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Archivists Extraordinaire: Profiles of Early Archivists of Color

Rose L. Chou

San Jose State University

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Abstract

The subject of r acial and ethnic diversity in the archival profession and archival collections

lacks comprehensive scholarship. Literature on American archival history fails to examine

issues of diversity, and literature on diversity in American archives fails to provide

adequate historical context. This paper highlights the professional biographies of five

archivists of color who began working with historical m anuscripts and archives before

1970. Jean Blackwell Hutson, Sara Dunlap Jackson, Archie Motley, Harold T. Pinkett, and

Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley all influenced the archival profession in various ways, and

archivists today can learn from their legacies.

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Introduction

Richard J. Cox observed that for a profession so intertwined with the historical

profession, it is surprising that so little has been published on American archival history. 1

More problematic than the amount of publications is what themes are not examined within

the literature. R acial and ethnic diversity of the archival profession and archival collections

is a major topic that is lacking comprehensive scholarship, both in modern and historical

contexts. Considering that only 7% of the archival profession in 2004 identified as

belonging to one or more ethnic or racial groups other than white, compared to 25% of all

Americans who responded as a race other than white in 2000 , it is appalling that so few

archival publications have examined issues of diversity . 2

While the names of Theodore R. Schellenberg and Margaret Cross Norton are

familiar to most American archivists, have they heard of Jean Blackwell Hutson, Archie

Motley, or Dorothy Porter Wesley? These archivists started a tradition of collecting

materials about and by people of color, the middle and lower classes, and social

organizations when mainstream historians and archivists did not recognize their

importance. Before formalized guidelines or standards for archival education were

a dopted, these early archivists created their own career paths, paving the way for future

archivists. Archivists today should learn more about the history of their profession,

including narratives that have been overlooked or pushed to the fringes of mainstream

history.

1 Richard J. Cox, “American Archival History: Its Development, Needs, and Opportunities,” The American Archivist , 46, no. 1 (1983): 40.

2 Victoria Irons Walch et al., “A*CENSUS (Archival Census and Education Needs Survey in the United States),” The American Archivist , 69, no. 2 (2006): 332; U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Profile of General Demographic Characteristics,” Twenty -second Census of the United States (2000): 1, accessed November 18, 2012, Census.gov.

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To help rectify th e lack of historical writing on racial diversity in American archives,

this paper shares professional biographies of five archivists of color who began working

with historical manuscripts and archives before 1970. Archivists today can learn a lot from

their foundational work. Considering the youth of the archival profession and lack of

archival training programs at the time, t hese pioneering individuals are outstanding

profess ional models for all archivists.

Literature Rev iew

Before jumping into the biographies, it is helpful to set up the context of why more

scholarship on racial diversity is needed in the profession . First, the existing literature on

American archival history is dominated by discussion of the “two traditions” and the

debate over archivists’ identity. Second, the literature that does examine racial diversity in

the profession fails to place the discu ssion within its broader historical context. Only by

unde rstanding the history of archives and archivists of color can the profession truly begin

to resolve issues of diversity today.

The Two Traditions

W ritings on American archival history have focused on the conflict between the

public archives tradition and the historical manuscripts tradition . According to Richard C.

Berner, the historical manuscripts tradition started in the eighteenth century with a

foundation in libraries. 3 Because historical manuscripts w ere separated from their original

record relationships and managed as individual items, library practices were well suited

for application in historical manuscripts repositories. 4 The public archives tradition began

3 Richard C. Berner, Archival Theory and Practice in the United States: A Historical Analysis (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1983), 1.

4 Ibid., 1- 2.

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in 1901 after Alabama founded the first state archives in the United States. 5 State

archivists adopted European archival theory and pr actice, which further proliferated after

the National Archives was established in 1934. 6 Berner credits the beginning of the formal

division between the two traditions to be the 1910 American Historical Association’s

Conference of Archivists, where archiv ists dismissed the notion of using library practices in

public archives. 7 One main area of conflict for archivists was that manuscript collections

were perceived as primarily serving scholars instead of government administrators and the

public. 8 Another was the archival principle of provenance, in which archival records are

kept together and organized according to the origin of creation as opposed to being

separated and grouped by subject. 9 Over 40 years later, Theodore R. Schellenberg worked

to bring t he two traditions together after historical manuscripts repositories began

collecting more contemporary materials. 10 Schellenberg believed that modern manuscript s

shared properties with public archives and could be managed by the archival theory and

practi ces adopted by public archives. 11 By 1960 , l eading manuscripts repositories began to

incorporate the public archives tradition into their institutions, and Berner marked this

year as the end of the historical manuscripts tradition’s dominance. 12

5 Ibid., 1.

6 Ibid. , 2.

7 Ibid., 7.

8 Ibid., 15.

9 Ibid., 15, 23.

10 Ibid., 1, 7.

11 Ibid., 7.

12 Ibid., 1.

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Luke Gilliland- Swetland adopts Berner’s thesis and further argues, “These two

traditions continue to shape professional discourse.” 13 While Gilliland - Swetland agrees

with Berner’s general evaluation of t he two traditions, he argues that the reality of the two

tradit ions reaching co nsensus involved much conflict. Historical manuscript repositories

may have started to implement the principle of provenance, but it did not mean that they

began to interpret provenance the same as those rooted in the public archives tradi tion. 14

Previously the debate focused on the nature and role of archival institutions, but despite

rea ching consensus over provenance, t he legacy of the two traditions remains today in

discussions about the nature and role of archivists as professionals. 15

Nine years after Gilliland- Swetland’s article, Rebecca Hirsh also wrote about the

lasting influence of the two traditions, yet disputed it for two main reasons. Her first

contention is that the public archives tradition did not exist in the United States prior to the

twentieth century. 16 The second flaw Hirsh finds is that the two traditions differ only in

ideology today, not in practice, which is in line with Gilliland - Swetland ’s analysis . 17

Contrary to Berner’s work, Hirsh argues that government records were maintained by

historical societies during the nineteenth century with the mission of serving historical

researchers. 18 Furthermore, it was actually a group of historians, not archivists, who

started the public archives tradition in the early twentiet h century by encouraging the

13 Luke J. Gilliland- Swetland, “The Provenance of a Profession: The Permanence of the Public Archives and Historical Manuscripts Traditions in American Archival History,” The American Archivist , 54, no. 2 (1991): 172.

14 Ibid., 162.

15 Ibid., 163.

16 Rebecca Hirsh, “The Permanence of Provenance: The ‘Two Traditions’ and the American Archival Profession,” Journal of Archival Organization , 8, no. 1 (2010): 55.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid.

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adoption of European archival theory and practice in the United States. 19 While these

historians acknowledged the differences between public records and historical

manuscripts, the most important difference was how the material s were created and not

how they were used. 20 Regarding the second shortcoming of the two traditions thesis,

Hirsh agrees with Gilliland - Swetland that while archival practice became standardized,

archival ideology still remains divided today . 21 Hirsh writes , “Despite all of the talk of

professionalization no consensus was ever reached as to who, exactly, is an archivist…The

archival profession will always be made up of people whose titles range from manuscripts

curator to institutional archivist, but perhaps instead of focusing on their differences, they

can emphasize their common practices instead.” 22

Discussion of the historical manuscripts and public archives traditions has

dominated the literature in American archival history. While the subject deserves

a ttention, t his focus on defining what an archivist is by what they do and how they do it

overlooks the implications of who these archivists are. The two traditions fail to account

for demographics of the archivists who comprise the profession, and, in so doing, fail to

capture a critical and informative facet of the profession: diversity.

Diversity of the Archival Profession

The little scholarship that exists on diversity in the archival profession fails to

contextualize it within broader American archival history. In her expanded 2007

presidential address, Society of American Archivists (SAA) President Elizabeth W. Adkins

focuses on the issue of diversity within the archival profession. She addresses how SAA

19 Ibid., 55 - 58.

20 Ibid., 61.

21 Ibid., 68.

22 Ibid., 68 - 69.

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defines diversity and how the organizatio n can encourage it through outreach,

scholarships, committees, task forces, and the Archives and Archivists of Color

Roundtable . 23 While Adkins discusses SAA’s history of addressing diversity, she only goes

back to the early 1970s when the organization app roved a non- discrimination resolution . 24

Missing from this discussion is how the organization and profession addressed issues of

race prior to the 1970s , for it is unlikely and inconceivable that they were not raised during

periods such as the Civil Rights Movements of African Americans and Native Americans. If

race issues were actually ignored by the profession altogether before the 1970s, that

should have been explicitly stated.

Kathryn M. Neal’s 1996 article “The Importance of Being Diverse: The Archival

Profession and Minority Recruitment” also only focuses on the current and future state of

diversity in archives. Neal examines why a diverse workforce is important, reasons for the

lack of diversity in the profession, and how to recruit more people of color to become

archivists. 25 Neal identifies four major causes for the low numbers of archivists of color:

lack of the profession’s public image; the profession’s disregard of communities of color;

low graduation rates of people of color; and socioeconomic status. 26 While the article helps

fill a large gap in archival scholarship, it does not examine historical reasons for lack of

diversity in the profession or past attempts at recruitment. The historical reasons may be

very similar to current ones but ca nnot be determined without substantial historical

analysis.

23 Elizabeth W. Adkins, “Our Journey Toward Diversity – and a Call to (More) Action,” The American Archivist , 71, no. 1 (2008): 22, 38- 48.

24 Ibid., 30, 32.

25 Kathryn M. Neal, “The Importance of Being Diverse: The Archival Profession and Minority Recruitment,” Archival Issues, 21, no. 2 (1996): 145.

26 Ibid., 149.

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Dominique Daniel examines the development of ethnic and imm igrant archives

since the 1960s, when historians and social scientists began seriously studying the

histories and experiences of people of color. 27 During this time, activists and scholars of

color established archives and cultural heritage institutions documenting their own

histories. 28 Daniel looks at how archives and museums changed their perspectives of

communities of color from object s and subjects to participants in processes such as

collection, appraisal, and description. 29 This article fails to examine the earlier history of

diversity in archives, as repositories documenting people of color existed prior to the

1960s.

All three of these articles mention the lack of schol arship on diversity in archives,

and each of them help fill part of the gap. Yet there is still much work to be done on this

large and complicated topic, and more research needs to be published in order to provide a

fuller understanding of diversity in the profession. Learning more about archival history

will move the profession forward.

Gaps

Existing scholarship on American archival history has focused heavily on the two

traditions. Other works are individual or regional histories of archival institutions, yet few

broaden these histories and link them back to more general American archival history. 30

The articles that do examine diversity of the archival profession lack deep historical

27 Dominique Daniel, “Documenting the Immigrant and Ethnic Experience in American Archives,” The American Archivist , 73, no. 1 (2010): 85.

28 Ibi d.

29 Ibid.

30 Richard J. Cox, “The Failure or Future of American Archival History: A Somewhat Unorthodox View,” Libraries & Culture , 35, no. 1 (2000): 142; Richard J. Cox, “On the Value of Archival History in the United States,” Libraries & Culture , 23, no. 2 (1988): 137.

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context of the issues. Area s needing further research include: the ways archivists of color

influenced practices at other institutions; the development of ethnic archives prior to the

1960s; the effect of the Civil Rights Movement on archival organizations; and demographics

of American archivists prior to 1982. By examining these issues further and gaining a more

comprehensive understanding of American archival history, today’s archivists can better

work on increasing diversity recruitment and retention within the profession as well as

diversifying the content and scope of existing archival collections.

Profiles

Before academics started paying serious attention to the histories of people of color

in the late 1960s, the following archivists recognized the enormous value of materials

documenting histories of color. Before archival education became standardized and more

widespread across history departments and library schools, these individuals found their

own way into the profession. These archivists’ stories, and those of many others, must be

documented and made easily accessible for future generations to learn from .

Jean Blackwell Hutson, 1914- 1998

On September 14, 1914, Jean Blackwell Hutson was born to a farmer and

elementary school teacher in Summerfield, Florida . 31 At the age of four, Hutson and her

mother, Sarah Myers Blackwell, moved to Baltimore, Maryland. 32 Her father, Paul O.

Blackwell, stayed in Florida to manage his produce business and traveled often to Maryland

31 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” Archivists and Archives of Color Roundtable Newsletter 9, no. 1 (1995): 2.; Dinitia Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief, Dies at 83,” New York Times (New York, NY), Feb. 7, 1998: B18.

32 Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

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to visit. 33 Easily bored with school as a child, Hutson’s teachers challenged her by assigning

additional readings. 34 She attended Dougl ass High School in Baltimore, a segregated all -

black school with a reputation for high scholastic achievement by its students. 35 One of her

teachers was the daughter of W.E.B. Du Bois, and the school stressed the study of black

history and literature. 36 Hutson graduated at the age of 15 and w as valedictorian of her

class. 37 She attended the University of Michigan for three years before transferring to

Barnard College in New York Ci ty. 38 In 1935, Hutson graduated with a BA in English, the

second black woman to graduate from Barnard College after Zora Neale Hurston. 39

Originally wanting to become a psychiatrist, Hutson attended the Columbia School of

Library Service intending to finance medical school through library work. 40 Hutson

graduated with an MA in 1936 and also earned a teacher’s certificate from Columbia

University in 1941. 41

After library school, Hutson worked for the New York Public Library system in

various branch libraries. 42 In her first position in the Bronx, she increased the library’s

collection of Spanish- language materials to better serve and attract the library’s patrons. 43

Hutson was asked in 1948 to supervise the Schomburg Collection, part of the New York

33 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 2- 3; Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,”

B18.

34 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

35 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3; Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

36 Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

37 Ibid.

38 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

39 The Associated Press, “Jean

40 The Associated Press, “ Jean Blackwell Hutson,” A31; Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

41 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

42 Ibid.

43 Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

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Public Library System, for six months while the current librarian was on leave . 44 She ended

up working there for 32 years. 45

The Schomburg Collection, later renamed the Schomburg Center for Research in

Black Culture, originally began as the reference section “Divisi on of Negro Literature,

History and Prints” at the 135 th Street Branch in Harlem and specialized in resources

relating to black history and culture. 46 The New York Public Library acquired the personal

collection of Arthur Schomburg in 1926 to further devel op the division’s resources . 47 His

collection of over 10,000 items was comprised of books, manuscripts, artwork, and

pamphlets. 48 More than its collections, the Schomburg served as a cultural center and

hosted literary and artistic programs sponsored by community groups. 49 Interest in the

center rose as the black power movement and independence movements in Africa and the

Caribbean gained popularity. 50 Notable members of the period’s b lack intelligentsia met at

the Schomburg, including Langston Hughes, Ralp h Ellison, Richard Wright, and W.E.B.

44 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

45 Jean Blackwell Hutson, “The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture,” in Black Bibliophiles and Collectors: Preservers of Black History , eds. Elinor Des Verney Sinnette, W. Paul Coates, and Thomas C. Battle (Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1990), 73.

46 Howard Dodson, “The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, The Library Quarterly , 58, no. 1 (1988): 76; Hutson, “The Schomburg Center, ” 69.

47 Dodson, “The Schomburg Center,” 76, 78.

48 Ibid., 78.

49 Ibid., 69 - 70.

50 Smith, “Jean Hu tson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

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DuBois. 51 A childhood friend of Hutson ’s, Langston Hughes referred to her as his “baby

sister” and donated part of his papers to t he Schomburg. 52

During the integration movement in the 1940s and 1950s, b oth blacks and w hites

began to doubt the necessity of a separate collection focusing on black history and culture

but Hutson still defended it . 53 In 1990, Hutson recalled:

Also in 1954 came the historic Supreme Court decision on school desegregation.

Much of the resear ch for the legal brief preceding that decision had been prepared

in the Schomburg. The small staff had a real sense of participating in that event. But

then came the scary suggestion within the New York Public Library Administration

that the Schomburg Collection would not be needed any longer because Negro

history would be integrated into the general collections! 54

The Schomburg was not absorbed by the general collectio ns but maintained its separate

location and identity. Under Hutson ’s supervision in 196 2, the center published a directory

of its holdings to share its collections with libraries internationally. 55 In 1964 the first

president of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, asked Hutson to help develop the University of

Ghana's library collections. 56 She spent a year in Ghana working to grow the university’s

Africana library to include materials about all individuals of African descent, not just those

directly relating to the continent. 57

51 The Associated Press, “Jean Blackwell Hutson,” A31; “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

52 The Associated Press, “Jean Blackwell Hutson,” A31; Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

53 Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief, ” B18.

54 Hutson, “The Schomburg Center,” 74.

55 Hutson, “The Schomburg Center,” 74; Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

56 Hutson, “The Schomburg Center,” 73- 74; “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

57 Hutson, “The Schomburg Center,” 73; “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

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In the 1960s and 1970s, the Schomburg faced financial problems in addition to poor

facilities at the Countee Cullen branch library. 58 Both Hutson and the center gained

national attention when Ebony magazine published the story “Schomburg’s Ailing

Collection” in October 1967. 59 Hutson helped secure funding from the National

Endowment for the Humanities and the New York State Legislature to build a new facility

and to meet staffing, acquisitions, and preservation needs. 60 The collection moved from “a

sparsely furnished, poorly lighted space without air conditioning” to a brand new climate-

controlled five- story building in 1981, the year after Hutson retired from the Schomburg. 61

Hutson served the Schomburg as Curator from 1948- 1972 and as Chief from 1972-

1980. 62 During this period of 32 years, the book collection increased from 15,000 t o over

75,000 volumes and numerous manuscript, art, and audio- visual materials were added. 63

Hutson ’s work resulted in the Schomburg becoming one of the leading collections of

materials relating to the history and culture of peoples of African descent. 64 R egarding the

early years of her tenure, Hutson wrote, “I recall the turmoil I caused among the staff for

having the collection inventoried; such mundane duties had not been performed in twenty

years.” 65 From 1962- 1971, Hutson was also an associate adjunct professor at the City

College of New York in the History Department. 66 She was awarded a Doctor of Human e

58 Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

59 Hutson, “The Schomburg Center,” 76.

60 Hutson, “The Schomburg Center,” 77- 78.

61 Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

62 The Associated Press, “Jean Blackwell Hutson,” A31; “Jean Bla ckwell Hutson Honored,” 2.

63 Ibid., 3.

64 Ibid., 2.

65 Hutson, “The Schomburg Center,” 75.

66 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 3.

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Letters in 1977 from King Memorial College in Columbia, South Carolina. 67 After resigning

as Chief of the Schomburg Center in 1980, Hutson worked in t he New York Public Library's

administration office as Assistant Director, Collection Management and Development, Black

Studies Research Librarian until retiring in February 1984. 68 Hutson continued to live in

Harlem until her death on February 4, 1998, at the age of 83 . 69

The professional work of Hutson should be taught and not forgotten, especially

since her story is intimately tied with the history of the Schomburg Center, which remains

today one of the most prestigious collections of African American mat erials. Her legacy

should be a lesson to all archivists who came afterwards. Before social history and African

American studies became popular fields of study in the 1960s and 1970s, Hutson

recognized the importance of materials focused on black culture and history and ensured

their acquisition, preservation, and use. Howard Dodson, chief of the Schomburg in 1998,

described her, “ She had an exacting personality…She ran a tight ship and had an astute way

of getting what she wanted done. Once her mind was set on doing something, there was no

stopping her.” 70

Sara Dunlap Jackson , 1919- 1991

Sara Dunlap Jackson was born on May 28, 1919 , in Columbia, South Carolina. 71 She

was orphaned as an infant and adopted by her uncle and aunt, Reverend C.W. and Ella Fair

67 Ibid.

68 “Jean Blackwell Hutson Honored,” 2; Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

69 The Associated Press, “Jean Blackwell Hutson,” A31; Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

70 Smith, “Jean Hutson, Schomburg Chief,” B18.

71 “Dr. Sara Dunlap Jackson: Federal Archivist,” SCAfricanAmerican.com, last modified September 1993, http://scafricanamerican.com/honorees/view/1993/9/ ; Ira Berlin, “ In Memory of Sara Dunlap Jackson ,” Prologue Magazine, 29, no. 2 (1997), accessed

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Dunlap. 72 Jackson graduated in 1939 from Booker T. Washington High School in Columbia

and in 1943 from Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina , with a

bachelor’s degree in sociology . 73 She briefly taught at Robert Smalls High School in

Bea ufort, South Carolina, but left for a better job opportunity due to World War II. 74

After moving to Washington, DC, in 1943 for a clerical position at the War

Department, Jackson joined the ten - year- old National Archives as Archival Assistant in

1944. 75 She was one of the first black women working in a professional position at the

National Archives. 76 Jackson was assigned to the Old Military Records Branch, which

contained government documents concerning the United States’ pre - 20 th century war

activities inc luding the “Rebel Archives,” Freedmen’s Bureau, and “Colored Troops”

Division of the Adjutant General’s Office. 77 While working with these collections, she

became intimately familiar with the relationships among the different types of National

Archives records and shared that knowledge with others. 78 Joellen El Bashir described

September 28, 2012, http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/summer/sara - dunlap- jackson.html .

72 “Dr. Sara Dunlap Jackson”; Janet Linde, “Sara Dunlap Jackson: Paradigm of the Archivist as Caring Research Facil itator” (presentation, Society of American Archivists Annual Meeting, Birmingham, AL, August 23, 2002).

73 Berlin, “In Memory of”; Joellen El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson: Research Archivist , National Archives,” African -American and Third World Archivists Roundtable Newsletter, 3, no. 2 (1989): 4- 5; Linde, “Sara Dunlap Jackson”; “Sara D. Jackson, Government Archivist,” The Washington Post (Washington, DC), Apr. 24, 1991: D4.

74 Berlin, “In Memory of”; Roger A. Bruns, “Historical News and Notices: Deaths,” The Journal of Southern History, 57, no. 3 (1991): 579.

75 Bruns, “Historical News and Notices,” 579; “Dr. Sara Dunlap Jackson”; El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

76 El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

77 Bruns, “Historical News and Notices,” 579; El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

78 Bruns, “Historical News and Notices,” 579.

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Jackson’s reputation, “Students and other researchers were told to ‘go see Sara Jackson, she

knows where everything is in the Archives.’” 79

Jackson worked at the National Archives for 46 years, retiring in October 1990. 80

Though she gained more responsibilities throughout her tenure at the National Archives,

Jackson’s position title of Archival Assistant remained the same until more recent years. 81

Partially a result of supportive lett ers submitted on her behalf by researchers, her position

was eventually changed to Research Archivist. 82 In 1968 Jackson started working at the

National Archives’ National Historical Publications Committee, now called the National

Historical Publications a nd Records Commission (NHPRC), and conducted research in the

Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, John C. Calhoun, and Henry Clay. 83

In addition to her day job, Jackson took on many other professional responsibilities.

She served on several professional committees including the Department of the Army

Historical Advisory Committee, Advisory Council of the U.S. Army Military Institute,

Executive Council of the Southern Historical Association, and advisory committees for the

National Park Service and the Marine Corps. 84 S he was also a director of the Council of

America’ s Military Past and a member of the Editorial Selection Board for the book series

The American Negro: His History and Literature . 85 No doubt Jackson was asked to serve on

these committees due to her extensive historical knowledge, as she was “frequently cited as

one who knows the historical material in the National Archives better than any other

79 El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

80 “Dr. Sara Dunlap Jackson.”

81 El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

82 Ibid.

83 Ibid.

84 Ibid.

85 El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2; “Sara D. Jackson,” D4.

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individual, particularly in the areas of western, military, social, and black history.” 86

Historian Ira Berlin wrote, “This archival assistant, without academic degree or scholarly

paraphernalia, became one of the most knowledgeable historians of American life.” 87

Jackson also wrote numerous articles and co- edited Am I Not a Man and a Brother: The

Anti-Slavery Crusade of Revolutionary America, 1688 -1788 , which was published in 1977. 88

She conducted research in black history generally and also specifically on Henry O. Flipper,

the first African American graduate of West Point. 89 West Point asked her to present an

award named in honor of Flipper at its 1989 graduation . 90

Jackson received numerous awards in recognition of her work . The University of

Toledo gave her the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Humane Letters in Recognition of

Unusual Service to Humanity in 1976. 91 In 1985 the Western History Association Award of

Merit for Distinguished Contributions to the Cause of Western History was awarded to

her. 92 Later in 1990, she received the Houston Civil War Round Table’s Frank E. Vandiver

Award of Merit. 93

Jackson died at the age of 71 on April 19, 1991, at her home in Washington, DC, after

a battle with cancer. 94 Roger A. Bruns, who co- edited a book with Jackson, wrote :

Her influence on individuals ranged from esteemed professors tracking down the

elusive historical clue to young people first venturing into historical discovery. Sara

86 El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

87 Berlin, “In Memory of.”

88 Ibid.

89 Ibid.

90 Bruns, “Historical News and Notices,” 579.

91 El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

92 Ibid.

93 “Dr. Sara Dunlap Jackson.”

94 “Sara D. Jackson,” D4.

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Jackson informed and inspired with personal grace, a deep respect for history, and

an infectious love of research. In book after book published in recent years, authors

acknowledged Sara Jackso n’s professional help and personal encouragement. She

was, as one recently wrote, an “archivist extraordinaire.” 95

Her life’s work is a leading example of how archivists can affect the lives of many others

without being in a high administrative position. The everyday responsibilities of archivists,

from processing to reference, greatly affect a researcher’s ability to find the information

they need. Though some archivists do gain acknowledgement in the form of awards, most

do not – b ut their work is stil l in valuable to others.

Archie Motley, 1934- 2002

On December 2, 1934, Archie Motley was born to Archibald J. Motley, Jr., and Edith

Granzo Motley in Chicago, Illinois . 96 Motley’s father was a well - known Afric an American

painter during the Chicago Renaissa nce, and his mother was German American. 97 Though

Motley looked white, he identified as black. 98 Motley began high school at De La Salle High

School, where his skin color was light enough that white students felt comfortable

insulting blacks in front of h im , ” but then transferred to and graduated from Englewood

High School, which was predominantly black. 99 He attended DePaul University and

95 Bruns, “Historical News and Notices,” 579; El Bashir, “Sara Dunlap Jackson,” 2.

96 “ Archie Motley Memorial Scholarship for Minority Students,” MidwestArchives.org, accessed October 8, 2012, http://www.midwestarchives.org/motley; Beverly A. Cook and Michael Flug, “Archie Motley: Archivist Emeritus, Chicago Historical Society,” Archivists and Archives of Color Newsletter, 13, no. 1 (1999); 6.

97 Cook and Flug, “Archie Motley,” 6; James Janega, “Archie Motley, 67; Archivist Helped Preserve City’s Black, Labor History,” Chicago Tribune (Chicago, IL), Nov. 13, 2002;

2C.

98 Janega, “Archie Motley, 67,” 2C.

99 Ibid.

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graduated in 1960 with a BA in philosophy. 100 Five years later, Motley graduated from

Loyola University Chicago with an MA in philosophy. 101

As an undergraduate, Motley started working at the Chicago Historical Society in

1955 the beginning of a 42 - year tenure. 102 For his first ten years, Motley was the only

staff member of the society’s archives, but staff and collections started to increase after

1965. 103 In 1974 he was promoted to curator of archives and manuscripts. 104 When

Motley first started working at the historical society, it only held approximately 400 linear

feet in archives and manuscripts. 105 By the end of his 42 years there, the collection had

expanded to 16,000 linear feet. 106

Not only did the size of the holdings increase, but the scope of the archives and

manuscripts greatly increased as well. Motley transitioned the society’s emphasis on the

city’s professional elite to materials documenting the broader urban experience. 107 He

sought to acquire collections relating to the history of African Americans, women, social

movements, and labor in Chicago. 108 “Before ‘diversity’ became a widely used term, Archie

appreciat ed that a broad- based representation from the people of Chicago was really

important to tell as truthfully as possible,” said Russell Lewis. 109 This change in the

institution’s collecting mission also influenced other historical societies across the

100 Ibid.

101 “Archie Motley Memorial Scholarship.”

102 “Archie Motley Memorial Scholarship;” Cook and Flug, “Archie Mot ley,” 6; Janega, “Archie Motley, 67,” 2C.

103 Cook and Flug, “Archie Motley,” 6.

104 “Archie Motley Memorial Scholarship.”

105 Ibid.

106 Ibid.

107 Ibid.

108 Ibid.

109 Janega, “Archie Motley, 67,” 2C.

21

country. 110 Michael Flug observed, “When Archie came onto the scene in 1955, most

historical societies and other manuscript collections held primarily the papers of

businessmen and politicians and other primarily powerful people – mostly white people

with money. Archie was one of a small number of people in the vanguard of changing that

perspective.” 111

Motley’s intimate knowledge of the city and ability to convince people and

institutions to donate their materials were critical to his success. He reflected , “My f ather

talked about race and politics at the dinner table. He was curious about history, always

reading, always talking about politics and sports. And so I knew the Black community in

Chicago; I knew who was who and how to talk to people.” 112 While the his torical society

acquired the papers of prominent individuals, such as Senator Paul Douglass, Motley also

ensured the records of neighborhood organizations, labor activists, and social service

agencies were donated to the society. 113 In 1991 Motley was quote d in the Chicago

Tribune, “The real trick of being an archivist is getting papers that people don’t already

know very much about.” 114 An example of this principle is that he approached social

service organizations that had never been asked about donating their records. 115

On March 1, 1998, Motley officially retired from the Chicago Historical Society,

though he continued working as Archivist Emeritus for about 25 hours every week. 116 He

was very active in the archival and history profession s, including the Society of American

110 Cook and Flug, “Archie Motley,” 6.

111 Janega, “Archie Motley, 67,” 2C.

112 Cook and Flug, “Archie Motley,” 6.

113 Cook and Flug, “Archie Motley,” 6; Janega, “Archie Motley, 67,” 2C.

114 Janega, “Archie Motley, 67,” 2C.

115 Cook and Flug, “Archie Motley,” 6.

116 Ibid.

22

Archivists, Society of Baseball Research, and the Urban History Association. 117 He helped

found the Midwest Archives Conference and served as its first president. 118 As a member

of the Society of American Archivists, Motley was a member of t he women’s issues

roundtable and advocated for archivists of color to serve as leadership on committees. 119

In 1999 Motley said, “One of the issues I think still needs more work is the question of

diversity in the archival profession.” 120 At the age of 67, M otley died on November 11,

2002, in Evanston, Illinois. 121

Motley will be remembered for being one of the first archivists to actively and

aggressively collect archives and manuscripts documenting people of all races and

economic backgrounds, not just those who have become well - known or financially

successful. This remains a n important lesson archivists need to learn today. Historian

Studs Terkel described this legacy, “Archie knew more about the history of Chicago – of

working people than anyone in tow n. He knew about labor battles better than anyone.

Archie Motley knew about the Bronzeville renaissance as well as anyone. He knew Chicago

history from the bottom up, that’s the thing. He was a chronicler, the unofficial chronicler

of Chicago working p eople’s history.” 122

117 “Archie Motley Memorial Scholarship.”

118 Ibid.

119 Janega, “Archie M otley, 67,” 2C.

120 Cook and Flug, “Archie Motley,” 6.

121 Janega, “Archie Motley, 67,” 2C.

122 Ibid.

23

Harold T. Pinkett, 1914- 2001

Harold T. Pinkett was born on April 7, 1914, in Salisbury, Maryland, to Levin and

Catherine Pinkett. 123 He graduated in 1935 summa cum laude from Morgan College, now

Morgan State University, and in 1938 from the University of Pennsylvania with a master’s

degree in history. 124 Pinkett taught Latin at Douglass High School in Baltimore, Maryland,

before serving as a history professor from 1938- 1939 and 1941- 1942 at Livingstone

College in Salisbury, North Carolina, and passed the civil service exam in 1940. 125 He was

offered a position working at the National Archives in 1942, though his interest at the time

was not in archives but teaching. 126 Pinkett was enrolled in a history doctoral program at

Columbia University, but the National Archives’ job offer came with an appealing salary and

tenure. 127

Pinkett moved to Washington, DC, in 1942 and worked at the National Archives

briefly before leaving to serve in the United States Army during World War II. 128 After the

war, Pinkett returned to work at the National Archives under the supervision of notable

archival theorist Theodore R. Sc hellenberg. 129 Very few archival education and training

programs existed during this time period, and Pinkett learned about the principles and

123 Douglas Helms, “In Memoriam: Harold T. Pinkett, ” Perspectives: The Newsmagazine of the American Historical Association, 39, no. 8 (2001), accessed October 10,

2012, http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2001/0111/0111mem1.cfm ; “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett, 1914- 2001,” Archivists and Archives of Color Newsletter, 15, no. 1 (2001):

1.

124 Douglas Helms, “Obituary: [Dr. Harold T. Pinkett],” Agricultural History, 75, no. 3 (2001): 349.

125 Helms, “Obituary,” 349; Karen Jefferson, “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett: First Black Archivist at the National Archives,” African -American and Third World Archivists Roundtable Newsletter, 3, no. 1 (1989): 3.

126 Jefferson, “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett,” 3.

127 Ibid.

128 Helms, “Obituary,” 349.

129 Jefferson, “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett,” 3.

24

t echniques of a rchival practice from Schellenberg and Ernst Posner, a German archivist and

educator. 130 Not only was Pinkett the first African American to hold the position of

archivist at the National Archives, he was also the first African American in this type of

position at an American archival institution. 131

In his early years at the National Archives, Pinkett wrote most of the preliminary

inventories of agricultural records. 132 He went on to supervise departments that provided

reference and description of these agricultural records and later became Chief Archivist of

the Natural Resources Records Branch, which was comprised of records from the

Department of Agriculture, Department of the Interior, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and

the Works Project s Adm inistration. 133 Historian Douglas Helms said, “Agricultural

historians who had occasion to do research at the National Archives will remember him

best as the knowledgeable and dignified, but also friendly and kind person, who freely

shared his expertise on the records related to agriculture.” 134 Pinkett used his extensive

knowledge of US agricultural history to earn a doctorate in history from American

University in 1953 . 135 His dissertation was on the forest conservation pioneer Gifford

Pinchot, who was the founder and first chief of the Forest Service. 136 The Agricultural

History Society gave Pinkett a book award for his biography of Pinchot in 1968. 137

Now deeply involved in the archival profession, Pinkett was very active in his

professional service. He served as co- editor of Research in the Administration of Public

130 Dr. Harold T. Pinkett,” 1; Jefferson, “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett,” 3.

131 Helms, “Obituary,” 349.

132 Ibid.

133 Helms, “In Memoriam;” Helms, “Obituary,” 349.

134 Helms, “Obituary,” 349.

135 Ibid.

136 Helms, “In Memoriam;” Helms, “Obituary,” 350.

137 Helms, “Obituary,” 350.

25

Policy, a publication of the National Archives, and from 1968- 1971 was editor of the

American Archivist , journal of the Society of American Archivists. 138 He was the first

African American editor of the American Archivist. 139 In 1971 Pinkett became the first

African American to be elected to the SAA Executive Council. 140 He also served as president

of the Forest History Society from 1976- 1978 and of the Agricultural History Society from

1982- 1983. 141 The list of his professional service goes on and on. Additionally, Pinkett was

an adjunct professor at Howard University and American University, teaching courses in

history and archival administration, and wrote over 50 articles on archives and history tha t

were published in journals and encyclopedias. 142

After 35 years working at the National Archives, Pinkett retired in 1979. 143 During

his tenure, he received various awards from the institution recognizing his work

performance: the Commendable Service Award in 1964 and 1970 and the Exceptional

Service Award in 1979. 144 He continued working as an archival consultant for numerous

colleges, the National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of

Colored People (NAACP). 145 After retirement Pinkett also continued conducting histori cal

research . 146 On March 13, 2001, Pinkett passed away at the age of 86. 147

Pinkett humbly reflected on his career:

138 Ibid.

139 “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett,” 1.

140 Helms, “Obituary,” 350.

141 Ibid., 349 - 350.

142 Ibid. , 350.

143 Ibid., 349 - 350.

144 “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett,” 1.

145 Helms, “Obituary,” 350.

146 Helms, “In Memoriam.”

147 Helms, “Obituary,” 349.

26

Whatever success as an archivist that I have achieved has resulted, I believe, from a

few basic circumstances. My professional development was stimulated by a good

academic and intellectual foundation. It has been advanced and sustained by

specialized training, job experience, scholarly effort, and public contacts. My

achievement has been determined frequently by alertness in seeing and using

opportunities for self - improvement. With diligence I have often been able, in a

paraphrase of Samuel Johnson, ‘to improve the golden moment of opportunity and

catch the good’ within my reach. 148

As the first African American with the title of archivist at the National Archives, Pinkett

paved the way for future archivists of color. He started working in archives during the

early years of the American archival profession, when there were few opportunities for

formal archival training, and shaped the profession through his extensive professional

service.

Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley, 1904- 1995

Dorothy Louise Burnett Porter Wesley was born on May 25, 1904, in Warrenton,

Virginia , to Hayes Joseph and Bertha Ball Burnett . 149 She grew up in suburban Montclair,

New Jersey, which w as predominantly white. 150 Her father graduated from Howard

University Medical School and was the first African American physician to practice in

148 Jefferson, “Dr. Harold T. Pinkett,” 6.

149 Sources differ in citing Porter Wesley’s birth year as 1904 and 1905, but based

on the enumeration dates and age information listed in the Census of the United S tates for 1910, 1920, and 1940, the author determined her birth year to be 1904; Esme Bhan, “Dorothy Louise Burnett Porter Wesley 1904 - 1995,” Washington History , 8, no. 1 (1996):

88.

150 Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 3.

27

Montclair, and her mother was a homemaker and tennis champion. 151 Porter Wesley

graduated from the integrated Montclair High School, where there were only six black

students. 152 In 1923 Porter Wesley moved to Washington, DC, to attend Miner Normal

College, a teacher training school for black students, and graduated in 1925. 153 She became

close with the Librarian of the College, Lula Allan, who encouraged Porter Wesley to attend

a summer session at Columbia University’s School of Library Service. 154 In the fall, Porter

Wesley started work as acting librarian of Mi ner Normal College while Allan was on leave

for a year. 155

Porter Wesley earned a bachelor’s degree from Howard University in 1928 . 156 She

went on to earn an undergraduate degree in library science from Columbia University in

1931 and her master’s degree in library science from Columbia in 1932. 157 She was the

first person of African descent to graduate with a master’s degree from Columbia

151 Avril Johnson Madison and Dorothy Porter Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley: Enterprising Steward of Black Culture,” The Public Historian , 17, no. 1 (1995): 15; “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley 1905 - 1995,” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education , 43, no. 1 (2004): 1.

152 “Dorothy Bur nett Porter Wesley,” 1; Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 15.

153 Bhan, “Dorothy Louise Burnett Porter,” 88; Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 16.

154 Karen Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley, Curator Extraordinaire,” Afric an - American and Third World Archivists Roundtable Newsletter , 4, no. 1 (1990): 3.

155 Ibid.

156 Betty M. Culpepper, “Moorland - Spingarn Research Center: A Legacy of Bibliophiles,” in Black Bibliophiles and Collectors: Preservers of Black History , eds. Elinor Des Verney Sinnette, W. Paul Coates, and Thomas C. Battle (Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1990), 107 .

157 Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 16.

28

University’s School of Library Service. 158 When asked about her experience at Columbia,

Porter Wesley reflected:

I don’t k now how to describe it, except that there were a lot of negative things going

on. In the first place, I couldn’t get a room in the dormitory. I had to live on

Riverside Drive because of my color. And then when I arrived – I had a scholarship,

by the wa y, to go to Columbia – and when I arrived, the teacher with whom I was

doing my major work told me that I couldn’t get through with it; I came from

“inferior background.” She knew I couldn’t do the work, and why did I want to stay?

This was in October, t he beginning of the year. And I said, “Well, I’m going to work

hard, and I’m not going to do any socializing. I’m not going to go to the theaters, I’m

not going to do anything but work. I’ve come to do work, and I intend to get it. 159

During the summers, she worked evening shifts at the New York Public Library’s 135 th

Street Branch, now known as the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. 160 It

was here that Porter Wesley’s interest in black history developed. 161 She was offered a job

at the library , but her colleague Edward Christopher Williams, the first professionally

trained African American in librarianship, encouraged her to take a position at Howard

University instead. 162 While still a Columbia student, Porter Wesley became Howard

University’s “librarian in charge of the Negro collection” in 19 30. 163

158 Culpepper, “Moorland- Spingarn Research Center,” 107; Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Bur nett Porter Wesley,” 17.

159 Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 20.

160 Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 3.

161 Ibid.

162 Culpepper, “Moorland- Spingarn Research Center,” 107; Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 3.

163 Madison and Wesley, “Doroth y Burnett Porter Wesley,” 16.

29

The decision to accept the job at Howard University turned into a 43 - year tenure. 164

The foundation of Howard’s Negro collection was the special collection of Jesse E.

Moorland, a Howard alumnus and B oard of Trustee who in 1914 donated his collection of

3,000 items relating to blacks and slavery. 165 During her first two years at Howard, Porter

Wesley went through the entire library collection to gather all materials relating to black

history and place t hem in a separate collection called “Books By and About the Negroes. ” 166

Lacking a budget to purchase new resources, Porter Wesley established close relationships

with book dealers, publishers, and scholars, who would often give her books. 167 She

regularly a ttended auctions and purchased books using her own money. 168 Porter Wesley

also collected manuscripts, understanding the value and importance of these types of

materials. 169 While formal training for archivists at this time was very limited, she learned

from the experiences of bibliophiles Arthur Schomburg, Henry Proctor Slaughter, and

Arthur Spingarn . 170 In 1946 Howard University purchased 5,000 books by black authors

from Spingarn’s collection, Porter Wesley’s most prominent acquisition, and the library

was renamed the Moorland- Spingarn Collection due to its significance . 171

In addition to growing the collection of books and manuscripts, Porter Wesley

worked to bolster the Howardiana Collection, archives documenting the university’s

164 Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 3.

165 Ibid.

166 Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 3; Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 23- 24.

167 Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 6; Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 20.

168 Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 20.

169 Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 3.

170 Ibid.

171 Culpepper, “Moorland- Spingarn Research Center,” 107; Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 3.

30

history. 172 Persistent in this goal, she even dug through the trash of faculty members to

retrieve office files . 173 She also reached out to faculty members, including Sterling Brown,

Ralph Bunche, and Merze Tate, to encourage them to use the collection’s resources for their

research and teaching. 174 In 1973 she supported the university ’s move to separate the

Moorland - Spingarn Collection from the library into the independent Moorland- Spingarn

Research Center. 175 She also retired that year, having expanded the collection to over

180,000 items from 3,000 in 1914. 176

Porter Wesley published numerous bibliographies, articles, and book reviews in

addition to active professional service . 177 From 1962- 1964, she went on a leave of absence

to help build the National Library of Nigeria, funded by the Ford Foundation. 178 She also

spent a year as a Visiting Research Scholar at Harvard University’s DuBois Institute for

Afro- American Research in 1989. 179 Her hundreds of bibliographies range from short lists

compiled for researchers to extensive volumes including The Negro in American Cities: A

Selected and Annotated Bibliography (1967) and Negro Protest Pamphlets (1969). 180 Porter

Wesley was awarded three honorary degrees of Doctor of Humane Letters from University

of Susquehanna in 1971, Syracuse Universi ty in 1989, and Radcliffe College in 1990. 181 She

172 Culpepper, “Moorland- Spingarn Research Center,” 107.

173 Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 24 - 25.

174 Culpepper, “Moorland- Spingarn Research Center,” 109

175 Jeffer son, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 6.

176 Bhan, “Dorothy Louise Burnett Porter,” 88.

177 Jeffer son, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 6.

178 Madison and Wesley, “Dorothy Burnett Porter Wesley,” 35 - 36.

179 Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 6.

180 Bart Barnes, “Librarian Dorothy Wesley Dies; Black History Curator at Howard,” The Washington Post (Washington, DC), De c. 19, 1995: E5; Jeffe rson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 6.

181 Bhan, “Dorothy Louise Burnett Porter,” 89; Jefferson, “Dorothy Porter Wesley,” 6.

31

also received the National Endowment for the Humanities’ Frankel Award in 1994. 182 On

December 17, 1995, Porter Wesley died of cancer in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, at the age of

91. 183

The Moorland- Spingarn Research Center would not have the comprehensive

collection it has today without the tireless work of Porter Wesley. Important materials

documenting the black experience may never have been preserved or been made

accessible to the public. In 1995 Porter Wes ley stated, “When I started building the

collection, nobody was writing about blacks in history. You couldn’t find any books.” 184 By

scouring a variety of resources , she ensured that books and other materials relating to

black studies could be found for future use. Her extensive bibliographical work also

increased accessibility to both published and unpublished resources.

Conclusion

These five profiles are just a few of the countless experiences of archivists of color

that are a significant part of American archival history. While this information exists in

memories and informal institutional knowledge, it must be recorded before it is lost and

made accessible so that others can learn about and from it. By actively collecting and

sharing these stories, gaps in the literature will begin to be filled. Furthermore,

understanding the past experiences of archivists of color can help contemporary efforts to

diversify the profession and archival collections. On the value of American archival history,

Cox argues:

182 Bhan, “Dorothy Louise Burnett Porter,” 89.

183 Barnes, “Librarian Dorothy Wesley,” E5; Bhan, “Dorothy Louise,” 88.

184 Barnes, “Librarian Do rothy Wesley,” E5.

32

A better- developed archival history can both enrich and strengthen the archival

profession in its quest to accomplish its mission. Archivists are in the business of

preserving historical records because these records are valuable to society. The

recor ds of their own profession and its precursors, chronicling this important work,

are no less significant than the records of other professions or other events and

trends.

185

There is much scholarship that needs to be done on the subject of diversity in Americ an

archives, and there is no better time than now to begin this necessary work before even

more valuable resources fail to be retained.

185 Cox, “On the Value,” 147.

33

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