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Preserving Digital Cultural Heritage: A Call for Participatory Models

ROSE L. CHOU
SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY

Abstract
The influence and power of archival institutions on the historical record and cultural memory is
often overlooked, as the act of constructing history and memory can be difficult to identify. This
paper focuses on the digital preservation of collections related to indigenous and other
historically marginalized communities. With the exponential growth of digital materials comes
greater urgency and importance of digital preservation. For archivists to provide true long-term
access to materials, they must work in partnership with source communities. There are both
theoretical and practical grounds for adopting participatory models in digital preservation.
Archival institutions will gain enhanced contextual knowledge, and communities will benefit
from the institutional resources necessary for preservation.

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Preserving Digital Cultural Heritage: A Call for Participatory Models
Introduction
Archival institutions heavily influence the historical record and cultural memory, a power
that is not often perceived. With the exponential increase in digital materials comes the even
greater importance of digital preservation, especially in the case of digital cultural heritage. This
paper focuses on the digital preservation of both born-digital and digitized materials related to
indigenous and other historically marginalized communities, and discusses the need for a
participatory model to be adopted when performing the processes of digital preservation. The
author argues that archivists must work together with source communities in order to truly
provide long-term access and preservation.
The Power of Archivists
The very nature of archivists' work gives the profession power over cultural memory and
community representation. While traditionally archivists might view themselves as objective
guardians and custodians of historical records, they actually play a very active and central role as
mediators and interpreters (Cook and Schwartz, 2002, p. 183). During the stage of appraisal,
archivists select which materials are preserved in their institutions, thus “consciously or
unconsciously assert[ing] chosen narratives as truth while ignoring or reframing others” (Shilton
and Srinivasan, 2007, p. 88). This process of selection or rejection of new collections inherently
privileges certain materials and narratives over others. When arranging and describing
collections, archivists exercise another form of power:they create the knowledge and contextual
framework in which researchers study archival materials. Similar to historians and social
scientists, archivists have a responsibility “to accept their historicity, to recognize their own role
in the process of creating archives, and to reveal their own biases” (Cook and Schwartz, 2002, p.

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182). Yet unlike historians and social scientists, archivists’ work is often invisible to researchers
in that little or no attention is paid to how archivists actively shape the historical record. This
oversight makes self-analysis imperative for archivists to evaluate and acknowledge their
backgrounds and biases. Every major responsibility of archivists, from appraisal to description
and reference, creates a framework in which researchers begin their study of the material.
When dealing with materials by or about indigenous and other marginalized
communities, archivists must be self-aware of the inherent power dynamic. It is critical to
examine the role that creating such collections plays in the process of creating community
identity, and archivists must consider the question of for whom preservation is truly intended
(Worcman, 2002, Digital Technology and Social Inclusion, para. 5). One main barrier is that
archival systems' standards and practices are built on Western values, including concepts of
ownership based on Western legal systems and inflexible, subjective metadata schemes
(Iacovino, 2010, p. 359; Christen, 2011, p. 208). By mechanically placing materials in a Western
paradigm, archivists strip materials of their original cultural context. For example, the Western
archival emphasis on a specific creator or author overlooks more complex understandings of
creation as a shared, communal process.
The profession's discourse over the past two decades has focused primarily on the
technical aspects of archival practice, such as creating and implementing standards and
templates, instead of the more substantive areas of what contextual knowledge is necessary to
complete that technical architecture (Cook and Schwartz, 2002, p. 175). Terry Cook and Joan
M. Schwartz (2002) explain, “Of course, these allegedly value-free tools—standards, templates,
and so on—also impose their own rational, systematic way of seeing on a world of record
keeping and records creators that is, in reality, inherently chaotic” (p. 176). Archivists must

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understand that these systems and standards are not objective (p. 176). Professional discourse
should turn towards discussions of archival theory, with the basic understanding that “theory— a
mind-set for viewing...is the complement to practice, not its opposite” (p. 181).
With the understanding that archivists strongly influence the historical record, the
profession should call for inclusion and participation to disperse this power. Digital technology
has made it possible to democratize the production of information, providing communities with
resources to become “producers and keepers of their own history” (Worcman, 2002, Digital
Technology and Social Inclusion, para. 6). Archivists should leverage these digital advances to
increase community participation in the archival process.
The Need for Participatory Models
As institutions of cultural heritage, archives are often perceived by marginalized source
communities as cultural appropriators. Archival collections are traditionally “about rather than
of the communities,” and the practice of Western arrangement and description only further
removes cultural context from those records (Shilton and Srinivasan, 2007, pp. 89, 95).
Adopting participatory models can help to achieve reconciliation between communities and
cultural heritage institutions, especially since both parties have the same goal of preservation
(Shilton and Srinivasan, 2007, p. 92). A reciprocal relationship allows archives to gain more
contextual information about cultural materials and communities to benefit from the preservation
resources of a larger institution. Additionally, Worcman (2002) states, “Beyond allowing for a
more democratic perspective of history, the formation of this kind of...collection can serve as a
reference for development policies for, and interaction with, communities” (Social Impact, para.
3). As the archival process becomes more participatory, there will be more specific examples
and best practices to be shared across institutions.

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While communities and archives may share the goal of preservation, they certainly have
different approaches to and ideas of what preservation means. Furthermore, both groups may
also have different reasons for wanting preservation. Archivists’ motivation stems from a
professional responsibility, while communities are driven by a stronger, personal incentive.
These differences in attitude can make both groups feel that they are entitled to more rights or
decision-making power than the other. Working together allows the opportunity for each
stakeholder group to communicate their perspective and gain a better understanding of the
other’s approach.
Another reason that archives can benefit from participatory models is that Western
appraisal, arrangement, and description practices are not always adequate for dealing with the
records of historically marginalized communities. As a consequence of archivists' traditional
undervaluing of multicultural narratives, there is a lack of recognition that there are different
perspectives of what actually constitutes a record (Shilton and Srinivasan, 2007, pp. 92-93).
Similarly, Western concepts of authorship often diverge from the community's understanding,
especially since subjects of records are not viewed as co-creators of records and thus afforded no
rights (Iacovino, 2010, pp. 354, 359). Western archives place heavy importance on authorship
and consider authors to be either individual or corporate, but participatory models have revealed
that many indigenous communities have a different understanding of authorship (Shilton and
Srinivasan, 2007, p. 96). For example, in Australian Yolngu communities, authorship is not a
primary point of community performance narratives – the function is more important (p. 97).
Furthermore, due to the history of Western imperialism, a tension exists “between using Western
words, ideas, and terms as the basis for tribal classification systems” (Christen, 2011, p. 200).
Only by working together with source communities can archivists gain a true understanding of

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their needs.
While acknowledgment of the shortcomings of Western archival practices is a first step,
archivists need to take the next one. For successful appraisal, archivists must work alongside
communities to learn which particular records and narratives hold the most cultural value as the
community understands them (Shilton and Srinivasan, 2007, p. 93). Arrangement and
description should be expanded according to cultural knowledge structures, providing
meaningful representation to the communities (pp. 95–96). This can only happen through a
process in which archivists and community members together create arrangement and
description schemes that correspond with community understandings (pp. 96–97).
Participatory Models in Practice
Through the course of archival history, archives could have always adopted participatory
models, but today's digital tools and culture of online participation especially enhances the
possibilities for implementing a participatory process. While many indigenous communities are
materially poor, and the digital divide is an area of major concern, the reality is that “indigenous
peoples have been active users of the Internet for quite some time” (Burri, 2010, p. 39).
Furthermore, indigenous materials are increasingly being digitized by cultural heritage
institutions and posted online. Online access provides opportunities to widely circulate these
materials in a short amount of time, and this instantaneous sharing has become a ubiquitous
routine (Christen, 2011, p. 185; Kaur, 2007, p. 385). While there are many problems with open
access to cultural materials, “the digital space allows for unprecedented means for participation
of indigenous peoples in the processes of culture making, for communicating, reasserting, and
renegotiating their traditional values” (Burri, 2010, p. 49).
One example of a benefit to this technology is the recent practice of digital repatriation.

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Digital repatriation is the practice of “low-cost surrogates of cultural heritage materials to be
returned to source communities” (Christen, 2011, p. 187). While these digital surrogates are not
replacements for their physical originals, the digital objects provide new alternative uses for
physical objects (p. 187). By giving communities back these cultural materials, digitally
repatriated materials “may stimulate linguistic or cultural revivals...prompt new cultural forms or
popular products, incite new collaborations, and/or forge new types of performances or artistic
creations” (p. 187). Implementing digital repatriation practices strengthens archival institutions’
relationships with source communities and opens the opportunity for creating participatory
models. Demonstrating an effort and commitment to working with communities is an important
first step that archivists need to take.
Beyond digital repatriation, archivists can adopt participatory models to provide more
than just access to cultural heritage materials. The Plateau Peoples' Web Portal was
collaboratively designed as a digital archive to include institutional content from the Washington
State University collections, tribal content directly from the communities, and an integrated
metadata scheme that allows for “Native knowledge to be viewed side-by-side with the academic
voice” (Christen, 2011, pp. 199-201). The Portal provides tribal nations the tools to actively
participate in the description of their materials (p. 194).
Shilton and Srinivasan (2007) propose a three-step Participatory Archiving Model that
facilitates community participation through appraisal, arrangement, and description (p. 98).
During appraisal, the community should discuss value, specifically asking what their
understanding of a record is and which narratives should be preserved (p. 98). The second step
of arrangement requires creating an organizational model for the collections, asking how records
are interrelated and how record relationships can be described (p. 98). Lastly, the description

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process asks of the community’s understanding of authorship and the context of record creation
becomes the primary goal (p. 98). An outsider archivist would not be able to determine this
information without community participation.
Implementing participatory models does have drawbacks. Shilton and Srinivasan (2007)
acknowledge that it requires patience, more time, and a commitment by both the archives staff
and community representatives (p. 100). Major decisions can take a long time to reach, as there
can be disagreement within a community as well as within the archives staff. For the Plateau
Peoples’ Web Portal, it took several months to decide on the main categories used for
classification (Christen, 2011, p. 200). The process of naming and defining categories that were
broad enough to be meaningful and transferable to any new tribes joining the project could not
be done hastily. Many archives face a backlog of collections to process, so it can be easy for
participatory models to be disregarded in the interest of time and labor. While archival
participatory models are likely to be time-consuming and require patience, the greater benefits of
gaining community context, knowledge, and trust are worth the effort.
Digital Preservation and Participatory Models
Participatory models can and should be applied to the practice of digital preservation.
According to Priscilla Caplan (2008), digital preservation can be defined as “a set of activities
aimed towards ensuring access to digital materials over time” (p. 7). Digital materials can be
born-digital materials or analog materials that have been digitized. Digital preservation activities
include “preserving the digital medium that holds the digital information by storing it in the
correct environment and following agreed storage and handling procedures; copying the digital
information into newer, fresher media before the old media deteriorates” (Natarajan, 2004, p.
15). Many different approaches of digital preservation exist, as the approach often depends on

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the type of digital media.
Digital preservation is necessary because of the inherent weaknesses of digital materials.
Digital information can be easily deleted, edited, and corrupted (Burri, 2010, p. 47). Digital
information is also entirely dependent on hardware and software that evolves quickly, resulting
in obsolete technologies (Burri, 2010, p. 47; Kaur, 2007, p. 387). Furthermore, digital storage
media, magnetic and optical, is subject to decay and other physical preservation concerns (Kaur,
2007, p. 386). Archivists cannot afford to wait years before preserving digital materials but must
start taking proactive steps in the present day. Preservation of digital cultural materials can open
the discussion of how archives can work together with communities.
A Participatory Digital Preservation Model
Conducting digital preservation is not easy or simple. As a complex process, there are
many areas for source communities to participate in the practice of digital preservation. When
examining the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model, a common
preservation framework used by institutions, we can see specifically how community
participation can play a role in the preservation of their cultural materials.
Both producers of information and managers of information must work together, as
digital preservation should occur throughout the entire life cycle of a record, starting from the
moment of creation (de Lusenet, 2007, p. 170; Natarajan, 2004, pp. 14–15). In the OAIS
Reference Model, the cooperation of key stakeholders is necessary (Lavoie, 2004, p. 5). These
stakeholder groups are management, producers, and consumers. Responsibilities of management
include strategic planning and other high-level policy decisions, not the archives' daily
operations (p. 5). Producers are the individuals, organizations, or systems that transfer
information to the archive for preservation, and consumers are those expected to use the

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information that is preserved (p. 6). As both producers and consumers of cultural materials,
communities can play a significant role in any OAIS-archive's digital preservation activities.
The OAIS functional model is comprised of six main steps that must be taken to both
preserve information and make it accessible:
1. Ingest
2. Archival Storage
3. Data Management
4. Administration
5. Preservation Planning
6. Access
Archival institutions can easily create opportunities in each of the six OAIS functions for
participatory involvement by community members.
The first function, Ingest. is the stage in which information is submitted by producers (p.
8). At this point, the producer also submits an information package that includes metadata
created by the producer and a negotiated agreement between the OAIS and producer (p. 11).
OAIS archives must first define what a record is and who a producer is according to the
community's understandings, as the information package submitted during this period asks for
metadata. Is a producer only the individual that created the record, or can a producer be a
community entity or the subject of a record? Another OAIS function is Data Management,
which maintains the metadata that identifies and describes archived material (p. 9). Data
Management is responsible for updating databases as new information comes in and maintaining
database search and retrieval (p. 9). Communities can contribute descriptive metadata for
materials that have already gone through the Ingest stage, or for materials for which they are not

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considered producers..
Access is the primary point where consumers interact with the OAIS-archive because it is
the part of the OAIS functional model that manages the processes and services customers use to
locate, request, and receive archival materials. This function is where communities can play a
central role in OAIS-archives (p. 9). As consumers, community members can provide helpful
information regarding access points necessary in the search and retrieval process that can be
relayed to Data Management. Additionally, since consumers are active users of the materials,
they can also discuss how different levels of access should be applied, depending on cultural
sensitivities and protocols within communities.
Another OAIS function with high potential for community participation is
Administration. Administration manages the daily operations of the OAIS-archive and
coordinates the actions of the other five functions (p. 10). Administration also interacts with all
three stakeholders. Administration negotiates agreements with Producers, provides customer
service support to consumers, and supervises management's implementation of policies (p. 10).
As the central location for external and internal communication and daily operations
management, a true participatory model must include community members in administration.
Any OAIS archive would have to implement each function described in order to build a
complete archival system (p. 10). The resulting framework provides many areas for close
collaboration with source communities.
Conclusion
Looking back at archival theory, there are both theoretical and practical grounds for
adopting participatory models in digital preservation. For archivists to provide true long-term
access to materials, they must work with source communities to accurately appraise, arrange, and

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describe their cultural materials. Archival institutions will gain enhanced contextual knowledge,
and communities will benefit from the institutional resources necessary for preservation. Areas
for further research include archives and their relationships, or lack thereof, with source
communities. This topic could also be examined in relation to how archives interact with
different stakeholders, comparing the archival interactions of indigenous communities and
traditional scholarly communities.

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