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and on Silks and Satins. &c. from Monsieur Le Clerc. the mode of choosing Camel-hair Pencils. comprised under the following heads: viz.Just Published. Together with Instruc tions for Painting on Glass. Price One Shilling. upon Geometrical Principles. and at present in high estimation. on Copper-Plates. or in copying from another Picture. methodi cally digested. Price One Shilling. the Nature and Properties of each. The ARTIST'S ASSISTANT in Drawing. H. 2. and Manner of preparing them. Flowers. Very useful for Gentlemen and Ladies that amuse themselves with Painting in Water-Colours. Lim ners. By R. AS COMPANIONS TO THIS WoRK. beginning with the first lines. and adapted to the Capacities of Young Be ginners. Price One Shilling. . in the manner at present practised by the most eminent Artists in that profession. 5. Price One Shilling. &c. The ART of PAINTING in WATER-COLOURS. With particular Directions for Preparing the Colours. The ART of DRAWING in PERSPECTIVE.. the whole being practical Improve ments on the Experiments of the Hon. Painting on Glass. or. Engraving. in a variety of Branches. The PAINTER'S COMPANION. and a mechanical Method of Perspective and Designing. RoRERT BoyLE. Etch ing. Fleet STREET. Con taining the easiest and most comprehensive Rules for the Attainment of those truly useful and polite Arts. &c. To which is amexed. Metzotinto-Scraping. Method of Managing the Colours at the different sittings in taking the Picture from Life. engraved on Copper. 6. 1. Instructions relative to the Choice of Ivory. 53. in Water-Colours. Price One Shilling. &c. on Ivory. No. &c. illustrated with a variety of Examples. as well as Designers. a matter known by very few. from their proper Ingredients. LAURIE. The ART of DRAWING without a Master. wherein the Doctrine of PERSPECTIVE is clearly and concisely treated of. By the Author of the Artist's Assistant. being a familiar Method of Drawing the Human Figure. agreeably to the Practice of the most eminent Masters. and the ART of BURNISHED GILDING on GLASS. exem plified in Landscapes. The proper Colours for Painting in Miniature. A Treatise on Colours: showing how to make the several Sorts. - 4. together with the most useful for Colouring Maps. Perspective. Price One Shilling. in Crayon. by John Payne.< & . 3. Improved Edition. The ART of PAINTING in MINIATURE. meatly engraved on Twenty Plates. Illustrated with suitable Examples. and in Crayons: explained in a full and familiar Manner. PAINTING in WAX-CRAYONS. bleaching and polishing it prepa ratory to the beginning a Picture. &c. Prints. invented for the benefit of those who are strangers to Mathematics.

date the decline of that art from his time. sumk gradually below each other in the art of colouring. surprising. and from those com posed all their teints. if we have no cer tain knowledge of their method of colouring. how should we understand that of those who lived nearly two thou sand years ago? Why the method and practice of colouring so well known to Rubens and Van Dyck. How it really was. but. is. - All the masters from Rembrandt.INTRODUCTION. de Piles was of opi nion. time has put it out of our power to determine. then it can hardly be longer doubted. should not have been continued down to the present masters. It is plain. that the four capital colours of the ancients would mix to that perfection we see in the works of Titian and Rubens: and. in their pictures. or both. or want of generosity. indeed. or DEAD-colour ING. who lived within the last two centuries. that of these four colours they made their FIRST. from the works of their pupils. because. This gradual degeneracy in the knowledge of so charming an art can be attributed to nothing but in ability. therefore we may. The elder Pliny has observed. that they knew the method. but that from these judiciously varied. if we suppose those four principal colours in perfection. might be made all the colours in nature. For our part. that the ancients painted with four colours only. These gen A 2 . Mons. neither difficult nor tedious. from the little variety of capital colours used by them. we cannot believe. -. we see the same sort of colours and colouring: and. with certainty. it is not to be doubted but that the whole was comprised in a few principles.

- In this work we begin with a short account of the principal colours used in flesh. SOME REMARKS ON COPYING. and confess that the works of Van Dyck and Rembrandt are the surest guides to nature. We flatter ourselves that the following sheets con tain something that may be of consequence in the acquisition of this noble art. which they might have at tained in a little time. tlemen probably. OR DEAD-COLOURING. SECOND PAINTING. if it were against their own private interest to have published it whilst they practised. were not able to give us so perfect an account as the great masters. had they hit at first upon the right path. This truth we have experienced. see a small Treatise.iv INTRODUCTION." *. De Piles says. oF LANDSCAPE-PAINTING. - It is from these most excellent masters that our method has been established. that painters spend many years in the search of knowledge. and hope that the prac tical method of colouring here laid down. although we have always applied them to practice from nature. OF PAINTING BACK-GROUNDS. and proceed with the principal teints. which has been the result of much study and long experi ence. and from them have acquired the virgin'teints and finishing secrets. by . they should. For the Principles of Perspect the Publisher of this Work. will be found both useful and agreeable. OF PAINTING DRAPERIES. THIRD OR LAST PAINTING. &c. in order to have given to posterity an opportunity of reaping the benefit of their studies. under the following heads: THE FIRST PAINTING. and. From their pictures we have traced the first lay of colours. yet they might have communicated what they had learned from them. have left it behind them. from general regard to men of taste. and to the art itself.

. only that some of them are better than ours. if they were mixed to excess. and throughout the work have had the utmost regard to truth. and that they should be as little shaken as possible by the motion of the pencil. without design to flatter or offend. on which they laid their virgin teints. and were as near to the life as possible. V All these particulars we have endeavoured to make familiar. or dead-colouring. Here the lovers of painting who study for pleasure or amusement. omitting only the finishing-touches and colours that should come last. which. They were convinced that there were cer tain colours which destroyed each other. and with colours that kindly united. with light strokes of the pencil. very nearly alike. Yet we have found none of them in the pictures of Van Dyck and Rem brandt. It is certainly true. in the most in telligible manner. Those we have would. Some painters have imagined that the great masters : had colours which we have no knowledge of. and thus they imitated the force and freshness of nature. may. . both ancient and modern. or grounds. affords the greatest pleasure to the mind. imitated nature in their first painting. to the secrets of that art. so far as they could without dirty ing the colours. of all the designing ones. we are convinced. probably. they judged correctly. and. It has been observed that Titian and Rembrandt prepared their first lay. but what are common. that the great masters. appear much finer. may be conducted easily. clear. This we design to shew in the course of our work. if they were laid on proper grounds. though destitute of a master or guide. acquire a competent knowledge of colouring almost without studying. Such as are born with a happy genius. step by step. which would be reme died if the art were more encouraged. and exactly to the rules and me thods of the best practitioners. The motive of publishing this little treatise is solely - for the benefit of the art. and instructive. from these instructions.INTRODUCTION.

extremely communicative. added to a certainty of touch. alacrity displayed in all. so useful in all professions. in Sir Peter Lely's time. and prepared his grounds and first lay of colour on such cloth as Lely used. Reynolds manner was certainly peculiar to himself. A spirit of emulation. which will be known when his paintings are no more.) and the general. against too great a reliance on that . together with his elegant and instructive lectures on painting. in his time. on which he established his slight expeditious manner. elegant turn of his figures. and not easily copied. I caution you. 1821. he was easy of access. and ready to lend his performances to young students. is most particularly essential to the perfection of art. and the late Sir Joshua Reynolds. Attention to the following is recommended to young students: The Speech of Sir T. on opening the Royal Academy. And it may not be amiss to add here. (the Life Academy. that. rendered his pictures superior to any thing since Van Dyck. Colouring was not his talent. gentlemen. but.* Vl INTRODUCTION. by neglecting the charming style of Van Dyck. and won: derful expression. while living. unfading and everlasting. Sir Godfrey Kneller. Then followed the period in which the painters exposed their want of understanding. President. he fell into a slighter mode. are me morials of his worth. LAwRENCE. delivered at the Royal Academy. A painter should have as great regard to his first lay as he has to the succeeding parts of his work. December. and preferring that of Kneller. for their improvement at home. soon after the death of the latter. and since him there have been few artists except the president of the Royal Academy. the best face-painter in Europe. which was more agreeable to his genius and inclination. yet Kneller was. in their leisure hours. and invented the cold grey-coloured cloths. GENTLEMEN-I congratulate you on the decided improvement of one of the Schools of Art. whose heads can stand any comparison with his. The fine character of his portraits. These amiable characteristics. stu died his manner.

gentlemen. in the same manner are the beauties of art missed by overlooking those simple and affecting incidents which Nature presents to us every day. vi genius with which Nature has gifted you. must feel himself. The gentlemen who are candidates in historical painting I would earnestly advise. to concentrate your thoughts to wards that point: for whatever tends to fix and concentrate our thoughts. . Leonardo da Vinci. To attain the powers of expression. but to consider your subject as it would have taken place in reality. I would recommend to you to make it your constant pursuit every day and hour of your lives. When inventing. Dominichino. are the four greatest masters of expression. for it is by expression alone we can touch the heart. “He who would makes us feel. before putting a line upon paper. and.” he appears all his life-time to have been searching through nature. The works of anti quity should never be absent from your memories: let no one depend upon the correctness of his eye for fidelity of represen tation. nature. The first designs of Leonardo for all his works. and by the side of the great efforts of genius of different ages.INTRODUCTION. that you will be enabled to sur mount the difficulties of art-those difficulties which enhance and give superiority to our profession over all others. for a knowledge of beauty is essential to that of truth. and an harmonious adjustment of parts. For the characters and expressions in his large picture of the “Last Supper. are highly-finished drawings of expression. and this too. I would advise you not to follow this or that great master. com position. and the experience of every day justifies the truth of the assertion. when inventing their compositons. colour. but to let truth. that entitles our works to situations in the galleries of Monarchs. excepting those upon fortification and the mathematics. in the most minute and apparently insignificant parts. I cannot omit still to enforce the necessity of a constant attention to correctness and purity of drawing. Dominichino thought no line worthy of the painter that the mind did not draw before the hand. rendering every thing sub ordinate to expression. arrangement of light and shade." says a high authority. While I congratulate you that the Life Academy has this year retrieved its character. Raphael. it is evident that they made expression the primary and constant object of their studies. and all was regu lated by expression. The port folio of Rembrandt is like the page of Shakespeare—every draw ing is in itself a drama-the passions speak for themselves. as well as in the general contour of the whole. not to be led away by an attention only to a play of line. It is well known that the happiness of life is often lost by an inattention to known and vulgar truths. and Rembrandt. elevates us as thinking beings. and from the sketches of these in existence. and this alone. and simplicity. and not by natural talent. Raphael seemed to have formed in his mind the whole of his in tended work. without having first formed his ideas of beauty from these. it is by perseverance alone. It is this. be their guide. all are iost in the power of expression.

.. The Second Part of the Second Painting . . . . . .. ... . . . . Colour • * * * * * * - - - .. . • . . * . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * •• . .. . ... . . ... . . .. . . .. ... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .... . .. Principal Colours used in Landscapes. . . . sh. . . . The Second Part of the First Painting. ~.. ... . ... .. . . .. . 26 27 28 28 Black . . .. . . .. ... . ... .. . . . . Green . . . . . . ... &c. . or Finishing .. . Yellow .. . .. . .. .. . . . ... . . . . . -. . On Copying .. .. . . . .—To prevent Pictures from Cracking .. . . .. .. . . . ... . . . . . .. . ..... . .. . . ...... .. .. from which all the Teints are made .. .* * * * * * Of Painting Landscapes . . . Of the First Lay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . all of which are made from the principal Colours . .. . . ... . ..- 34 35 37 RECIPEs.. . ... . .. . • • • • * * * * 26 • * * * * * * * * * * * * * Pink Colour . . .... . . .. . . . . Of Dead-Colouring .. .. . The Third and Last Painting .. . . . . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 3 5 5 7 9 10 T0 T1 13 16 19 White Satin . Guelp–For a fine new Dark Green for Trees. . .. . 7"... . .... . ... PAGE OF the principal Colours used in the Flesh.. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . First Painting .. . Fore-Grounds. ... . .. . ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 23 Scarlet and Crimson ..... .. . .. .. Of Painting Draperies ... .. . . .. • * * * * * * * * * * -21 Blue Satin .. . . . . . The Third Painting..C O N TENTS... .. . . ... . . . . . .. .... or growing fat-To make Me.. . .. . . 30 32 Changeable .. . . . . . . . . . . 29 Linen . . .e . . . Second Painting . . . . ... . . . . . ... . .. . • * * * * * * * * * Second Painting ... . . . Of Back Grounds . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .... . . . . .. . The Colours and Teints that are necessary for the First Painting of the Flesh . .. - 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ..... ... .. .. . . . . .. . . A method of preventing Lake from coagulating.. .—For a very bright Green—For a middling Green-For d fine two "..• . . . . . . . . . . ..... Of the principal Teints that are absolutely neces sary for painting Flesh.

and apt to turn yellow. PRUssIAN is a very fine blue. never glares. White is a friendly-working colour. II.THE A R T OF PA INT IN G I INT O as Of the principal Colours used in the Flesh. therefore they should be laid on white grounds. It is a true shade for blue. - I. or fine white. Ivo RY-BLACK is the best black: it sympathises and mixes kindly with all colours. is the very best white we have: This colour should be ground with the finest poppy-oil that can be made. ULTRAMARINE is the finest blue in th world: It is a tender retiring colour. It is ground with linseed-oil. FLAKE WHITE. It is the nature of all whites to sink into whatever ground they are laid on. - III. and a kind - working colour. from which all the Teints are made. and is a beautiful glazing colour. but retires with blues and greens. and comes for ward with yellow and reds. Black is cold and retiring. though B . It is used with poppy-oil. Ivory-black and a little Indian-red make the best general shadow-colour that can be used. At pre sent our white is bad. IV. because the oil most generally sold is not real poppy. It is generally ground with linseed-oil. and used with drying oil.

It will not glaze. BRow N PINK is a fine glazing colour.V. CARMINE is the most beautiful crimson that can be. when mixed with - white. - XI. but nut-oil is better. and. falls a little into lead. colour. between lake and ver milion. and mix of a warm dirty hue. - VI. but is a fine colour when it is glazed. . All yellows are strengthened with red. . it should never join or mix with the lights. but of no strong body. and used with drying oil. it is a middle colour. and therefore will grow darker. LAKE is a tender sympathising deep red. but will not glaze well. and of great use in the flesh: it is usually ground with linseed-oil. in mixing. It should never be used in the flesh. and used with drying oil. we think that nut-oil is more proper. IX. It is ground and used as the lake. clean. *at are to enrich it: . VIII. No VERMILION but what is made of the true native cinnabar should ever be used. It is ground with linseed-oil. X. but too strong for the white. but in green teints and the eyes. It should be ground and used with nut-oil. LIGHT OCH RE is a good mixing colour. therefore it should be strengthen ed with Indian-red. for which reason their joinings should be blended with a cold middle teint. VII. In the flesh. and glazes delight - fully. but of no strong body.2 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. LIGHT RED is nothing but fine light ochre burnt: this and white. and weakened with blues and greens. INDIAN-RED is a strong pleasant-working co lour. kind-working. produce the most perfect flesh-colour that can be made. It is gronnd with linseed-oil. In glazing of shadows it should be laid before thé other . because this colour and white antipathise. It should be ground with nut-oil. It is a beauti ful. and should be used with drying oil. It is the best glazing colour that can be used. is a fine working colour.

and yellow teints. This was communicated to the author by J. XII. till red hot. by mixing vermilion and white with it. because we would not have the vermilion teint confounded with it. It agrees best with the white. of all colours. It is strengthened with burnt umber. We should also remember that this colour will grow darker. and weakened with terra verte. for the general ground of the flesh. Zoffanij. and mixes finely with the warm shade. as if there were no difference. It is of great use in the hair. buildings. throughout this work. or metzotinto.. R. the LIGHT RED TEINT. it is the most brilliant light red that can be. Of the principal Teints that are absolutely necessary for Painting Flesh. A beautiful warm ORANGE COLOUR is pro duced by burning fine flake white. yet we shall call it. in proportion to the fairness of the complexion : and though it is thus mixed. all of which are made from the primary Colours. III. VERMIL1oN TEINT is only vermilion and white mixed to a middle teint. LIGHT RED TEINT is made of light red and white: it is the most kind and best conditioned of all colours. II. Esq. 3.A. in a crucible. like claro obscuro. mixed to a middle teint: it is. light red. and used with drying oil. the most . because it is in its nature too strong for the white. therefore we should improve it. CARMINE TEINT is carmine and white only. it is one of the finishing colours.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. XIII. who used it with great suc cess in warm skies. ground with linseed oil. BURNT UMBER is a fine warm brown. &c. With this colour and the shade teint we should make out all the flesh. and a good working strong colour. I. and therefore should never be used in the first painting.

4. and. it is one of the finishing solours. and with them it makes the greens. IX. SHADE TEINT is made of lake. - IV. This is the best colour for the general ground of shadows. and therefore is of great use in the grada tions. This colour will dirty the lights. or lighter: it is one of the cleanest and most delicate teints that can be used in the flesh. and should be laid sparingly in the middle teints. LEAD TEINT is made of ivory-black and fine white. for clearing up the heavy dirty colours. in changing. BLUE TEINT is made of ultramarine and white. and white. with it we should blend the gradations. with the reds. VIII. which is a good working colour. Remember that the ochre is too strong for the white. but laid upon the finishing colours without mixing. and should never be used in the first painting. No colour is so proper for blending down or soften ing the lights into keeping. therefore. where they are too strong. GREEN TEINT is made of Prussian blue. it produces the purples. mixed to a lightish azure: it is a pleasant working colour. and yellows should always be laid before the blues. of a middle teint. and in the eyes. - VI. THE ART of PAINTING IN oil. Indian-red. and therefore. but it is as well to use light ochre and white. for which reason we call it the shade teint. light ochre. It mixes with the lights delight . VII. YELLow TEINT is often made of Naples yellow and white. V. It is mostly used in the red shadows. It follows the light red teints. It is of a dirty antipathising nature. we should make a little allowance in using it. mixed to a middle degree. beautiful red that can be for the cheeks and lips. will sympathise and mix kindly. mixed to a beautiful murrey colour. If we lay too much of it. black and white. Rose TEINT is made of the red shade and white. we may recover the ground it was laid on with the light red teints. It follows the yellows. mixed to a middle degree: it is a fine retiring colour.

when it is wet. Fine white. THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. We must take care that it does not touch the lights. and its teints. of all. because they mix of a dirty snuff colour. the most excellent shadow co lour. Light ochre. and a good glazer: it strengthens the shadows on the shade teint. Light red. yellow ochre. and therefore should be softened with a tender cold teint. WARM SHADE is made of lake and brown - pink. It is a fine colour for strengthening the shadows on the shade teint. XI. The Colours and Teints that are necessary for the First Painting of the Flesh. fully. whether they be wet or dry. This colour mixes very kind ly with the red shades. It is a charm ing glazing colour for the eye-brows and darkest shadows. there fore. It is a charming working colour. and blends agreeably with middle teints in the dead-colouring. a little inclined to the reddish pearl. and receives. 4. XII. 1. X. It is a good ground for all dark shadows. DARK SHADE is made of ivory-black and a little Indian-red only. and its two teints. FIRST PAINTING. RED SHADE is nothing but lake and a very little Indian-red. NEUTRAL TEINT is composed of Frankfort blue. this will consequently be the same. and its two teints. It is. and vermilion. XIII. and produces a pleasant clean colour. may be easily changed by the addition of any other colours. and. mixed to a middle degree. the green and blue teints agreeably. 2. 3. and one of the finest working colours we have. Vermilion. B 3 . As all the four colours of its composition are of a friendly sympathising na ture.5.

6 THE ART OF PAINTING IN of L. the laying on virgin teints. These two colours united. 5. lake. The laying on of dead-colouring we divide into two parts. viz. The warm shade being laid on the shade teint. In uniting the lights and shades. 8. and Prussian blue. with the shade teint. Warm shade. produce a clean. then go over the darkest shadows with the red or warm shade. we should use a long softener. and by strengthening them with the light red. 11. and the other that of the lights. 9. which will help to bring the work into character. in the same manner as if it were to be done with this colour only. - The work of the shadows is to make out all the drawing. carmine and its teint. the other. and white. the one we call the first lay. for mixing with the shade teint. Red shade. in different degrees. 6. A teint made of lake. and leave the colour ing more delicate. them in nature. The finishing pallet for a complexion requires six more. improves it to a warmer hue: but. we may work to a very good resemblance. if laid instead of the shade teints. 13. 7. about the size of a large swan-quill. Lead teint. Half-shade teint is made of Indian-red and " - white. it will dirty and spoil the colours it - . Blue teint. 12. The lights should be all laid in with the light red teint. and remember to drive or lay the colour sparingly. as we see . ivory-black. Shade teint. 10. very correctly. vermilion. Green teint. brown-pink. middle teint. or ground. The first lay of colours consists of two parts: the one is the work of the shadows only. tender. they turn to a pearly hue. which will finish the first lay. Rose teint.

instead of the shade teint. when. that they will not dirty. observing. IN order to finish the first painting. then. are they. that we leave it always in the same order for finishing. the shadows would then appear too red and bloody. in what we call the dead-colouring. and agreeable to our purpose. and. because glazing them will make them darker. therefore. improve the reds and yellows to the complexion. that the shade and light red teints are so friendly and delicate in their nature. but appear warm and a little lighter than the life. though the colour of the cloth be quite the reverse. they always produce a clean colour of the inviting pearly hue. there must be a strong body of colour laid all over the shadows.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. PAINTING. and on the yellows produce the green. such as will not sink into the ground. if the red shade be laid first. therefore the business of dead colouring is. We are convinced. The same method is to be understood of the shadows. - THE SECOND PART OF THE FIRST s . though we are continually changing them. yet they are too strong to be laid alone. by experience. should be such as will support the character of the finishing . and after thena the blues. When the cloth is of a dark or bad colour. but be sure to leave them clean. How proper. that the blues on the reds make the purple. so that it may be of the same forwardness to finish as if it had been a light ground. in altering and changing. 7 mixes with. that the grounds of shadows. notwithstanding these two colours are the best that can be for the shadows. which is a proof of the great use and merit of the shade teint: Here we may observe. and not too dark: therefore allowance should be made in the grounds with the light red. for making the most prin cipal part of the likeness.

These may be glazed and touched upon. made brighter than the light. we mean such as will appear rough. all which should be lightly united. but if we begin the first painting with glazing. the less it will sink. We believe the great masters very sel dom softened or sweetened the colours. of the colour it is laid on. and no other method but glazing can leave such brilliancy and beauty as they ought to have. by examining this work. that are very near to the life. which ground must be clean. is superior to all other colours for the first lay or ground. and has the best effect on such colours. if not laid on a light ground. we say a little lighter. because the finishing of the shadows is glazing. - The light red. but in . and be of no use. though a little lighter. and partake. Remember to leave no roughness. because it will sink a little in drying. and a little lighter than the finishing colours.8 THE ART of PAINTING IN out. with a knife. if no allowance be made. and interrupt or hurt the character of the finishing colours. colours. with a soft tool. which. must consequently change a little from the life. with a great deal of ease. whilst it is wet. when it is dry. as it will easily take off the knots and roughest parts. therefore all shadows and colours that are to be glazed should be done with colours of a clean solid body. for we find that glazing the shadows in the first painting is not so proper as laying a body of shadow colours. which should be always done with a full pencil of stiff co lour. in proportion to its body. and white improved. Every colour in drying will sink. therefore all the lights of the flesh. may be avoided. and the solid colours which are laid on it will look heavy and dull. The shade teint for the shadows should fall into the rose teint as the complexion grows delicate. when dry. or. to the lights. with a soft long-pointed hog tool. The greater the body and quantity of colour. because the glazing is Inore lasting. making out the whole like metzotinto. we shall find it will stare. and the stiffer it is laid.

and improving the likeness. we should do it with the shade teint. and yellows. The light red teint improved is the very best colour that can be for scumbling and improving the com plexion in general. but such parts only as require it. Where the shadows and drawings are to be corrected. and we make our selves double work. which is scumbling the lights and glazing the sha dows: the other. We should forbear using any co lours that will produce them. with the light red teints. if we fail. finishing the complexion with the virgin teints. the first painting should be left bright and bold. 9 uniting the first lay they were very careful in pre serving the brightness of their colours. otherwise the beauty of the first painting will be spoiled. such as will always clear and improve the complexion. that we may the easier retouch and change it with the finishing teints. by driving the colour very stiff and bare. and therefore did not work them below the complexion: for. Some parts of the shadows should . SECOND PAINTING. and be contented to add what is wanting in the next painting. then wipe it. a clean rag will restore the first ground. to force or keep up a brilliancy in the grounds. reds. without daubing. which method will make up for the deficiency of the white grounds. THE second painting begins with laying on the least quantity that can be of poppy oil. almost all off with a dry piece of silk handkerchief. where. as far as we can. can only be done with the whites. with short stiff pencils. therefore. where they are to be changed. or some other of their own colours.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. and the less the colours are broken the better. The second painting is also divided into two parts: —One we call the first lay of the second painting. Scumbling is going over the lights.

and be content to leave off whilst the work is safe and unsullied. and blues. such as will improve and come very near to the life. that is. THE THIRD PAINTING. IT is to be supposed the complexion now wants very little more than a few light touches: therefore. Thus far the com plexion is prepared and improved. from fear of losing the hue of the first painting. be glazed with some of the transparent shadow co lours. there will be no occasion for oiling. THE SEcond PART of THE second PAINTING. with the reds. blending them with delicate light touches of the tender middle teints. for the more the lights mix with the shades. and dirty wherever we touch. Begin with correcting all the glazing: first. without softening. where the glazing serves as a ground or under part. we lose the spirit and drawing. but be sure not to lay on too much of it. OR FINISHING. yellows. the ground of which should always appear through the glazing. the more meally those shades will appear. that they do not mix dead and meally. We should leave the teints and their grounds clean and distinct. for. in order to receive the virgin teints and finishing touches. then . Be very careful in uniting the lights and shades.10 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. Is to go over the complexion with the virgin teints: –These are the colours which improve the colouring to the greatest perfection. in attempting the finishing touches before the other is dry. both in the lights and shadows. leaving what is farther required for the next sitting. This should be done in the same manner as we - laid them in the second part of the first painting.

it is much better to leave off while the work is safe 'and in good order. which is so striking and beautiful in Rem brandt's. which would endanger the beauty of the colouring. This will cer tainly produce harmony. We believe that Rembrandt touched upon his best pictures a great many times. if we have patience to stay till the colours are dry. OF BACK GROUNDS. when we are painting. than when they are wet. and to break the colours of the ground with those of the drapery. Van Dyck’s general method was to be very still and mellow. in his pictures. the principles of which method belong only to the art of colouring. without oiling. add those. because the knife will mix and leave it in good order for the pencil. be fore we do it. letting them dry be tween: It was this method. of light and shade. because those few touches.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. may easily be done. it is much better to do it with the knife on the pallet than with the pencil. We find it much easier to soften the over-strong teints when they are dry. because we may add the very colours that are wanting. we preserve both the glazing and the teints. which gave them that surprising force and spirit which are so inimitable. but if it happens that we cannot lay such a variety of teints and finishing colours as we intended. the expressive intelligence. We confess that we cannot find. 11 we should determine what should be done next. and then. most certainly. By this method. If any of the colours of the pallet require to be a little changed to the life. so that we may be able to make the alteration on the part with one stroke of the pencil. finishing with free light strokes of the pencil. but the . WAN DYCK made out the keeping in his back grounds more from the different opposition and har mony of the colours than from his knowledge of the claro obscuro. without endangering the dry work.

which. We must own that we like this method of relieving the head from the ground better than Van Dyck's method. clear. LEAD. mixed to a dark lead colour. or the like. we find in Rembrandt's works. The principal colours that are necessary for paint ing of backgrounds in portraiture. yet it appeared to be of the same colour with that near the flesh. as follows: 1. of black and white. and in the greatest perfection: the ground was a wall. yet we are not so much pleased where there appears too near a sameness. Prussian. FLESH. are—white. and white. and the light diminished so artfully. that. wherein he has carried this principle so near that it is almost imper ceptible. and though we ad mire this way of breaking the colours of the ground with those of the draperies. mixed to a middle teint. as walls. that appears transparent. In Rembrandt's pictures at Yarmouth. and a little Indian-red. 4. white. where he has made the ground almost of the same colour with the hair. OLive. - 3. the lights and shades are as visible as those in his prints. as we have seen in some of his pictures. YELLow. PEARL is made of black. and look as if they were all painted at once. and are remarkably broad.12 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. and still. from which the eight principal teints are made. was lighter than the shadows of the flesh. in the gradations. near to the face. the sha dows are very warm and thin. - . light and brown ochre. We have seen the picture of a lady. which was dark brown. though the part around the head was much darker. with a plenty of colour. which transparency was effected by glazing the dead-colouring. 2. 5. of light ochre. of Indian-red and white. Prussian and burnt umber. buildings. black. knowledge of light and shade imparts that surprising force and strength which at first sight. wherein he has made the ground light enough to shew her complexion and hair. Indian-red. of brown ochre and white.

will produce a fine variety of stone colours. with the dark shade and white. p Where the marks of the trowel are so strong in the priming of the cloth. OF THE FIRST LAY. and Indian-red only. STONE. and paint the lights first. of white."THE ART OF PAINTING IN OFL. which should be done with a stiffish tool. mixed to a kind of purple of a middle teint. because. we say. and a little black. black. a little changed with the colours that will give it more of the required hue. drove with drying oil. DARK SHADE. WE should always begin from the shadowed side of the head. the second is to follow on that with the finish ing teints. This we should do with the dark shade and umber. make a charming warm shadow colour. before the colours that join them. the umber. and Indian-red. of black. umber. 13 6. we should lay a colour to prevent it. if C . used plentifully with drying oil. leaving them like metzotinto. very sparingly. 7. and the murrey is a very good blending colour. All the colours should be laid with drying oil only. MURREY. 8. the flesh teint mixes agreeably with the lead. and dark shade. * The dark and warm shadows should be laid before the colours that join them. the dark shade and umber. from them go into the gradations and shadows. because they mix and set the better with the softner. white. Here the lead teint serves for the blues. white. but very near in regard to tone and strength. and of great use where the olive is too strong. that one body of colours will not be sufficient to conceal it. of Indian-red. which should be dry before we begin with those parts we expect to finish at one painting The method of painting back-grounds we divide into two parts: the first part is the work of the first lay.

The lightest parts of the ground arealways nearest to the shadowed side of the head: This is the part which governs all the rest. as walls. should be finished at one painting: but.part withis those teintsdirectly. with a few light touches of the colour that is wanting. and lose a little of their strength and beauty. but consider it as the principal colour: From the lights we go to the gradations and sha dows. we may glaze them with a little of the dark shade and drying-oil. therefore we may lay them with the greater body. Begin with the lights first. that we whilst think are the most proper to harmonize and finish with. I think to fall from them into whatever kind of shadows we shall our work. and should be inted with a variety of light warm clear colours. drove very bare. &c. as we heighten and finish them. will seem surprisingly Re member the teints will sink. the easier and better we may change it with the finishing teints. These should be laid with a kind of cloudy touch. in drying.. we may improve their hue: The dark shadows may also be strengthened and improved by glazing. those colours were laid on first. it is so easy. rather than spotted. for when the lights are well adapted to pro duce and support the head. will melt and assweeten altogether in suchfinished. which should be done after the figures are nearly finished. to do it with warmer co lours: and let those be accompanied with fine tender cold teints.. All the grounds. which is their greatest beauty. - - . then soften and blendfind the most wholeproper with for a long large hog-tool. from fear of making them too strong. and we must take care that we do not cover too much of the first lay. on which. if they want to be changed. The to follow the first laysecond is wet. and remember. which vanish and lose their strength imperceptibly in their gradations. which with the strength and body of the drying oil.14 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. a flattering manner. The more the first lay is drove. they would interrupt and spoil the transparency.

De Piles also observes. in back grounds. and should be done with clean colours. or of some design." 15 Rembrandt's grounds are rather brighter in the lights. by mixing and breaking the first lay of colours so artfully. therefore his shadows have but a faint appearance of teints. and. light. that those teints diminished in proportion with the lights. of a neat hue to the intended curtain. let the field or ground of the picture be pleasant.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. in regard to the keeping of the picture. The colours of the landscape. and well united with colours which are of a friendly nature to each other. such as may seem easy to finish on. but much softer in the shadows: all which should be mixed and broken with the colours of the ground. as it were. such as will support the finishing colours: do it with a tender sort of keeping. free. the contents of your pallet. contribute much to the harmony. employed in the same figure. and have more variety of teints than any other painters. which will make all the parts of the ground. broad and well united together. that we cannot make the folds the first paint ing. and near in regard to their tone in the lights. from want of the life. should be paint ed with colours allied to those of the ground itself. of one piece. and often upon the same part. as Fresnoy observes. and of such a mixure as that there may be something in it of every colour that composes your work. and justly too. should be broke and softened also with those of the parts which join them: This method brings them into keeping. nor cut at the extremities. with mode ration. that they flatter us in regard to their real strength. . that a variety of teints. for he had observed. so that the dif ferent parts do not stare. All the curtains should be dead-coloured when we paint the ground. as it were. bodies that are black in the ground. very nearly of the same tone. transient. Fresnoy says. It will often happen. He understood the gradations in perfection. we should then leave the masses of light and shadow.

and Tintoret. and for the advance - ment of their art. which will make it. look agreeably finished. - £)N COPYING. would treat that part of the art with contempt which the greatest. the art itself would soon dwindle and decay. that a painter. he copied . yet to him we. masters have always practised and esteemed? Men of common sense know that artists. The greens should be more beautiful than we intend them. because they will fade and grow darker. Paul Veronese. as we did the grounds. Rubens studied principally the works of Titian. The sky should be broke with the lead and the flesh teints. that is.) has given his opinion of copying. William Hogarth. Were it not for this. who un derstands the true merit of copying. which did not render it necessary for him. The murrey teint is of great use in the grounds of distant objects. have copied and studied each other. in his true spirit and genius. that this may not have been the case with us. and I wish. are indebted for the best collection of MORAL and SATIRICAL subjects that have graced the last cen tury. his six celebrated pictures of the Marriage a-la-Mode. in all ages. in whatever they found best adapted for their purpose. now belonging to Govern ment. among which are. to have recourse to ancient pictures. this we impute to that originality of ideas peculiar to himself. Is it reasonable to believe. and which retain their original purity and fine. THE author of the Analysis of Beauty. we should go over the whole very lightly with the softener.16 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. treating with ridicule one of the most useful parts of painting: but. colouring. After all is painted. and the umber and dark shades in the near-grounds. (the late Mr.

and kept them for his own use. we mean the picture of the Earl of Stafford and his Secretary. there will be none fit for copying. to which is owing the great number of originals now abounding in every country. we believe. painted by Raphael and Julio Romano. We have seen copies. Teneirs is celebrated for transforming himself into as many masters as he copied. It is surprising that. will be convinced of the great use and merit of an art. to adorn the cabinets of the virtuoso and connoisseurs. since the age of the great masters. Lely. so that very little will be left for him to study. in the late Marquis of Rockingham's collection. he skimmedtheir cream. We believe that every one that has heard of An drea del Sarto's copy of Leo the Tenth. it is to be feared the destroyers of the art. if they are suffered to go on. for undoubted originals. and deservedly esteemed. we have not had a man able to make a fine copy from any one of their pictures. will scour off the remains of their beauties. in De Pile's phrase. if such a genius should hereafter arise. by Stone. and. without being C 3 . or. It is in vain for a man to think of making a fine imitation of any of the great masters. that it is hard to distinguish the copies from the originals. which he did so ex actly. and. sold at great prices. 17 such of their pictures as he thought most worthy of his imitation. which we like much better than any of Stone's. after Van Dyck.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. Bucks horn was one of the last good copiers that we had in England. Van Dyck copied Titian and all the Venetian schools. by the end of this century. By originals. which is well painted. we mean pictures deemed such by our ingenious and honest dealers. those who followed him and his master. There is a copy of Buckshorn's painting. notwithstanding they were di vested of that free pencilling and charming variety of teints which are so apparent in Van Dyck. Hanneman's copies from Van Dyck are taken for the originals of that great master. soon dwindled to half-artists.

Julio Romano. yet it is neces sary that every artist should avoid a particular man ner with his pencil. otherwise it will certainly be seen in his work. that it ought to be encouraged. Now. or. will certainly make his copies blush. as it were. It is the want of this knowledge and conviction which leads us into so many errors and mistakes. because he himself is in fected. Prom what has been said on this subject. in order to catch each other's excellencies and perfections. It is very rare to find a change in a bad manner in colouring for a better. renewed. and. we appre hend it appears that the art of copying. they will of course fall into the obscuro. Michael Angelo. as a practice' highly useful and worthy of esteem. and by which their noble works have been so often repeated. whose carnations are too red. is so far from deserving con tempt. though colouring is the principal excellence in copying. the same will unavoidably taint his copying.18 THE ART OF PAINT1NG IN OIL. which was practised by the great masters. And. . whatever teints infect his colouring. of the method and principles on which it was painted. and other great masters. By the same rule. From this reason. Leonardo da Vinci. we are apt to fall into a manner before we understand the nature of colours. if his colouring and shadows be heavy. Raphael. thoroughly acquainted with the nature of the colours and of colouring. for which there is no cure. spent their whole lives without truly under standing good colouring. and without being clearly con vinced. a painter. A painter that has acquired any sort of manner will always tincture his copying with the same. which is the case where some predominant colour or hue appears in all the complexions alike. at sight of the picture he is going to copy.

atti tude. or what we call the first lay.- a plenty of stiff colours. . the shape. It is with these three colours we should make out the whole. The right method of painting draperies. being produced by light. that the lights should rather incline to a warmish hue. and the middle teint should be made of friendly-working colours. Here it will be necessary to observe the general method and secret in managing the co lours of the first lay. and made with these three colours only. in general. will consequently have a light - warm colour. which should be done to our satisfaction. after that. and.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. 19 OF PAINTING DRAPERIES. or satins. before we add any of the reflects. and are always lighter than the shadows on which they are found: and. viz. is to make out the whole. or finishing teints. therefore this teint will also mix of a tender clean colour. and shade teint. that all the beauty and character of the folds. coldish hue. IN order to understand the nature and different degrees of colours or teints used in painting drape ries. are all to be considered. such as will always mix of a clean. The shade teint should be made of the same colour as the middle teint. and we should understand. with three colours only.—the lights. and those of the reflections and finishing teints. like metzotinto. the reflections and finishing teints. In the first lay. the high lights should be laid with - . mixed with the local colour that re ceives them. The reflections of draperies and satins are generally productions of their own. tender. and principal lights and shades. we shall first determine how many divisions are absolutely necessary to make the first lay of colours. and then shaped and softened into character with the middle teint very correctly. only with less light. We should observe. middle teints.

After this comes the middle teint. - . when it is so. it will be proper to lay the middle teint first at their extremities. with regard to the shape and round ings of the figure. we should change it with those colours which we think are most proper to improve and support the finishing colours. Next is to make out all the parts of the shadows with the shade teint drove bare. and let the shadows be no darker than a middle teint: These should be mixed and broke in a tender manner. or when it is dry. whether the reflects proceed from the same colour or any other. it will be proper to make some observations on their ounds. the antipathies of the first lay. without touching any of the high lights. Where the gradations of the lights are slow. This method of dead-colouring must consequently preserve them in the greatest lus tre. In dead-colouring. and therefore should be laid with a delicate light touch. with a tool that will drive the colour. they will. If we have a design to work from. Before I proceed to the particular colours. and. The reflects and finishing teints are. without softening. we should lay the lights and shades in a manner so as only to shew a faint idea of them. as in the large parts. without great care. and leave it sparingly. we must endeavour to recover it with the colour of the part on which it was laid: this may be done directly. and should be managed together very nicely to character. then it will be proper to make all the large and prin cipal parts in their places. We should also observe.20 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. which finish the first lay. that the method of using them is the same. It often happens that the colour of the cloth is very improper for the ground of the drapery. in general. though in general of the same hue. and higher than the intended drapery. . which should always be done with a colour that is clean. If it be overdone. poison and dirty the colours on which they are laid. because the lights will mix and lie the better upon it. which fills up and serves as the second lights and grada tions. .

black. and then softened with a large tool. but with less white. in all the little lights that happen in the mid dle teints and shadows. between the white and middle teint. so that it be dark enough for the shadows in general. on which we should lay the white with one light touch. The middle teint should be made of white. laid with a good body of colour. we should do it with the first teint only. and take care that this first teint ap pears distinctly between the white and the middle teint. so that nothing rough and uneven be left to interrupt or hurt the character of the finishing colours. otherwise the beauty and character of the satin will be spoiled. it will spoil the character. by reason this colour sinks more into the ground than any other. and it is with this we should shape the lights into character before we lay on any other. If there is occasion to make any part in the middle teint lighter. The shade teint should be made of the same colour as the middle teipt. This colour follows the white. which is made of fine white and a little ivory-black. WHITE SATIN. There are four degrees of colours in the first lay to white satin: The first is the fine white for the lights. if we do. 21. and be sure not to cover all the parts that were made with the first teint. the second is the first teint. ALL whites should be painted on white grounds. which has the true brightness and warmth of the general hue of the satin. and mix to a beautiful clear colour of a pearly hue. which must be between the white and the middle teint.THE ART of PAINTING IN or L. . Remember to allow for the red hue changing a little to the lead. mixed to an exact middle degree. This colour should also be laid sparingly before the white. and look like a spot. and a little Indian-red: These three colours are very friendly. from want of the softening edge or border.

to any one particular colour. till he found it to be a pernicious colour. is made with the shade teint and a little brown ochre. in all the lights and middle teints. yet he managed these cold colours. Next follow the reflects and finishing teints:— Brown ochre. which was only of black and white. - "'. The teint sufficient for blending the dark shadows to the mellow tender hue. one should be lighter than the middle teint. the other darker. mixed with the colour of the lights. who was the best dra pery painter we ever had in England. that we cannot help admiring. which will always have such an effect when a warm or dirty . but this last method is not so safe as the other. often see a little blue used white satin. was so very cold. or lightly broken on the part that receives them. as occasion requires. and was therefore obliged to use blue. with which we should make out all the parts of the shadows nicely to character. so agreeably. and sometimes. There are but two reflecting-teints wanted for draperies in ge neral: I mean.22 THE ART of PAINTING IN oiL. which should be laid on # sparingly. that no other colour but blue would make a colder-feint. and may learn something from him. These colours may be a little changed on the pallet with the first and middle teints. instead of the blue. which is the work of the first lay. we may recover it with the colour it was laid up011. is the most useful colour in general for all reflects in draperies. and so light and easy was his touch. if it should be over done. and the local colours that receive them. in the first teint of Van Haecken. that are produced from their own co lours. with soft light touches. All accidental reflexes are made with the colour of the parts from which they are produced. he used blue-black. from fear of making them dull and heavy. did so. which were ge nerally of a heavy dirty hue. and the method of using them. Though he was not so lucky in his shadows. this was owing to the colours he used. because his middle teint.

at one painting. Next is to follow with the rest of the middle teint. which should be perfectly done. with the colours . All the broad lights should be laid with a plenty of colour. which will mix with them into a tender mellow hue. The best ground for blue is. Make the shade teint dark enough for the shadows in general. We should first make the middle teint of a beautiful azure. or teints. and shaped to character with the middle teint. and black and white for the shadows. if there is occasion to alter them. the better they will appear and stand. it would have left them clean and mellow. and then followed with a few light blending touches of the ochre teint. that must consequently appear so in the work: But. if his lead or shade teint had been mixed with Indian red. the better it will receive the reflects and finishing teints. 23 colour is mixed with a clean light one. before we lay on any other colours. THE colour for blue satin is made of Prussian blue and fine white. then mix the colour for the lights about a middle degree between that and white. The shadows. It is the want of the red hue which makes the white satins appear so often like pewter. may be a little improved.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. The sha dows should be strengthened and blénded with ivory black and some of their own colour. for the lights of blue should be managed with as much care as those of white satin. instead of the ochre. The reflects are made as those of white satin. The more we drive the shade teint. The first lay of colours for blue is divided into three degrees. when dry. that is. as we intend it. white for the lights. they will form a dirty colour. and then make out all the shadows. BLUE SATINS. with ochre and some of the lights. for being mixed together. Remember the less colours are mixed.

makes out the first lay like metzotinto. The method is. or dead-colouring. Remember to make the middle teint lighter in proportion to the glazing. the better it will work and appear. The glazing colour is Prussian blue. we should take care to blend and soften the shadows with such friendly colours as will . but laid with less quantity than if it were to be done once only. and left to dry. and made of a fine white. and used simply with oil only. so that. the painting the shadows with strong glaring colours. and should be laid with a large stiffish tool. we do not mean with a plenty of oil in the colour. to make out the first lay with the middle teint and shade teint: on which we should lay the high lights. The very high lights should be improved. This is not only the reverse of art. with a thin glazing. to pre pare a ground. whateverground it is laid on. with light touches. and the sooner it is used. in its highest perfection. when dry. with such colours as will. be cause that wili make it the darker. It is on the last glazing we should strengthen and finish the shadows. with the middle teint and shade teint. But the nearest imitation of velvet we can make is done by glazing: which is. It is often ne cessary to cover all but the high lights. The nature of the glazing colour is to be of a fine transparent quality. they are made with. after it is ground. From this reason. the white is for the high lights. If any of it touch the lights. whose beauty always diminishes in proportion with the lights. the whole may appear distinctly through it. ground very fine with nut-oil. which. bear out and support the glazing colour. that will drive the colour as occasion requires. The best ground for blue is made with white and ivory-black. which destroy the beauty of the lights. The Prussian blue proper to: be used is that which looks of the most beautiful azure before it is ground. Velvet may be painted at once. and finish the shadows as we did those of the satin. The greatest fault in the colouring of draperies is. we should wipe it off with a clean rag.24 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. but of nature.

that they produce two more. in using them. though all the other parts are done with Prussian blue. that glazing the middle teint. But if. and answers our purpose as well as if it had been done with ultra marine. which should be laid between them. yet we should understand. or half-shade. they produce a teint inclined to a dirty warm hue. when the blueness of the other would only diminish them. would certainly dirty and spoil the white. so it is with the lights and middle teints. in order to preserve the beauty of the lights. 25 agree with their local character and obscurity. Though this general method of painting satins is. in mixing. This method of glazing the blue is the general rule for all glazing. and with the middle teint and shade teint. This method saves a great quantity of that valuable colour. then there must be another found of a sympathizing nature. for if it were not so. as in blue satin. as the first teint in the white satin. If the lights and middle teint mix to a beautiful clean colour. It is highly necessary to understand these prin ciples of the first lay of colours. to make the first lay of colours with three degrees or teints. will not produce a colour so blue as if it had been prepared with Prussian and white. of a middle hue between both. When we are glazing blue. the first answers to the first teint in white satin. by reason of its tender obscure hue. there will be no occasion for a colour to go between them. yet this colour will preserve the beauty of the lights in the highest perfection. Here we may observe. and the last will consequently be a sort of gradating. on which the principles of painting depend. D . in order to have a perfect knowledge of the general rule of colouring.THE ART of PAINTING IN oil. in the middle teint. which is made of black and white. the lights may be glazed with ultramarine. the red. for the mixing of two dif ferent colours together on the cloth will make another' of a middle teint between them.

from fear of dirtying them. The second painting should be a little lighter than we intend the finishing colour. mixed with a very little black. The difference between scarlet and crim son is. but the high lights should have a good body of colour. the other is done with a body of colours at one painting. and improve the reflects and shadows. SCARLET AND CRIMSON. and vermilion for cloth. for satin and velvet. Their reflects are made with light red and vermilion. and the middle teint is made darker. light red. in propor tion to the glazing. After it is well dry. The high lights are vermilion and white. and white. THERE are two different methods of painting a pink colour. PINK COLOUR. we mean. made of light ochre. and it is better to glaze the crimson twice over. The high lights should be laid and managed in the same man ner as those of the blue. we should finish with glazing the whole with fine lake. The same grounds do for both. than lay too much at one painting. Remember that the scarlet requires but a very thin glazing. The more the colours of the second painting are drove. with the addition of a little black in the darkest shadows. and be left with the delicate light touch. which will make it darker. is the proper ground for scarlet: the shadows are Indian-red. and sometimes they require to be touched over the second time before we glaze them. in the darkest parts. the easier and better they may be managed to character. in . The middle teint is vermilion. the shade teint is made with Indian-red and lake.26 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. one is by glazing. which should be a whitish colour. A LIGHT yellow red. that the high lights of crimson are whiter. with a very little lake or Indian red. and.

and the method of using them is the very same: the lights are made with king's yellow. THE ground for yellow should be a yellowish white for the lights. if we leave out the . When it is dry. The other method is to make the high lights with carmine and white. . then it will be one of Sir Peter Lely's favourite yellows. for the shadows. will produce a yel low. and white. But remember. The reflects are light ochre. Y E L L O W. and sometimes. The second painting. and a mixture of the ochres for the shadows. the shadows will require to be broken with some tender obscure teint. in the warmest parts. but.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. changed with a little of the pearl teint. white. and then break and soften the co lours into harmony directly. 27 clining to a yellow. king's yellow. and the shadows with lake and Indian-red. with a little vermilion for the reflections. for the lights. The shadows are strengthened with brown pink and burnt umber. made with the dark shade and white. - - These colours. and a little vermilion and white for the high lights. for the glazing method. lake. the shade teint is made with brown pink and brown ochre: these belong to the first lay. which is for the high lights only. well-managed. the middle teint with lake. - There are the same number of teints in the yellows as there are in the white satin. glaze it with fine lake. which should be laid and managed as the first teint in white satin: the middle teint is a mixture of the light and brown ochre. mixed with a little light red. and Indian-red. very like Van Dyck's. softened with the pearl teint. •. and a little carmine. ground with clean good drying oil: the first teint is light ochre. is done with the same colours.

middle teint. The finest green we have for draperies is made of king's yellow. and the shadow teints are made with some of the middle teint. . and brown pink.28 THE ART OF PAINTING IN. and a very little Prus sian. and reflecting teint. It is proper to have two sorts of king's yellow. for the lights. The shadow teint should be kept entirely from the lights. and that the king's yellow must be ground with good drying-oil. as the black does those of the blues. in mixing. and Prussian. and Prussian blue. which is made of light ochre. The high lights are king's yellow. a little white. brown pink. dirty them. should it be wanted. CHANGEABLE colours are made with four princi pal teints. because the brown pink that is in it will. and the ochre. I mean. and more Prussian: but the darkest shadows are brown pink and a little Prussian. THE proper grounds for green is a light yellow green. for the shadows. brown pink. CHANGEABLE. one to be very light. The lights and middle teints should be managed in the same manner as those of the blues. Remember to allow for their drying a little darker. and the sooner it is used. GREENS. which will do best for the high lights of velvet. the better it will stand. the more it will change and grow darker. shade teint. viz:—the high lights. though it is dark enough for the shadows. for the longer it is drying. OIL. - The greatest art lies in finding the exact colour of the middle teint. the middle teint should have more Prussian. The shade teint is of the same hue with the middle teint. because it has more of the general hue of the silk than any of the others. Prussian blue. The high lights.

should be of a clean friendly-working colour that will. and Indian-red and a little black for the shadows. the better the high lights may be laid upon it. which should be done to our satis faction before we add any other colours: and the stiffer the middle teint is used. 29 though often very different from the middle teint. as the changeable do. in black. The finishing colours are. white. that the plain colours require not so much art in matching the teints. The method of painting black is very different from that of other colours. with the shade teint. with a very little black. The reflecting teint falls generally upon the gradating half-shades. and a little lake. a little inclining to a mellowish hue. This method of painting answers for all the co loured silks. for the principal thing in them is. in mixing with it. so. and should be laid with tender touches sparingly. to keep the shadows clear and transparent. for the lights. This is what we call the first lay. and then fill them up in the lights with the middle teint. The middle teint has less white. produce a teint of a clean sympathizing hue. with this differ ence only. the shade teint is made of an equal quantity of lake and brown pink. to leave their lights clear and brilliant. as well as changeable. it is. The method of painting silks is. B L A C K.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. The last part of the work is the finishing and strengthening the shadows with an obscure teint. to make out thc folds. from fear of spoiling the first lay. THE best ground for black is. light red for the lights. Therefore we should begin with the D 3 . and more lake and black. and interrupt the beauty of the lights. black. such as will not catch the eye.

If the shade teint was of any other colour than a transparent warm hue. yet we do not intend them so for figures. There will be a few reflects in satin. like lake and brown pink. which is made of white and ultramarine-ashes. or the like. Next lay in the darkest shadows with black. or brown ochre. will bear out and support the reds. Black is of a cold heavy nature. because no other colours can preserve the warm brilliancy which is wanting in the shadows of the black. mixed with a little shade teint. which are placed more into the picture. therefore. very correctly. All which should be done exactly to the character of the satin. such as burnt umber. we should make an allowance in using it. &c. except the first teint. &c. THE colours used in linen are the same as those in white satin. and almost too strong for any other colour. and gives it a more beautiful colour. . but they should be made of strong colours. such as a single portrait. LIN EN. fill up the whole breadth of lights with the middle teint only. which are used in the finishing colours: the lake in the lights takes off the cold hue. the shadows would conse quently be black and heavy. and mixed to a very light bluish teint. cloth. and glaze over all the shadows with it. and a little of the shade teint. Of such as are behind the principal or front figures. velvet. shade teint. instead of the black. the grounds should always be fainter in proportion to their local finishing colours. and then finish with the high lights. Here we may observe that. which should be added as those of other colours. After that. Though the grounds which we have mentioned for the draperies are absolutely necessary for the prin cipal and nearest figures in a picture.30 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. the ground being red.

the first lay should be left clear and distinct. prevents them from mixing and dirtying - each other. We find that glazing the pearl and lead colour with white. we should take particular care that the grounds be laid very white and broad in the lights. lay the high lights very nicely with one stroke. With this and white. The second painting begins with glazing all the lights with a stiff pencil and fine white only. and the rose-teint. Indian-red. The shadows are made with black. we should make out all the parts to character. with out filling them up. It is the overmixing and joining all the colours together which spoil the beauty of the character: therefore it is better to let it dry before we add the reflects and finishing teints. After this comes the fine light bluish . The middle teint of white satin is the best colour for the general hue of the shadows.31 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. with a large long-pointed pencil and fine white. which should be mixed light and laid in the tender gradations. Remember. and white. with out softening. green teint. will certainly sink and be lost in the grounds on which it is laid. The shadows may be scumbled with poppy-oil: add some of the colour they were made of: this is the first lay. In the dead-colouring. These should be left very light and clean. then. with free light touches. therefore we should make the dead-colouring as white as we intend the . teint. and a little Indian-red. - The principal blending colours used in the reflects. white. in order to support the finishing colours. though it seems to answer our purpose when it is done. which last is made of lake. The method of letting the beautiful clear colour dry. in different degrees. very sparingly and lightly. the more it appears the better. before we add the warm reflects and harmo nizing teints. drove bare. without using any oil. are the yellow teint. on which we are to follow with the finishing colours directly. like the middle teint of white satin.

Indian-red. . 3. Indian-red and white. ochre. Light ochre and white. and Prussian blue. . Light ochre. 9. burnt umber. Prussian blue. 5. and white. 6. . 6. Indian-red. 7. King's yellow. Indian-red 13. Prussian blue. 10. brown ochre. White lead. The colours necessary for dead-colouring are. 3. or native cinnabar. The principal colours used in landscapes are– a 1. Burnt umber. darker. Light ochre and Prussian blue. which the 1n glazing with pure white only will recover. and Prussian blue. Brown pink. Fine light ochre. - The principal teints used in landscapes are– 1. Brown pink and brown ochre.32 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. Fine flake white. Brown pink and Prussian blue. 7. 2. 11. Vermilion. Brown ochre. by reason that they will sink a little proportion to the colour of the cloth. Ivory-black. 8. ivory-black. and lake. 14. OF PAINTING LANDSCAPES. 4. Ultramarine. com mon white. 8. Terre verte and Prussian blue. or common white. 12. Ivory-black. 5. light ochre. Terre verte. . 10. Brown pink. The same.9. 4. finishing colours. 2. Lake.

to leave no part of the sha dows so dark as you intended the first lay. or dead colouring. white. drove with drying oil. fine white. yet the trunks and bodies should be in their proper shapes. and light red. - This should be done with burnt umber. which is to be lighter than the finishing colours. also every other material used in this delightful study.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. in doing it. and some of the light azure. All kind of buildings should be done in the same manner. &c. according to the modern practice. as we do that of the paper. free manner.. Prussian blue. and a little oil of turpentine. scumbling. vermilion and white. The figures on the fore ground. ultramarine. which is prepared with brown ochre. Sketching. St. at the colour-shops in Long Acre. This colour gives a warmth to the shadow-colours. and Indian-red. light ochre and white. High Holborn. lake. And. slight. and a teint made of white. lighter azure. if they are determined. in several different ways. leaving the colour of the cloth for their lights. Martin's Lane. is the work of the picture. with their breadths of light and shadow. a fine azure. 33 The principal colours and teints for painting the sky are. at discretion. should also be sketched in the same manner. in a faint. Landscapes should be painted on a sort of tanned leather-coloured canvas. a little vermilion. and is very agreeable and proper for glazing. The teints are. and then left to dry. Remember. as we shade with Indian-ink and water: leaving the colour of the cloth for the lights. though the foliage of the trees is only rubbed in with a faint sort of scumbling. or rubbing-in the design. * . light ochre. vermilion. But canvas and stretching-frames are to be purchased ready-pre pared.

OF DEAD-COLOURING. the sky excepted. as trees. buildings. we fall by degrees . the better it will bear out and support them: the distances should be made out faint and obscurely. and from that to the fore-ground and nearest parts. which should be laid with a good body of co lours. The sky should be done first. the other co lour is only burnt umber: these should be a little changed to the natural hue of the objects. than to shew them in their first painting. - The greatest seeret in dead-colouring is. and some of their lights. Both these colours mix and sympathize agreeably with all the lights. and then laid and drove with drying oil. and therefore would be entirely spoiled for the finishing glazing. • When the landscape is designed. and left with a faint resemblance of the prin cipal clouds: and this we should do more in the manner of claro obscuro. or dead-colouring. begin with the sky. and the method of using them with the lights. the first of which is the dark shade with a little lake in it. with the dark shades. which is a scumbling kind of glazing. in different degrees. or strong dark colours. and as such they should be left. LET the first lay.34 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. and so work downwards to the middle group. so that the effect is made more to receive and preserve the finishing colours. in the same manner as we shade with Indian-ink. Remember that all the parts of each group. be without any bright glaring. for otherwise they will be dark and heavy. be all painted with the group they belong to. As we come more into the middle group. then all the distances. to find the two colours which serve for the ground of sha dows in general. and laid so as best to find and show their principal parts. but should be laid before them. than with finishing colours: the whiter it is left. or the like.

and lay in all the azure and colours of the horizon: then soften them. Observe that the stiffer the azure and colours of the horizon are laid. we should add the finishing colours. 35 into the burnt umber in the shades. Remember that all the finishing of the sky should be done at once painting. and the other teints that are wanting. very lightly. and lighter than the finishing colours. *= SECOND PAINTING. In painting the lights. or ground. should be seen through it distinctly. which will soften and mix the colours agree ably for finishing. and. which will preserve the finishing colours better.THE ART of PAINTING IN OTL. the better the clouds may be painted upon them. go over the whole with a sweetener very lightly. and seem easy to finish on. then soften the whole with a sweetener. and that the first painting. because the tender character of the clouds will not admit so fine a touch as when the whole is wet. BEGIN with the sky. The greatest distances are chiefly made with the colour of the sky. and observe to leave them with a sufficient body of clean colours. we should glaze and scumble the parts very thin. all which may be done with a few teints. All the ground of the trees should be laid or rubbed in. and finish on it with the high lights. On this lay. or dead-colour. it is better to incline more to the middlc teint than to the very high lights. such as will sup port the character. with light tender touches. enough only to leave an idea of their shapes and shadows faintly. . After this. The ground of their shadows must be clean. as they grow nearer and - darker. with such glazing shadow-colours as come nearest to the general hue of the group the objects are in: this glazing should be understood of a darkish hue. after that lay in the general teint of the clouds.

when it is drove with drying oil. as the distances come nearer. After these four glazing colours. is the dark shade improved with lake. and the more distinctly we leave them. Before we proceed farther. are the four principal. for white is the destruction of all glazing colours. Now. and brown pink. with the purple. Lake. it will be proper to say something of the most useful glazing colours. burnt umber is a very good glazing warm brown. and.36 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. Prussian blue. care must be taken that we do not spoil the glazing. provided we do it with good drying oil. but the most agreeable colours for the darkest shadows. terre verte. may be improved and made lighter with some of the sky teints. therefore we should be very exact in making those colours on the pallet. The more we manage them like Indian-ink. . and of great use in the broken grounds and nearest parts. As . in laying then. and softened with such colours as are of a near re semblance to themselves and the objects: thus. supposing that this glazed ground is properly adapted to the object or place. they should be a little changed. which are the principal glazing colours. no colour in the world is so sweet and sympathising: it mixes harmoniously with the lights as well as the shadows. and then be sure to lay them with light free touches. if it be in the distances. which are wanted for the lights and finishings of the same. We should make out all the ground of the objects with such glazing shadow-colours as seem nearest to the natural hue of the object in that situation. but. the better their transparent beauty will stand and appear. it is a fine warm shade. and in all kinds of buildings. such as are made without white. we think that it will then be easy to find the other colours. the terre verte and azure. the terre verte and Prussian blue may be changed with some of the green teints. but. as the principal glazing colours themselves are often too strong and glaring. As we get more into the middle group. and is a charming colour in the trunks and bodies of trees.

where all the objects should be perfectly finished.THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. THE THIRD AND LAST PAINTING. but the fore-ground and its ob jects require all the strength and force of glazing which the colours are capable of producing. According to these methods. in such manner as will seem easy to finish. Remem ber that the colours of the middle teint should be of a clean beautiful hue. or pencil. The colours that come next for finishing are in the degree of middle teints: these should be carefully laid over the greatest breadth of lights. through the middle group. which should be done with a stump-tool. Thin near trees. . After this glazing ground. for bear the second until the first is dry. if we let the under-parts dry before we add the finishing co lours. we should finish their under or most distant parts before we paint any of the other which appear nearer. IF oiling be necessary. so that we may oil no more than what is wanted. Observe this method down to the last and nearest objects of the picture: and where it so happens that painting one tree over another does not please. as stiff as the pencil can agreeably manage to character. of different colours. lay the least quantity that can be. which is the first lay of the second painting. will do better. there is less occasion for changing them. in such man ner as not to spoil and cover too much of the glazing. then wipe the whole place that is oiled with a piece E. Do it with a good body of colour. I think it will be easy to finish all the second paint ing as we work down from the sky. - 37 we approach the first group. we should follow with strengthening the same in the shadows and darkest places. proportioned to the place that is to be oiled. As we come to the first group.

we should take great care that we do not overcharge and spoil the beauty of the glazing. by experience.. but leaves the colours in the greatest perfection. This method of leaving the first and second parts to dry separately.. we should remember to use a great variety of teints. lay the high lights and finishing colours. The method of painting near trees is. may be laid with a better body of colour.38 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OTL. we leave no more oil than is proper for our purpose. which will not be mixed and spoiled with the wet ground. . also. and some parts without oiling. For the same reason. then the middle teints: and. those in the fore-ground should be done . for. and follow it with strengthening the shadows. therefore it is highly necessary to improve and force them by exaggerating the lights. it will be dull and heavy. The third and last work is adding all the lights and finishing colours in the best manner we are able. if we do. but most of all. the best way is. when we are finishing trees: this gives a richness to the colouring. By this method. When we are going to finish any objects. What we have said of trees.very nearly of the same colour. and let them dry. but more in the degree of a middle teint. that the greens will fade and grow darker. - . last of all. and more agreeable. and leave it to dry. and making an allowance in using them so much the lighter. to make the first lay very near to nature. We have found. not only makes the whole much easier. The lights. therefore. But all this cannot be done as it should be at once painting. though not quite so dark. Then begin with improving the middle teint and shadow. to do no more than the first lay with the faint shadows. . applies equally to all kinds of shrubs and bushes. because most of the work may be done with scumbling and glazing. of silk handkerchief. and therefore will consequently grow darker. The figures in the landscape are the last work of the picture. and produces harmony.

London. and it will effectually prevent it. dries quickly in a warm room. To prevent Pictures from Cracking. before it is put into the bladder. let it stand a few days. * RECIPES. As you will observe in Rubens' pictures. will give a brilliant effect. PUT one-third best boiled oil to two-thirds mastich-varnish. put five or six drops of drying-oil. from ex perience. IF varnished with mastich-varnish. BRowN ochre and Antwerp blue. after the figures in the first and farthest group are painted.ONE-THIRD For a middling Green. and a very small quantity of vermilion.\ 39 THE ART OF PAINTING IN OIL. &c. Guelp. and those in the distances should be done next. Printed by J. into the varnish. animal-painter. For a very bright Green. Garrard. we think it will be much easier to find the proportions of those in the middle parts of the picture. two-thirds brown pink. as many other varnishes do. And it should be observed. RIDER. . * For a fine warm Flesh Colour. - THE END. with those of the group or place they are in. any of the ochres and yellows for the lights. stir it till it comes to the consistency of a jelly. it will never crack. ANTwÉRP blue and yellow lake. Antwerp blue.) is. For a fine new Dark Green for Trees. light red and lake. This discovery has been communicated to the author of J. To make Me. by grinding with it a little dryer or white copperas. a most useful composition for painters in general. and also will mix with any colour to paint with. This will be found. Fore-Grounds. jun. or colour. A METhod of preventing lake from coagulating. for. Little Britain. that the sha dows of the figures should be of the same hue. with a small quantity of Naples yellow. first. or of burnt linseed-oil. as it not only makes a beautiful clear varnish for oil pictures. * over the ground colour. and another advantage. or growing - fat. . (as it is termed by the painters. Esq. and it will be fit for use.

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