemical properties of the used oil are shown in Table 1. Coen No. the stability of water–oil emulsions. which is light and obtained from Abu–Hassa oil reservoir. 2.1. 2. to present results of experimental measurements. second. and. Materials 2. 8 well in the Noble district producing from the Cypress formation.2. pH of 6. Table2. Table1. and the effects of this during the explotation of the oilfield.ion interaction mechanisms. the Al Bab reservoir brine was used as the water phase in all experiments with a total salinity of 170 parts per thousand (17%). This paper will relate this three studies in the study of determining formation water in a productive oil well. examine the requirements for rotational viscometers designed for interfacial rheology. this second study has utilized the test method ASTM D974 (colorimetric method) for measuring the total acid number (TAN) and investigating its variations with water cut. 43 well in the Noble district producing from the McClosky formation.1. In the second study. In addition.2mS.1.2 and conductivity of 113. And finally the third study. In the third study. Water Formation In the first study of determining water content and salinity.

2. a viscometer was used to determinade the rheological properties of films in water – oil interfaces. Milpark drilling fluids. 2. Viscometer In the third study. (encoclopedia2. 2. Table4.Preparation water – emulsions of oil Water–oil and oil–water emulsion solutions were prepared by mixing the Al Bab crude oil with the emulsifing agent (Triton X-100. 2. used in the paint. Table3. and the resulting torque on the inner cylinder is measured by the twist of the wire. The major relevant chemical and physical properties of the used clays are shown in Table 3. it was used two types of minerals. while the bentonite was obtained from API bentonite.1.4.5. The extracting solvent was evaporated. these were kaolinite and bentonite clay minerals.2.In the second study.1. First study 2. Oil-Water Rotational Viscometer. 3 A viscometer in which the liquid whose viscosity is to be measured fills the space between two vertical coaxial cylinders.2. isooctylphenoxy polyethoxy ethanol as 100 mg/25 ml oil). was converted to an interfacial film viscometer.com) . A commercially available MacMichael rotational viscometer. Minerals In the second study. The kaolinite mineral was obtained from Fluka Chemie Gmbit. This instrument was an adaptation of the Couette-Hatchek-type3 of rotational viscometer. the outer cylinder is rotated at a constant rate. varnished and other industries.1. Cation types of the clay mineral were determined via inductivity coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) and are shown in Table 4. the inner one suspended by a torsion wire. and the asphaltene was dried and recovered.1. Methods 2. consisted essentially of an inverted cylindertype of bob suspended on a torsion wire.1. then adding the formation water to the mixture at a rate of 1 ml/min with mechanical stirring (500 rpm) at room temperature. the ASTM D6560-00 Standard Test Method was used to extract asphaltene (heptane insoluble) from crude oil.

A. it is necessary that pulse transmitted from the generator be the only signal captured at the oscilloscope end to extract the parameters of material surrounding the probe.5.API gravity measurements API Gravity is an expression of density.2. 2.2. this indicator exhibits one color above a specified pH value and another below it.CPW probe A CPW is a surface oriented planar transmission line made of three conducting traces.5.1.4 P-naphtholbenzene was used as an indicator for determining the total acid number. For proper operation of the TDT system and accurate measurements. 1. Naphthenic acid corrosion—an old enemy of the petroleum industry. and Gs is the specific gravity.3. for monitoring of water content and salinity of a medium.5/Gs)131.Total acid numer (TAN) measurements The acidity of emulsified Al Bab crude oil is measured by its TAN.2. where API = (141.1. Derungs.1. 3. as shown in Fig. It is taken with a hydrometer at the surface of the emulsion at 20 oC. which is the number of milligrams of KOH required to neutralize the acidity in one gram of crude oil.1.System Components To verify the matching of the different parts of the constructed . 2. 2. The CPW probe structure is connected to the TDT measuring system from the pulse generator side and the oscilloscope side.1.2.4. 2. 4 W. is shown in Fig.2.2. Corrosion 12 (1956) 41–46.6.Monitoring by the time domain transmissometry (TDT) A typical TDT measuring system.2.

of the aqueous phase followed by a covering of 10 ml. of the oil under study.Total acid number (TAN) measurements This method used. To prepare the water–oil emulsions containing carbonate.2. Second study 2.% were prepared.2.2.2. crude oil emulsions in 600 ml beakers was heated to 55 ◦C (simulate the temperature in the United Arab Emirates reservoirs). 0.oil emulsion solutions were prepared with different asphaltene ratios of 0.2. were filled uniformly with 50 ml.1.5.Preparation of water-oil emulsions 2.2.3.3. and dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2).2. Five waterin. Third study In making a measurement with the viscometer. The procedure . a suspension solution of the carbonate in the deionized water (pH of 9.1. Emulsions containing clays 10 water-in-oil emulsions with different clay types (kaolinite and bentonite). 2. 2.2. The response of the system indicated a well-matched system. and carbonate ratios. and then the CPW probe was immersed in the emulsion and become ready for measurements in the TDT mode of operation.2.1. 2.1.2. Emulsions containing asphaltene The mixture was prepared by first mixing the asphaltene with diesel oil and emulsifing agent.1. 2.2. clay. similar to Petri dishes. glass dishes.1.2. 0. magnesite (MgCO3).2.3.7.7 wt. and different water cuts from 10–50 wt.system. the response of the measurement system was measured in air during system characterization measurement.6) was added drop wise to the mixture of diesel oil and the emulsfiying agent with mechanical stirring at 500 rpm for 30 min at room temperature.2. Emulsions containing carbonate It was studied with the use of of calcite (CaCO3).TDT experimental measurements To evaluate the performance of the CPW probe to measure the water content and salinity.2.2. 2.1.3.%.2. 2. and 0. was the same method used in the first study to determine the TAN. under conditions specially applied for quantitative work by using thin liquid film technique in the region from 4000 to 200 cm-1. 2.2.Infrared spectroscopic measurements The spectra of water/oil emulsions were studied under different asphaltene.

 it was found that TAN was increased in case of .2. 3. Effect of asphaltene addition  It was found that API gravity slightly decreased with the increase of asphaltene content. First study 3.2. petroleum oil may exhibit certain acid or alkaline (base) characteristics.1. or deterioration in service.2. Apparently.897 to 0. This proredure permitted one to obtain reproducible curves readily interpretable with respect to characterization of timedependent rheological properties of the interfacial film. signal peak broadening increases and the time delay increased. Physicochemica l properties of water oil emulsion  High API values relate to low density oils and vice versa. and taking measures each time it increase the rate.1.  The acid number increases with increasing asphaltene content due to the increase of donating protons.1.  Depending on oil source.started at a point 0. 3.  It was found that at 17% salinity. additive content.1. Second Study 3.2. refining procedure. 3. which increases the amount of dissolved hydrocarbons in produced water and refinery effluents. indicating that the presence of asphaltene in the crude oil has little effect on the emulsion density in comparison with that of water.554 mg KOH/g. Effect of carbonate addition  It was found that the API gravity is inversely proportional to both water cut and carbonate content. the emulsions have a TAN from 0. The procedure of continuously increasing rates of rotation was found necessary because it was difficult to reproduce the rest point deflection when the instrument was stopped after each reading. 3. Results and discussion 3. API gravity decreased gradually with the increase of water content. This may be attributed to the increase of the specific gravity of the emulsions due to increase of the mass upon addition of water and carbonate. Deepwater crude oil has a large polar constituent. possibly. the transmitted pulse amplitude decreased. TDT Signal analysis  The results indicated that as the water content increased. and then it starts to rotate continuosly increasing the rates. this difficulty was due to the time-dependent film properties and.2. the imperfect elasticity of the torsion wire.1.

The kinematic viscosity increases with the increase of water cut. 3. Effect of clay mineral addition API gravity decreases with the increase of clay content due to volume increase as a result of possible formation of a network of clay structure and thus trapping a large volume of oil in-between the emulsified water droplets. that is. and most were time-dependent. Third Study  The important timedependent rheological characteristics of these curves appear to be the thixotropic properties as indicated by the degree of hysteresis. This could be attributed to the ionic size and the hydration potential of cations of similar valence.  Many of the crude oil-water interfacial films studied were non-Newtonian. volume increase leads to increase of the specific gravity and decrease of API gravity. Therefore.  The effective viscosity of a non-Newtonian liquid or dispersion at a given rate of shear is proportional to the slope of the line drawn from the origin of the rheological diagram to the point on the curve measured at the desired rate of shear.2. The .3. 4. both basic cations and hydroxyl groups are increased and the acidity of the emulsion is reduced. It was found that the total acid number decreased with increasing water cut.1.  At a concentration of 0. API gravity of water–oil emulsion containing kaolinite clay is higher than that of bentonite. Summary and conclusion 4.01% NaOH the film demonstrated Newtonian behavior whereas non-Newtonian timedependent thixotropic properties were observed with 0. First Study  This study has evaluated the ability of the coplanarwaveguide (CPW) probe to monitor the water content and salinity of a producing oil well.3.     magnesium carbonate than that of calcium carbonate. with the increase of the bentonite clay. nonreproducibility of the data at increasing and decreasing rates of shear.001% NaOH. In addition. indicating that adsorption of oil on kaolinite and bentonite clay minerals in an aqueous medium is preferential and the associated emulsion volume is highly dependant on the rheological properties of clay minerals. 3.

Second Study  In this study. Third Study  Crude petroleum contains colloidally dispersed materials and that these materials are concentrated at oil-water interfaces to form . 4. The results indicated that the CPW probe is capable of detecting water content and salinity in a producing oil well.  For the effect of carbonate addition. indicating that asphaltene has little effect on the emulsion density in comparison with that of water. volume increase leads to increase of the specific gravity and decrease of API gravity. The effect of kaolinite is slightly more dominant than that of bentonite because kaolinite minerals have unsatisfied negative sites at their edges and have low ability to hold on the basic cations. Therefore. it was found that the API gravity is inversely proportional to both water cut and carbonate content due to the increase of the specific gravity of the emulsions and increase of the mass upon addition of water and carbonate. the role of asphaltene. magnesite (MgCO3).  Addition of water to the mixture contributes to the transformation of asphaltene ketone form into the enol.  For the effect of clay addition. making them easier targets for acidification. kinematic viscosity) of the tested mixtures. captured time domain transmission (TDT) pulse signals were analyzed using eigendecomposition technique. 4.3. carbonate (calcite (CaCO3).2.  The experimental results have shown that API gravity slightly decreased with the increase of asphaltene content. it was found that API gravity decreases with the increase of clay content due to volume increase as a result of possible formation of a network of clay structure and thus trapping a large volume of oil in-between the emulsified water droplets. and dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2) and clay contents (kaolinite and montmorillonite) on the stability of water–oil emulsions and water cut determination was evaluated via both IR analysis and physicochemical properties (API gravity.  The results indicate that the presence of both bentonite and kaolinite clays have contributed to the observed reduction in the acidity of the system.

This studies made to the formation water. in the other 2 studies it was found that this certain things are capable of change the properties of the crude oil. materials selection and hydrocarbon recovery. (2005). copper and zinc were present in greater quantities in the films demonstrating a higher degree of interfacial activity. M. that’s why it is to important to make a study of the formation water. determining the water content. Also. Formation water is rich with information about the rock in which it resides. and it can provide crucial informacion to analys during every stage in life of the reservoir.  Many emulsion systems are stabilized by closely packed.more or less rigid interfacial films.  The process of crude oilwater interfacial film formation probably involves steps similar to those involved in the dimeri  zation of fatty acids. Like it was studied in the first study. REFERENCES A. salinity and effects of asphaltene. “determining the water content and salinity from a producing oil well using CPW probe and eigendescomposition”.  Vanadium was present in greater concentrations in the films that showed the greatest mechanical rigidity and the least interfacial activity whereas other trace metals such as nickel. Mohamed. including optomization of completion design. During all of the 3 studies we determinate the quantity. carbonite and clays in the formation water. 5.O. drastically. Determination of water content . rigid interfacial films made up of a condensed complex of two or more emulsifying agents. E. emulsified with either crude or not. the effect that causes the API gravity and its characteristics.  Most crude oil-water interfacially active films having low interfacial tensions contained relatively large amounts of porphyrins. it was determinated. Samples and analysis of the formation water can provide vital information for the field devolping plan. This certain things come with the formation waters in the well. which process depends on hydrogen bonding. the effects of water content in the crude. are the same analysis made in the previous 3 studies named in this paper. Relationship with formation water Since formation water is the presented water in oilfields. characteristics and the effects of the formation water in the crude.M.

Maisa El Gamal. United Arab Emirates. 228. Waterinhydrocarbon emulsions stabilized by asphaltens at low concentrations. A. J.and salinity from a producing oil well. (2011). Abu Dhabi.IT CRUDE PETROLEUXWATER. DODD. 52– 63. Schlumberger. Norman. H. C. and clay mineral contents. C. H. . . V. carbonate. Finding Value in Formation Water. Menon. (2000).-M. W. United Arab Emirates. Medhat Abdou. (1988). Oklahoma. Colloid Interface Sci.. Yarranton. THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FILMS . Characterization of oil-water interfaces containing finely divided solids with applications to the coalescence of water-in-oil emulsions. 29. (2004). Effect of asphaltene. Colloids Surf. 7– 27. O. A. (1959).