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Data

Communication and
Networking
Implementation of ERP

This document highlights the need for a better


intra and inter communication model in an
organization for developing an efficient model of
communication, thus saving on time and money.

Neha Shokeen
Saluja S. Tirkey
Sameer Pauriyal
Shashank Kaushik

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INTRODUCTION
This project involves the implementation of ERP (Enterprise
resource Planning) in Rajasthan Spinning And Weaving Mills,
Banswara. The initial mode of communication was paper and
phone. This type of communication led to data redundancy and
data loss. Hence we propose the planning and networking
through ERP. This will be entirely through computer and all the
problems faced earlier will be eradicated. This new mode of
communication will be faster and data loss and redundancy will
be minimum.

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Data Communication and Networking

SOLUTION: IMPLEMENTATION OF ERP AND CONNECTION


THROUGH WIRELESS LAN
ERP applications are becoming increasingly complex. With an aim to cover all
aspects of an
enterprise, ERP Vendors are looking at finding solutions for highly niche areas
in enterprise
management or acquiring products to find solutions. Integration of additional
features to
improve enterprise management is also fuelling the complexity. From basic
document
publication solutions to tracking inventory movements using RFID all types of
features are
getting embedded into ERP applications.
Implementing an ERP product involves huge financial outflow and effort
because of the
impact it can have across the Organization. Industry specific and region
specific requirements
together with basic business functions add to the complexity of
implementation. Business
process changes, increased transparency in executing various business
functions and strict
time monitoring of execution of tasks bring in major change in the way
employees operate.
Often IT professionals confront situations of managing ERP projects either
from the

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implementation part team or from the Organizations IT team that is


implementing ERP
product. This document is aimed at providing a high level introduction to a
typical ERP
implementation project covering various phases, deliverables of each of the
phase and issues
to watch. This may help as a basic guideline to start understanding your role
as a project
manager on either side for an ERP implementation project.

Phases of Implementation
Various ERP products use different methodologies which are more
of variants of a basic
model. The implementation methodology explained below is a
basic model. This covers each
of the phases relevant for ERP implementation. If you are
implementing a specific ERP
product such as SAP or Oracle eBiz, please align this with the
prescribed application
implementation methodology used for the application.

Data Communication and Networking

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ect Initiation
During this phase all important structures for the implementation
will be built. The strength of these foundations will determine the
success of the implementation.
A few of the foundations to be created during this phase
includes
Team Building Very critical activity before starting of an
implementation project. This involves different levels of team
building.
If you are managing the implementation team of a consulting
partner then you need to build your team first because people
join your project from different teams and you may not have
emotional relationships built with all the team members.
If you are managing the IT team of the Organization in which ERP
Implementation project will kick off then, ensure that your IT team
works like a team. You also need to take up team building activity
involving your IT team and key users identified by the business.

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If you are managing the overall program, ensure that all the
teams involved in the implementation including the team from
the implementation partner, IT team to be involved in the
implementation project and the key users from the business.
Communication Protocols Second critical activity for the
success of implementation project is setting up communication
protocols. During this phase try to identify the influential
members in each of the teams involved in the implementation
partner team, IT team and key users team who can exert
influence on other members of their teams because of their
knowledge, capability or nearness to the top management and
channel the formal and information communications from those
members.
Project Charter As a project manager it is important for you to
publish the rules of the project and publish a list of key
stakeholders and key members of the project. Create and publish
a project charter covering the roles and responsibilities of all
stakeholders and members of the project, communication and
reporting structures, activity out of scope, high level timelines and
major risks with mitigation plans.
This activity is critical for the project manager who is incharge of
the whole project delivery. This may be from the implementation
partner team or from the implementing Organization team.
Recasting the Project Plan Being the project manager, you
should take a relook at the project plan you have inherited. The
first project plan normally created during the evaluation phase
and may form part of the presales cycle when you are choosing
the implementation partner. This plan will not be accurate
because good amount of facts will not be clear during
evaluation/presales phase and so it has to be reviewed and
updated before starting the project.

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Hardware and Software Requirements Since the project


plan gets updated, the project impact will be much clearer at this
phase and hence hardware and software requirements arise
during the project implementation should be planned and
published at this level. This helps the stakeholders to plan their
capital outflows appropriately.
Instance Planning Number of instances of the application
required during the implementation cycle should be planned at
this level.
Main Activities during the Project Initiation

Making of Project Charter and Reviewing and updating the


Project Plan
Building strong implementation team involving all members
of the implementation project.
Defining and establishing the project infrastructure such as
hardware and software
Planning and establishing the application environments to
be used by the project teams

Main Deliverables during this Phases

Project Charter covering the team structure, responsibility


charters and communication protocols
Project Plan duly updated considering the new conditions
and risks
Infrastructure requirements document
Application Environments
Key Challenges

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Establishing a communication protocol that is acceptable for all


stakeholders in the project user community, IT team members
and implementation team.
Planning and establishing application instances to be used by
different project team members. Striking consensus here is a bit
challenging considering the balancing to be dong between budget
availability and team requirements.
Business Process Analysis
Business Process Analysis is the first critical phase of the
implementation project. During this phase the implementation
team will document the current business process which is very
critical to map the business process with the ERP delivered
processes.
This phase often overlaps with the Project Initiation phase
because when the stakeholders
are busy establishing the infrastructure etc. the users and the
implementation team members will work on documenting the
business processes.
Current business processes
It is important to bring up all possible scenarios for discussion
during this phase and find
required answers relating to all questions the implementation
team bring up for each of the business process. Any error in
documenting a specific process may lead to huge rework during
later phases which can be very expensive from the project
perspective.
While recording the current business process, it is important to
document the business process flows covering all possible
scenarios. Appropriate examples to describe each of the scenarios

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will help improving the fitment with the delivered business


process.
In addition to building a strong foundation for the project by
establishing all requirements in detail, this phase also is very
critical from the perspective of establishing the relationship
between the implementation and user teams. The amount of
business knowledge and flexibility to understand industry specific
practices displayed by the implementation team is a key factor for
success during this phase.
Main Activities during the Business Process Analysis
Phase

Making the implementation and business user teams


working together
Studying each of the business process and documenting the
critical flows
Making business process diagrams with appropriate
examples
Main Deliverables during this Phase

Business Process Diagrams


Current Business Practices or AsIs process document
Key Challenges

Making the teams to think through all possible scenarios


Building the business process diagrams covering all
possibilities and exceptions
Makin the business and implementations strike a balance to
build a strong relationship which will be critical during next
phases of implementation project

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Data Communication and Networking

Solution Design
During solution design phase, the implementation team together
with the user team will establish the required business processes
to be configured in the ERP product. These processes might be
existing business processes or changed business processes
defined after a brainstorm between the implementation and user
teams considering the features offered by the ERP product.
During this phase all those features not covered by the delivered
features of the ERP product will be identified and documented.
Solution for all the requirements that can be configured within the
ERP product will be created and workarounds of customizations
for all those requirements which are identified as gaps
considering the delivered features of the ERP product.
Interface designs, security architecture and initial configuration of
the application will be planned and documented.
To Be Business Processes

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During an ERP implementation, implementing organizations


always attempt to utilize the best practices to streamline the
existing business process. This exercise will lead to a new
business process from existing process which will lead to the final
solution design for the organization.
Though the attempt is not to lead towards a complete re
engineering of the business process, certain amount of process
corrections and streamlining the processes will be attempted.
Final Solution Design
During this phase a complete solution of the finalized business
processes the implementing organization attempts to create for
running their business operations will be created. The solution
maps will drive the configuration of the initial set up data and
conversion of data for reaching a desired state of the system.
While making the solution maps from business processes mapped
into the ERP application, the implementation team should attempt
to find a near complete solution fitment within the application for
all business processes.
All the scenarios for which a direct solution is not available within
the ERP application should be recorded as gaps before attempting
the workarounds. If workaround solutions are attempted at the
time of initial solution mapping the completeness of solution will
suffer.

Conference Room Pilot


During this activity, all the agreed business processes and their
respective mapping into the ERP applications will be discussed in
detail by the implementation and the users teams. The
implementation team will present each of the business process
maps in the ERP application and bring up the clear gaps of the
business requirements discussed and agreed upon.

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The implementation team can bring up the alternate/workaround


solutions for discussion during this phase.
Conversion Plan
While designing the solutions, data from existing application
should be planned.
Main Activities during the Solution Design phase

Defining the future business process or To Be scenarios for


the business
Creation of detailed design books covering mapping of
existing business processes with the delivered business
processes of ERP product
Writing of functional specifications for all the features found
to be not mapped with the delivered business processes.
Application Configuration for Conference Room Pilot
Planning and designing interfaces and reports
Designing application and user security matrix
Identifying the qualified flows and planning Batch Schedules
for auto execution
Main Deliverables during this Phase

Required or To Be Business Process Document


Design Books showing the solution plans and sample
configurations
Functional Specification Documents for Customizations,
Interfaces and Reports
Application and User Security Matrix
Batch Schedule Plan
Key Challenges
Key and feasible mapping acceptable to all stakeholders is
very critical

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It is important to cover all possible scenarios including


exceptions. Any wrong mapping at this level can be found
only during the UAT phase which can lead to project delays
All business process fitments in the ERP application should
be showed to the users and allow them to check and get a
signoff at this level
Any workaround solutions to be agreed during Conference
Room Pilot for finding solution to any to be business process
should be documented clearly and signed off to avoid
conflicts during later phases.

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Data Communication and Networking

Development
During the Development phase, most critical activities of the
project will take place. Creating configurations to map the fit
business processes, development of customizations and
interfaces, creation of conversion scripts are the critical activities.
During configuration the master configurations should be created
to make the organization structure and other set ups. All required
data relating to countries, currencies, chart of accounts, budgets,
invoice types, voucher types and so on should be created in the
configuration instance.
A copy of the finally configured instance should be archived
before progressing for the next phase.
Data Conversion
During this phase the existing customers transaction data will be
converted into the ERP
application. The best practice for conversion is to convert the
opening balances of the year and the open items up to the date of
conversion using the data conversion scripts. The data should be
provided by the user teams in a required format which can be
used as input for the data conversion scripts.
Main Activities during the Development Phase

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Creation of master and transaction configurations


Development of Customizations, Interfaces and Reports
Unit testing of all newly developed components
Creation of conversion data and conversion scripts
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Main Deliverables during this Phase

Configurations
Developed
Components/Objects
Interfaces and Reports
Data Conversion Files
Data Conversion Scripts

for

Customizations,

Key Challenges
While creating Configurations it is important to explore
optimum solutions else the solutions will not be convincing
for the users.
It is important to execute functional unit test carefully to
confirm the developed feature is confirming to the functional
design.
If huge amount of data has to be converted, few important
aspects should be considered
The users should be aware of the impact of huge amount of
data conversion on their involvement for creation of data
files and verification of data after conversion
If the more than one year finance data as to be converted
important risk is to convert one full year data and have the
finance books tallying in the financial year to populate the
correct opening balances.

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Data Communication and Networking

Testing
During the testing phase complete system testing with new
customizations, interfaces and reports and User Acceptance
Testing will have to be executed.
System and Integration Testing
If your implementation project have good amount of
customizations it is important to test entire business flow

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including the customized piece to ensure that the customization is


not impacting the overall business process.
Once all customizations tested, then the integrations among
different modules and applications should be tested.
If the implementation involves any modules that will be used by a
huge number of users then load testing should also be performed.
If the application should be accessed remotely or though a
network then it is important to perform the network testing as
well.
User Acceptance Testing
During this phase the finally configured system with converted
data should be copied into a new instance to create the Test
Environment.
The test environment represents the possible live scenario and
the testing by users on this instance can bring up the actual
issues that need resolution to reach the Go Live phase.
The users team should provide a list of scenarios they believe to
be very critical and complex for their business and the
implementation team should bring up the test cases to facilitate
the testing of these scenarios. The test cases show a systematic
flow showing which screen after which screen to be used, what
data to be inserted and what is the expected outcome.
This helps the users to navigate through the ERP system for
testing the focused scenarios
faster and the results will be reliable as well because this can
reduce the knowledge issues to a large extent.

Main Activities during the Testing Phase


Functional Unit Testing
Stress and Network Testing
Creation of Test Scripts for User Acceptance Testing
Execution of User Acceptance Testing
Main Deliverables during this Phase

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Test Scripts for User Acceptance Testing


Production
This is the preparation for Going Live. Production Instance
should be created and initial configurations should be created
in the system. The configured Production System should be
used for configuring the Security as per the agreed Security
Matrix. Opening Balances should be populated and the data
conversion should be executed.
Main Activities during the Production Phase

Creation of Production Instance


Execution of Security matrix
Final Data conversion
Main Deliverables during this Phase
Final Production instance with configurations, security and
data

Key Challenges
Security should be planned and executed considering all
constraints and compliance requirements such as SOX

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Data Communication and Networking

Transition
During this phase the users team will be prepared to take over
the fully configured ERP
system to run for their business. The final configurations created
in the production system will be documented for the purpose of
user reference.
The users will be trained on the application to understand and
execute their business transactions comfortably.
Training documentation including presentations and user guides
will be created for the purpose of current and future users.
Main Activities during the Transition Phase

User Training
Training Documentation
Final configuration documentation for future reference
Main Deliverables during this Phase

Final production configuration document


Training Documentation
Key Challenges
User Training should cover practical scenarios to make the
users understand and follow the training Training
documentation should be simple and exhaustive

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Data Communication and Networking

TECHNOLOGY USED: WIRELESS LAN


1.INTRODUCTION
A wireless LAN(WLAN) is a flexible data communication system
implemented as an aextenction to, or as an alternative for, a
wired LAN within a building or campus using electromagnetic
waves. WLAN transmit and receive data over the air, minimizing
the need for wired connections. Thus, WLANs combine data
connectivity with user mobility, and, through simplified
configuration, enable movable LANs.
Wireless LAN provide a new layer of flexibility and serves to
environments and to users that cannot served by the traditional
LAN. For users who are becoming highly mobile within their
building environments, the wireless LAN could be the most
effective way to couple them to their information and
communication services .In wireless LAN the user must stay with
in contact space provided by the wireless communication system.
2.NEED FOR WIRELESS LAN

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Over the past few years , wired LANs have lost their need and
interest to wireless LANs due to fact that some applications could
not implement LANs. For instance, consider a warehouse where
there is a need to track vehicles, movements of goods, locations
etc..in support of logistics and distribution activity. Wiring LANs,
the roving users can be in direct two-way contact with the full
resources of the enterprises information systems . Similarly,
situation in which people have to move around to various
locations to perform their work are candidates for wireless LANs.
Such
situations
would
include
manufacturing
stations,
researchers, testers, health care providers. Wireless LANs can also
move to higher power plateaus which will extend their distances
from hundreds of feet to several tens of thousands of feet. Infact,
with multiple capability of some of the wireless networks, this
technology may be more far reaching than the wired wold. Adding
wireless satellite broadcasting, would give you a global capability.
These alternatives can make the wireless LAN world more flexible
and support longer distances than the other options.

3.WLAN CONFIGURATION
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent WLAN that
connects a set of PCs with wireless adapters. Any time two or
more wireless adapters are within range of each other, they can
set up an independent network. These on-demand networks
typically require no administration or preconfiguration.
Access points can extend the range of independent WLANs by
acting as a repeater.

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Infrastructure WLANs, multiple access points link the WLAN to the


wired network and allow users to efficiently share network
resources. The access points not only provide communication with
the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic in the
immediate neighborhood. Multiple access points can provide
wireless coverage for an entire building or campus.
4.HOW WLAN WORKS
In wireless LANs the users or clients access the data or
information from the server through the Access Point. This access
point is working as a bridge between Ethernet LAN and wireless
LAN.The media between client and access point is space.
The data is to be transferred in the form of Micro waves or Spread
Spectrum of Infrared
technique. In all this the transmitters and receivers handle the
data transfer between client and server.
1.SPREAD SPECTRUMM TECHNOLOGY
Most wireless LAN systems use spread-spectrum technology, a
wide band radio frequency technique developed by the military
for use in reliable, secure, mission-critical communications
systems. Spread-spectrum is designed to trade off bandwidth
efficiency for reliability, integrity, and security. There are two
types of spread spectrum radio:
2.INFRARED TECHNOLOGY
Infrared (IR) systems use very high frequencies, just below visible
light in the electromagnetic spectrum, to carry data.Like light, IR
cannot penetrate opaque objects; it is either directed of diffuse
technology.
3.MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

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Microwave WLANs use the frequencies in the 18 GHz to 24 GHz


range to encapsulate and transfer the LAN data packets. They are
capable of a multiplexed trafic load and can be used beyond
building limits.
The distance from microwave LANs depends on the number of
hops between transceivers. Long distance microwave towers can
send their waves to around 30 miles, depending upon the size of
the tower.
5. WIRELESS LANs VS WIRED LANs
The major difference between wireless LANs and wired LANs is
they are not connected to the wire or cable. It is important that
the wireless connections be reasonably transparent to the user.
Wireless LAN didn't follow any type of topology, but where as in
wired LAN there are so many arrangements like Bus topology,
Ring topology, Star topology etc..
ADVANTAGES OF WIRELESS LANS
ROAMING:
The user cannot design the boundaries of the wireless LAN world,
which required some form of notice be given when they reach the
limits, or the system must support some type of roaming that
allows user to move from one area to another area and still retain
services from the LANs environment.
Speed:
As compared to wired LAN, wireless LAN services are found in the
slower speeds of information transfer, the problems of security of
transmission, and possibly error to noise factor.By using Spread
Spectrum techniques the speed is increased.
Cost :

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Wireless LAN products are very low cost.


For example
Dell computer wireless LAN card cost is $139.
Macintosh wireless LAN PC card costs only $99.
In wireless LANs the Access Points are used as bridges to existing
LANs.
Flexibility :
Flexible connectivity means that the user can choose how and
when do they want to be connected to the wireless LAN services.
Some will chosen such a contact basis, or an occasional basis.
To connect the users to a broad range of services and/or to
different networks as the need or location may dictate. Flexible
connectivity by providing an automatic recognition of roaming
users and the ability to hop across various networks to obtain
information and services.
Fast setup :
The advantage of wireless LAN is the ability to initiate a fast setup
or a quick move of the technology and continue to offer
connectivity services. The flexibility of wireless LANs to be
installed quickly and come up running minimal setup and
initiation makes them a logical choice for most emergency or
temporary settings example fire , sports, etc..
Security :
One of the most important thing in wired LAN or wireless LAN is
the security. The network administrator is to be concerned about
security, on any type of network. Disgruntled former employees,
haskers, viruses, internet-based attacks are an unfortunate fact of
life in any form of networking today.
Wireless LAN has all the properties of wired LAN except wire,and
thus the security measures that is integrity and security of data in
a wired LAN environment are also applicable to the wireless LAN.

Data Communication and Networking

PHYSICAL SECURITY

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The only difference between these is at the physical layer, all


other network services are same.

In WIREDLAN LAN trafic can be interpreted and decoded with


commonly available software tools once one has physical access
to the LAN cabling.The network administrators has to set the
proper security levels to their users. In WIRELESS LAN ,eliminating
significant amounts of wire form a given installation dramatically
reduces the number of places for wire trappers to gain access to
the wired physical plant.
6. WIRELESS LAN CONNECTIONS & OPERATIONS
If any client in the wireless LAN want to communicate with other
clients or with the server the connection must be established.
They are three types of connections, these are
1. ONE - TO - ONE OPERATIONS
2. ONE -TO - MANY OPERATIONS
3. MANY - TO - MANY OPERATIONS
ONE - TO - ONE OPERATIONS :
One-to-one wireless LAN operations can take place when a single
portable unit wants to
make data contact with a single fixed server unit. A typical
example would be a laptop or notebook computer coupled to fixed
desktop computer station.
The one-to-one wireless LAN covers limited space and traffic.
ONE - TO - MANY OPERATIONS
When wireless LAN users want to acess several servers with in
their networked, they are

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coupling to one-to-many relationship. One-to-many connections


allows the user to have apparent access to a full range of
resources via the wireless LAN technology.
MANY - TO - MANY OPERATIONS
Many-to-many operations consist of various mobile user clients
coupled to a variety of resources over a wireless LAN. The major
aspect of many-to-many is the management of the requests and
returns of information to and from the mobile end users.
7. APPLICATIONS OF WIRELESS LAN
Here is a brief description of the various industries and work
environments, which can benefit from deploying from wireless
LAN solutions. WLAN solutions are permitting into wide range of
industries such as Health care, Education, Warehousing and Office
environment.
1. healthcare:
Health care institutions exist to help people get well and stay well,
but this critical mission is often hamped by all the paperwork for
admissions to patient records , from billing to insurance report.
The time spent to keep them is not. The WLAN technology can
help healthcare professionals such as :
Keep patient records current and accessible.
Maintain network connectivity for mobile, roaming staff.
Link departmental wired LANs in sepate buildings to central
facilities.
2. Education :
Today ,there is more to delivering education than face-to- face
contact. The Internet , distance learning , and computer based
training allow instructors ,students, and resources to be located
across a continent.

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WLAN can help educators and administrators meet a variety of


education such as :
Low-cost campus area networks for access to local and
internet services.
Flexible,temporary LANs located quickly.
Network access to roaming students.

3.Office :
Earlier days, working in an office meant that every day you
worked in the same location, at the same desk,with the same
computer . When you worked at the other end of the building, you
left behind everything. today , the picture is fading, and the
picture that's coming into nfocus features flexible office
configuration and a mobile work force.
With WLAN , people can done their work done and make the
office infrastructure more
efficient such as: Reliable connectivity for individual workers and
whole workgroups to networked applications and data from any
office location.
Sales and services persons spend almost all their time out of the
office. It is possible to connect them with officers.
9. CONCLUSION.
We conclude that wireless LAN is more flexible and it is low cost
than wired LAN. We can access the data form any where in the
globe with out connect to the other clients or servers . Now a days
it is not used by the most of people , but in the coming future it is
sure that this WLAN will occupy entire globe.

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Data Communication and Networking