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Understanding China
• The Middle Kingdom
• Name imparts idea of centrality
• Other countries were in
• The Qin (pronounced “chin”)
unified the country in 221
• Chinese people named their
country after that dynasty



• Another name for China is Cathay
• From an ethnic group Khitai, that occupied
northern China in the 11th century
• Marco Polo, Venetian traveler (1254-1325)
wrote about Cathay
• Chinese people call themselves Han, after
the Han dynasty, which succeeded the Qin



Red represents Revolution
Stars symbolize 4 social classes: working class, peasantry, urban petty bourgeoisie, and
the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) united under the Communist Party of China



Conflicts in U.S.-China Relations
• Enormous bilateral trade deficit (export to
USA 17.2%; import 7.1% 2012)
• Value of China’s currency (6.3 yuan per US
dollar 2014)
• Protections for US intellectual property
• Conflicts of human rights
• Naval altercations


Contrasting parts. Duality 5 .6/23/2015 Major Features of the geography and physical environment of China • Diversity.

Contrasting parts. 1.Xi Jiang 6 .Chang Jiang (Yangtze) 3.6/23/2015 Major Features of the geography and physical environment of China • Diversity. Duality • Key areas are lowland: densely populated.Yellow River (Huang He): North China Plain 2.

6/23/2015 Yellow River (Huang He) 7 .

6/23/2015 Yellow River (Huang He) Yellow River (Huang He) 8 .

6/23/2015 Wuhan. city on the Yangtze River Yangtze Plain near Wuhan 9 .

6/23/2015 Yangtze River at Wuhan Shanghai 10 .

Contrasting parts.Chang Jiang (Yangtze) 3.Yellow River (Huang He): North China Plain 2. 1. Duality • Key areas are lowland: densely populated.Xi Jiang .6/23/2015 Southern China Major Features of the geography and physical environment of China • Diversity.Upland Areas: thinly populated 11 .

6/23/2015 Yunan Tibet 12 .

6/23/2015 Tibet Tibet 13 .

Interior High desert of Tibetan plateau Sand/gravel desert of basins >> Limited Arable land. Duality • Key areas are lowland: densely populated. Dry/Mountainous Areas 14 .Upland Areas: thinly populated .Chang Jiang (Yangtze) 3.Yellow River (Huang He): North China Plain 2. 1. Contrasting parts.Xi Jiang .6/23/2015 Major Features of the geography and physical environment of China • Diversity.

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6/23/2015 Tarim Basin Takla Makan Desert Gobi Desert Loess Plateau Yellow Tibet Sichuan Basin Yangtze Pearl 16 .

6/23/2015 When and where did the Chinese state develop? • Developed in the Yellow River Basin 1700-1100 B.. cultural core of China 17 .C.

hunting people.C.6/23/2015 When and where did the Chinese state develop? • Developed in the Yellow River Basin 1700-1100 B. formal style of writing 18 . • Established walled cities. Cultural Core of China • C(Z)hou. wet-field rice. ox-drawn plow. settled as permanent farmers on the loess soil of Shensi.

C. Han dynasty 202 B. Beyond the Alluvial plain of Yangtze into – the Hill Country of Southern China • Floods/Drought in North 19 . Qin. –220 A.C. Manchuria of Korea – South. – China expanded: – West across Central Asia – North.D.6/23/2015 How did China evolve from the cultural core in the North China Plain? • Chou expanded the state through conquest and colonization. Chou dynasty 1100-256B..

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1500 miles long along southern edge of Mongolian Plain 21 .6/23/2015 Great Wall.

6/23/2015 How did China evolve from the cultural core in the North China Plain? • Lure of New Lands in the South • Colonization spread a network of walled – Cities called hsien or county capitals throughout the valleys of China – Hsien – Administrative/Economic Center 22 .

– 430 million in 1850 • Population pressure pushed farmers into increasing limited environments. – 150 million in 1600.6/23/2015 • Han agriculture was productive – China’s population grew 60 million 1240. Forests cleared. leaving new rulers to cope with environmental and social problems caused by floods and drought. Cycles of Dynastic Change 5 Phases • Social Discontent • New Dynasty and Pacification • Reconstruction • Dynastic heyday • Dynastic decline 23 . (b) environmental pressure underlies the course of Chinese political history • 25 times in 2000 years dynasties have fallen. • Twin problems: (a) population.

famine. drought.6/23/2015 What ideas form the basis of traditional Chinese society? Teachings of Confucius (551-479 BC) • Mandate given to the Emperor by Heaven to be Universal Monarch • Emperor must conform to Will of Heaven through good government and moral conduct • Harmony in the country will be evidence of good government and moral conduct • Flood. 24 . disorder – signs that Emperor was failing to conform to Heaven’s Will. and justified his replacement by a new dynasty.

Imperial Bureaucracy. Lived in self-sufficient group of villages. law courts. police force. What was the last dynasty to rule China? Manchu (Qing) Dynasty 1644-1911 25 . Peasant at base.6/23/2015 Organization of the Traditional Society 1. Emperor. Recruited through exams. collected taxes. 2. 3. Scholar-Officials administered network of hsiens. personally responsible for well-being of the country. at the apex.

Western Intervention: 1715 European traders had established trading post at Canton (Guangzhou) 26 .Peasant Unrest 2.6/23/2015 Qin? Qing What were the reasons for the fall of Manchu dynasty? 1.

6/23/2015 Opium Trade • Britain grew opium in its colony in India and shipped opium for sale in China. • Britain declared war on China 1840 27 . • Chinese Emperor banned opium trade.

beyond Chinese control • Extraterritoriality (exemption from local law) • Hong Kong was ceded to Britain (Reverted to China in 1997) 28 .6/23/2015 What was the result of the Opium War? Treaty of Nanking 1842 • Treaty Ports: Cities where foreigners could reside and trade under their own government laws.

6/23/2015 Shanghai in January 29 .

stripped the Manchu dynasty of effective power and demanded reparations. "Boxers" laid seize of the Foreign legation in Peking (Beijing) for 55 days in 1900. Pu-yi died in 1967. Sun Yat-sen 30 .6/23/2015 What happened to China in the 19th century? • Stung by defeats • Antagonized by missionary activities • Resentful of European/American concessions for railroads. • Seven nation expeditionary force defeated Boxers. In 1911 an accidental uprising overthrew Manchu dynasty. Her grandson Pu-yi ruled for 4 years until the revolution of 1911. Empress Tzu-hsi (1835-1908) was the last ruler of the Manchu dynasty. mineral rights • Anti-Western and anti-Manchu secret societies emerged.

6/23/2015 1911-49: Civil War Conflict between Nationalists (Chiang Kai Shek) and Communists (Mao Zedong 1893-1976) Mao led a peasant revolution and defeated the Nationalist forces which fled to Taiwan and established Republic of China (ROC) 31 .

nepotism 5. Demand for democracy. • Trade frictions could cause multinationals to rethink their heavy reliance on Chinese factories in their supply chains. communes 1949-65 2. Root out those on the capitalist road 3. Rapid Economic Growth 1990-2014 Foreign Investment. Trade Conflict Trade Conflict • Chinese economy relies heavily on exports to the US. Economic reforms 1977-78 to 1989 by Deng X'iaoping. Land Reforms. Cultural Revolution launched by Mao 1966-76 to prevent return of capitalism. end of corruption. human Rights. Raised "Red Guards" to attack old ways of thinking. Dissidents: Liu Xiaobo received Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 in jail 6. acting. while the American economy is much less dependent on exports in other direction. 4. 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre. working. 32 .6/23/2015 major phases in the transformation of China since 1949 1.

Prime Minister. executes policy. General Secretary and President of China. Since March 2013 – Party Committees in Provinces. party controls the military – Xi Jinping.) 33 . – Central Committee selects the Members of the Politburo (18 members). commerce etc. Agriculture and Food Supply (1) Limitation of arable land • Most productive land in East • 11. – Li Keqiang. – People’s Liberation Army.13 hectare of farm land per capita • Loss of farm land to non-farm use: 670 thousand ha each year for urban. Since March 2013 • Military. 4 million in uniform. dictates policy (63 million members) – Xi Jinping. industry. – Autonomous Regions and Municipalities select Central Committee (175 members) at the Party Congress. Ministries.6/23/2015 How is current China’s political system organized? • Communist Party. • State. Head of Central Military Commission. General Secretary chairs the Politburo.62% arable land (2013) • 0.

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desertification • Water pollution from untreated wastes • Air pollution (greenhouse gases. water shortages in north. • Loss of one-fifth of farm land since 1949 to soil erosion. desertification.6/23/2015 (2) Environmental Difficulties – Current Issues • Soil erosion. economic development. represent outrage that many farmers feel when their land is taken away 35 . Use funds to attract foreign investment • Villagers migrating to towns • Suicides (self-immolations). sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain. • China is the world’s largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from burning of fossil fuels. China's 900 million farmers are unhappy? Why? • Rural Incomes have fallen behind • Taxes/Charges • Local governments run out of money to pay farmers for grains.

6/23/2015 Farmers Picking Death Over Eviction in Ultimate Protest New Wave of Urbanization • Violent struggle between a powerful state and stubborn farmers • Tensions are in rural areas on the outskirts of big cities where farmers are being thrown off the land for development 36 .


Urbanization and Level of Income





Old Buildings under high-rises marked for
demolition in Chongqing



China’s Migrant Workers
• 262 million migrant workers
• Four-fifths of migrant worker are parents,
about 157 million mothers and fathers, are
separated from their children
• Migrants often work 12-hour days 6 days a
week; their children live with grandparents
• Restrictive residency system called hukou


• Without residency cards, migrant’s children
can’t attend city schools unless they pay
exorbitant fees as much as 4,000 yuan per
• Fees in their hometown for textbook, meal,
and other expenses come to 600 yuan
• 61 million children and teenagers growing
up separated from parents are dubbed “left
behind children.” Drop out rate high


6/23/2015 Migrants in China • Laborers from rural China have streamed to eastern cities to work in factories. construction industry. and do all kinds of work which prosperous city dwellers shun. deprived of access to public education for migrant’s children 41 . clean and cook for others. • Face widespread discrimination.

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• China consumes 40 million more tons of grain than it produces. down 18 percent from the record 486 million tons in 1986.6/23/2015 Decline of Grain Production Agricultural production has stagnated • 435 million tons.grain production • Production of rice. 43 . corn and wheat dropped to about 401 million tons in 2013.

lettuce and other vegetables. In 2003. • Farmers leaving for better-paying factory jobs. China lost more than 13. and industrial parks to lure factories. and greenhouses to grow eggplants. • Urban encroachment on farmland • Illegal seizures of farmland for golf course development. the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources found 178.500 square miles of farmland.6/23/2015 Why grain production is declining? • Loss of farmland. Each year more than 2% of farmland is lost.000 cases of illegal land seizure • Farmers convert fields to more lucrative cash crops. • More acreage is being converted to grazing for the fast increase in livestock. How can China increase food supply? Bring more land under farming? 44 . Since 2002.

little land left to reclaim for agriculture • Increase productivity of land under • Cultivation.6/23/2015 What factors restrict expansion of farm land? • Water shortage. intercropping. 45 . Multiple cropping. increase yields.

death rate remains low Reduced rate of growth 46 .6/23/2015 Demographic Transition Pre-1949 High birth and Death rates. High Growth Mid1970s-Present Decline in birthrate. Low rate of growth 1950-74 Decline in death rate High birth rate.

Monthly subsidies Higher retirement pensions Greater allocation of land Lower grain taxes Easier access to good schools 47 . 3.6/23/2015 One-Child Policy How are couples persuaded to adopt one-child policy? 1. 5. 4. 2.

Sterilization of couples 48 .Efficient monitoring system – List of child-bearing age women – Require them to undergo check-ups every 3-months – abort if found pregnant in case woman has a child already 2.6/23/2015 Why do people try to break the policy? Preference for son in traditional society How is one-child policy implemented? 1.

6/23/2015 Success in urban areas? Rural areas ? 49 .

Ruined marriages 3. No uncles. 4. bribery.6/23/2015 What are the social consequences of one-child policy? 1. abandonment. aunts. battles between daughter-in-law/mother-in-law 4. sister 5. Shortage of girls of marriageable age China’s coal mining industry • Deadliest in the world. 4-2-1 syndrome 6.000 miners killed in accidents each year • Illegal coal mines • A Chinese journalist (Lan Chengzhang) investigating coal mining conditions was attacked and killed in Shanxi Province 50 . Leads to murder. Women emotionally disturbed when pressured to abort 2.

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6/23/2015 SOEs (State Owned Enterprises) • Industrial production under the control and orders of the bureaucracy • Output important rather than profit. townships or villages • Joint ventures with foreign companies • Managers answer to local officials who have invested in them. • Profits and dividends 57 . operate at loss • Social welfare of the employees more important than efficiency • In heavy debt • How can the SOEs be reformed? TVEs(Township and Village Enterprises) • Controlled by units of local governments.

water and coal .result in waste and shortage.6/23/2015 What is China's environmental policy? a) tilted towards development b) policy of inefficient use of resources . Heavily subsidized c) National Environmental Policy Act(NEPA) strengthened in 1989 Enforcement is weak d) Solid hazardous waste not regulated 58 .

Hunan Province Hunan Province • Hunan’s abundance of raw metals has pushed provincial Communist Party leaders to develop mining and smelting • Heavy metals seep into Hunan’s crops. cancer • Cadmium accumulates in rice. since husks are fed to farm animals • High rates of cancer from cluster of villages • Eight million acres of China’s farmland has become polluted for planting crops 59 . cadmium – linked to organ failure.6/23/2015 Farmer worked on land in the shadows of lead factory in Hengyang. and also into animals’ meat.

Yellow dust • Powerful global winds called westerlies carry pollutants from China across the Pacific • Dust. Irvine 60 .6/23/2015 Pool of water behind a lead factory in Hengyang city. ozone and carbon accumulate in valleys and basins in California. where pollution is high Air pollution. UC. reported by Steven J. Davis.

6/23/2015 Forbidden City in Beijing Disease Surveillance Points 61 .

6/23/2015 What are the impacts of rapid development in China? a) Burning of coal increasing carbon emission 62 .

wetlands reclamation 63 . soil erosion.6/23/2015 What are the impacts of rapid development in China? a) Burning of coal increasing carbon emission b) Farmland conversion reducing cropland c) Land Degradation:desertification.

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press. Water/Air e) Corruption/Worker's abuse Human Rights Civil. wetlands reclamation d) Environmental pollution. freedom of speech.6/23/2015 What are the impacts of rapid development in China? a) Burning of coal increasing carbon emission b) Farmland conversion reducing cropland c) Land Degradation:desertification. religion. movement. soil erosion. political choice • China rejects the concept of universal human rights • Tightened ideological control • Citizens detained for counter revolutionary crimes • Control of religion • Prison camps (Laogai) 65 . political and economic rights of individual.

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68 . and other leaders fled Tibet. • From 1911 until 1950 Tibet enjoyed full independence. Established Tibetan Government in Exile in India. • In 1959 Tibetan uprising in Lhasa.6/23/2015 TIBET • Chinese influence in Tibet ended with the 1911 uprising against China. • Among Tibetans. the Dalai Lama. • In 1950 People's Liberation Army invaded Tibet and took control of the country • China began socialist transformation of Tibet. spiritual ruler of Tibet. • Fearing imprisonment. It was quickly suppressed by the Chinese military force. Replacing Buddhist spiritual values and customs with Mao and Marxism. general discontent and resistance to socialist change led to the 1956 guerrilla activities against the Chinese rule.

• After the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. • Religion was suppressed • During the Cultural Revolution (1966-75) many monasteries and temples were destroyed. traditional barley crop was replaced with wheat. a program was initiated to repair some of the damaged temples.6/23/2015 1959-1963. Accelerated pace of socialist transformation • Agriculture organized into commune system. 69 .

• Monasteries are no longer allowed to function as economic and educational institutions.6/23/2015 The 1980s and 1990s in Tibet • Surviving monasteries and temples were reopened. • Monks were allowed to return as caretakers. • Forced political education of monks. • Police presence is heavy in temples. 70 .

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Main cities of Tibet are coming to resemble provincial Chinese towns. as well as soldiers and police. • Chinese migrants now dominate major portions of Tibet's economy. • China is changing Tibet by flooding the place with Han migrants. are stifling Tibet's religious and cultural life. is at the same time transforming its culture and landscape. But Tibetans bristle under Chinese masters. 75 . • Sterile modern architecture is replacing traditional Tibetan buildings.6/23/2015 China has sought to modernize Tibet in the hope that rising prosperity. while succeeding in raising Tibet's standard of living. will be enough to win grudging acceptance of Chinese rule. • Chinese bureaucrats. eventually. • Ambitious Chinese development plan.

6/23/2015 Xinjiang • Autonomous Region • Uighurs Islamic Minority • 200 people killed in ethnic violence between Han Chinese and Uighurs 76 .

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the area was ruled by various Khans (Muslim rulers). accounting for onesixth of the country's land and much of its valuable natural resources. • For centuries. 79 . in harsh crackdown. • Uighurs separatist movement. most notably oil. Eastern Turkestan Islamic Republic was declared in Kashgar. • Xinjiang is China's largest province. In 1950 China occupied the territory. • Repression has deepened Uighur resentment of the Chinese. China.6/23/2015 Autonomy is largely symbolic because all major policy decisions are made by the Communist Party and almost all of the region's senior party posts are held by ethnic Chinese. Xinjiang. In 1933. has executed Muslim separatists.

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• Financial and business services are important now.6/23/2015 Hong Kong What are the reasons for the economic success of Hong Kong? • 1950s low cost wages manufacturing • 1980s prosperity built on economic links with China. factories have moved to lower wages in Guangdong In1997 Hong Kong. reverted to China. 81 . a British Crown Colony since 1842.

6/23/2015 Terms of transfer 82 .

and the fundamentally distinct feeling of both places. • Gap is evident in their cities.which have some resonance among overseas Chinese .6/23/2015 China and Taiwan • Divided by a gap established by history. 83 . Unless China begins to embrace political reforms. history and national identity . their cultures. culture and society. most of the people identify themselves as Taiwanese. Taiwan will continue to move further away. their businesses. not Chinese. • China's appeals for unification with Taiwan based on race. • In to move Taiwan's 23 million people.

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