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Leonard Bernstein

For other people named Leonard Bernstein, see Leonard his first name be Louis, but his parents always called him
Bernstein (disambiguation).
Leonard, which they preferred. He officially changed his
name to Leonard when he was fifteen, shortly after his
[9]
[1]
Leonard Bernstein (/ˈbɜrnstaɪn/; August 25, 1918 grandmother’s death. To his friends and many others
he was simply known as “Lenny.”
– October 14, 1990) was an American composer,
conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist. He was His father, Sam Bernstein, was a businessman and owner
among the first conductors born and educated in the of a hair product store in downtown Lawrence; it is standUnited States of America to receive worldwide acclaim. ing today on the corners of Amesbury and Essex Streets.
According to music critic Donal Henahan, he was “one of Sam initially opposed young Leonard’s interest in music.
the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians Despite this, the elder Bernstein took him to orchestra
in American history.”[2]
concerts in his teenage years and eventually supported
His fame derived from his long tenure as the music di- his music education. At a very young age, Bernstein lisrector of the New York Philharmonic, from his conduct- tened to a piano performance and was immediately caping of concerts with most of the world’s leading orches- tivated; he subsequently began learning the piano seritras, and from his music for West Side Story, Peter Pan,[3] ously when the family acquired his cousin Lillian Goldthe
Candide, Wonderful Town, On the Town, On The Water- man’s unwanted piano. As a child, Bernstein attended [10]
Garrison
Grammar
School
and
Boston
Latin
School.
front, his Mass, and a range of other compositions, including three symphonies and many shorter chamber and As a child he was very close to his younger sister Shirley,
and would often play entire operas or Beethoven symsolo works.
phonies with her at the piano. He had a variety of piano
Bernstein was the first conductor to give numerous televi- teachers in his youth, including Helen Coates, who later
sion lectures on classical music, starting in 1954 and con- became his secretary.
tinuing until his death. He was a skilled pianist,[4] often
After graduation from Boston Latin School in 1935,
conducting piano concertos from the keyboard.
Bernstein attended Harvard University, where he studied
As a composer he wrote in many styles encompassing music with, among others, Edward Burlingame Hill and
symphonic and orchestral music, ballet, film and theatre Walter Piston. Although he majored in music with a fimusic, choral works, opera, chamber music and pieces nal year thesis (1939) entitled “The Absorption of Race
for the piano. Many of his works are regularly performed Elements into American Music” (reproduced in his book
around the world, although none has matched the tremen- Findings), Bernstein’s main intellectual influence at Hardous popular and commercial success of West Side Story. vard was probably the aesthetics Professor David Prall,
whose multidisciplinary outlook on the arts Bernstein
shared for the rest of his life. One of his friends at Harvard was philosopher Donald Davidson, with whom he
1 Biography
played piano four hands. Bernstein wrote and conducted
the musical score for the production Davidson mounted
of Aristophanes' play The Birds in the original Greek.
1.1 Early life
Bernstein reused some of this music in the ballet Fancy
briefly an acHe was born Louis Bernstein in Lawrence, Mas- Free. During his time at Harvard he was
[11]
Harvard
Glee
Club.
Bernstein
also
companist
for
the
sachusetts, the son of Ukrainian Jewish parents Jennie
mounted
a
student
production
of
The
Cradle
Will
Rock,
(née Resnick) and Samuel Joseph Bernstein, a hairdressing supplies wholesaler originating from Rovno (now directing its action from the piano as the composer Marc
Ukraine).[5][6] He was not related to film composer Elmer Blitzstein had done at the premiere. Blitzstein, who heard
Bernstein, but the two men were friends, and even shared about the production, subsequently became a friend and
a certain physical similarity.[7] Within the world of pro- influence (both musically and politically) on Bernstein.
fessional music, they were distinguished from each other Bernstein also met the conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos at
by the use of the nicknames Bernstein West (Elmer) and the time. Although he never taught Bernstein, MitropouBernstein East (Leonard).[8]
los’s charisma and power as a musician was a major inHis family spent their summers at their vacation home fluence on Bernstein’s eventual decision to take up conin Sharon, Massachusetts. His grandmother insisted that ducting. Mitropoulos was not stylistically that similar to
1

in 1945 Bernstein discussed the possibility of acting in a film with Greta Garbo—playing Tchaikovsky opposite her starring role as the composer’s patron Nadezhda von Meck. Before the concert Bernstein briefly spoke to Bruno Walter. although often in his later life he would mention Reiner when discussing important mentors. he enrolled at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. solo cellist of the orchestra. counterpoint with Richard Stöhr.A. friendly triumph of it filled Carnegie Hall and spread far over the air waves. The orchestra (with support from the Mayor) was aimed at a different audience with more modern programs and cheaper tickets than the New York Philharmonic. Bernstein began his study at the Boston Symphony Orchestra's summer institute. Bernstein enjoyed an exuberant social life that included relationships with both men and women.[12] After completing his studies at Harvard in 1939 (graduating with a B. The warm.[13] orchestration with Randall Thompson. transcribing music or producing arrangements under the pseudonym Lenny Amber. During his time at Curtis. in the conducting class of the orchestra’s conductor. which had been founded the previous year by the conductor Leopold Stokowski.”[17][18] He became instantly famous because the concert was nationally broadcast.[14] Unlike his years at Harvard. He also emerged as a composer in the same period. 1943. (Bernstein in German = Amber in English. Bernstein lived in New York. Tanglewood. 2.2 1 BIOGRAPHY Bernstein. He took jobs with a music publisher.[12] 1. In Janshared a flat with his friend Adolph Green and often ac- . In 1940. Miklos Rozsa. piano with Isabelle Vengerova. Bernstein studied conducting with Fritz Reiner (who anecdotally is said to have given Bernstein the only “A grade” he ever awarded). It is possible to hear this concert (apart from the Wagner work) on a recording of the CBS radio broadcast that has been issued on CD by the orchestra. and score reading with Renée Longy Miquelle. Other students in the class included Lukas Foss. Bernstein After he left Curtis. cum laude). The Age of Anxiety. and afterwards started to appear as a guest conductor with many U. his initial practice of conducting without a baton and perhaps his interest in Mahler. Koussevitsky perhaps did not teach Bernstein much basic conducting technique (which he had already developed under Reiner) but instead became a sort of father figure to him and was perhaps the major influence on Bernstein’s emotional way of interpreting music. to him. who discussed particular difficulties in the works he was to perform. “It’s a good American success story.[19] In addition to becoming known as a conductor.[16] On November 14. Bernstein later became Koussevitzky’s conducting assistant[15] and would later dedicate his Symphony No. a thorny work Bernstein loved without knowing anything about its composer until that evening. who also became a lifelong friend.S. Bernstein appears not to have greatly enjoyed the formal training environment of Curtis. The other important influence that Bernstein first met during his Harvard years was composer Aaron Copland. The program included works by Schumann. but he probably influenced some of Bernstein’s later habits such as his conducting from the keyboard. he made his major conducting debut at sudden notice—and without any rehearsal—after guest conductor Bruno Walter came down with the flu. Bernstein’s friendships with Copland (who was very close to Koussevitsky) and Mitropoulos were important in him being recommended for a place in the class.2 1940–1950 companied Green. Bernstein would regularly seek advice from Copland in the following years about his own compositions and would often cite him as “his only real composition teacher”. Wagner and Richard Strauss's Don Quixote with soloist Joseph Schuster.) During this period in New York City. At the party Bernstein played Copland’s Piano Variations. From 1945 to 1947 Bernstein was the Music Director of the New York City Symphony Orchestra. whom he met at a concert and then at a party afterwards on Copland’s birthday in 1938. Betty Comden and Judy Holliday in a comedy troupe called The Revuers who performed in Greenwich Village. having recently been appointed assistant conductor to Artur Rodzinski of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. The next day. Although he was not formally Copland’s student as such. Bernstein conducting the New York City Symphony (1945) Also in regard to a different audience. orchestras. The New York Times carried the story on their front page and their editorial remarked. Serge Koussevitzky.

he conducted the inaugural concert of the Mann Auditorium in Tel Aviv.”[22] Shirley Rhoades Perle. and no one has suggested Bernstein and his wife didn't love each other. The next year he conducted an open-air concert for troops at Beersheba in the middle of the desert during the ArabIsraeli war. but some suggest he was thrilled and danced a little jig. He wasn't conflicted about it at all. In 1947. Part of the rehearsal for the concert was released on CD by the orchestra. Scopus to commemorate the reunification of Jerusalem. Alexander. which several family friends have said his wife knew about. he married the Costa Rican-born American actress Felicia Cohn Montealegre on September 10. In 1957. Jamie. who died in 1954. Bernstein became head of the orchestral and conducting departments at Tanglewood. his wife reveals his homosexuality. During the 1970s. that Bernstein did sometimes have brief extramarital liaisons with young men.[24] There are reports. though. A recording of the “premiere” was released in a 10-CD box set Bernstein LIVE by the orchestra. In 1949. but the notes indicate it was a repeat performance from three days later. following advice from his mentor Dimitri Mitropoulos about the conservative nature of orchestra boards. There is also a 1987 performance with the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra available on DVD. In 1946. another friend of Bernstein. he subsequently made many recordings there. The composer. which had been a Koussevitzky commission. When Koussevitzky died two years later. He reportedly listened to a radio broadcast of it on a radio in his kitchen some days later. The Leonard Bernstein Letters. Throughout his career. and this is perhaps what Ives heard.[23] In 1951. Arturo Toscanini invited Bernstein to guest conduct two concerts with the NBC Symphony Orchestra. he conducted a concert on Mt.[21] In a book released in October 2013. After World War II. In any case. Bernstein often talked about the music of Ives. your health. reports also differ on Ives’s exact reaction. He was just gay. Felicia writes: “you are a homosexual and may never change—you don’t admit to the possibility of a double life. They had three children. one of which again featured Bernstein as soloist in the Ravel concerto. was unable (some reports say unwilling) to attend the concert. 2 of Charles Ives. said that she thought “he required men sexually and women emotionally. Bernstein recorded his symphonies and other works with the Israel Philhar.”[23] But the early years of his marriage seem to have been happy. Bernstein’s career on the international stage began to flourish.[20] After much personal struggle and a turbulent on-off engagement. he conducted opera for the first time.1. old and frail. In 1967.3 1951–1959 3 monic for Deutsche Grammophon. he conducted the world première of the Turangalîla-Symphonie by Olivier Messiaen. your whole nervous system depend on a certain sexual pattern what can you do?" Arthur Laurents (Bernstein’s collaborator in West Side Story) said that Bernstein was “a gay man who got married. and later Nina. with the American première at Tanglewood of Benjamin Britten's Peter Grimes. beginning a lifelong association with Israel. Bernstein conducted in Tel Aviv for the first time. Bernstein recorded the 2nd symphony with the orchestra in 1958 for Columbia and 1987 for Deutsche Grammophon. holding this position for many years.Bernstein was a visiting music professor from 1951 to .3 1951–1959 Photo of Bernstein by Carl Van Vechten (1944) uary 1944 he conducted the premiere of his Jeremiah Symphony in Pittsburgh. which was written around half a century earlier but had never been performed. with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In 1946 he made his first trip to Europe conducting various orchestras and recorded Ravel’s Piano Concerto in G as soloist and conductor with the Philharmonia Orchestra. but his wife did. 1. Bernstein conducted the New York Philharmonic in the world première of the Symphony No. 1951. That same year. One suggestion is that he chose to marry partly to dispel rumors about his private life to help secure a major conducting appointment. but if your peace of mind. His score to the ballet Fancy Free choreographed by Jerome Robbins opened in New York in April 1944 and this was later developed into the musical On the Town with lyrics by Comden and Green that opened on Broadway in December 1944.

In 1954 Bernstein made the first of his television lectures for the CBS arts program Omnibus. and they were highly acclaimed by critics. entitled “Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony”. becoming the Leonard Bernstein Festival of the Creative Arts. The Bernstein Young People’s Concerts were the first and probably the most influential series of music appreciation programs ever produced on television. he produced his score to the musical Wonderful Town at very short notice. making annotations to a musical score Prior to taking over the New York Philharmonic. Further Omnibus lectures followed from 1955 to 1958 (later on ABC and then NBC) covering jazz. American musical comedy. in a DVD set in 2010. In late 1956. Partly due to these appearances. His first Young People’s Concert was televised a few weeks after his tenure began as principal conductor of the New York Philharmonic. replacing Dimitri Mitropoulos. 1950s music lectures were released on records. The programs were shown in many countries around the world. The live lecture. These programs were made available in the U. Bernstein subsequently performed concerts with the orchestra and recorded his Serenade for Violin with Isaac Stern. Bernstein conducted the New York Philharmonic in concerts that were to have been conducted by Guido Cantelli.S. Bernstein and Mitropoulos took the New York Philharmonic on tour to South America. He began his tenure in that position in 1958. which grew out of his Omnibus programs. In his first season in sole charge. and grand opera. involved Bernstein explaining the work with the aid of musicians from the former NBC Symphony Orchestra (recently renamed the “Symphony of the Air”) and a giant page of the score covering the floor. which was first performed in 1956 with a libretto by Lillian Hellman based on Voltaire’s novel. That same year. This was the first time Bernstein had conducted the orchestra in subscription concerts since 1951. Bach. All of them were released Arts Festival there in 1952. In 1958. having held the post jointly with Mitropoulos from 1957 to 1958. Themed programming of this sort was fairly novel at that time compared to the present day. and the lyricist Stephen Sondheim to produce the musical West Side Story. including the premiere of his opera Trouble in Tahiti and Blitzstein’s English version of Kurt Weill's Threepenny Opera. The first three had worked on it intermittently since Robbins first suggested the idea in 1949. The festival was named after him in 2005. with at least one winning a Grammy award. J. conducting. the writer Arthur Laurents. with the addition of Sondheim to the team . He conducted various proon DVD by Kultur Video (half of them in 2013). and he founded the Creative [25] dubbed into other languages. The first was for the operetta Candide. often with Bernstein 1956 at Brandeis University. working again with his old friends Comden and Green. The second was Bernstein’s collaboration with the choreographer Jerome Robbins. Bernstein included a season-long survey of American classical music. Bernstein was named the music di- Bernstein at the piano. He became as famous for his educational work in those concerts as for his conducting. who wrote the lyrics. He became a well-known figure in the United States through his series of fifty-three televised Young People’s Concerts for CBS. Finally. ductions at the first festival.4 1 BIOGRAPHY rector of the New York Philharmonic in 1957. who had died in an air crash in Paris. Bernstein held the music directorship until 1969 (with a sabbatical in 1965) although he continued to conduct and make recordings with the orchestra for the rest of his life and was appointed “laureate conductor”. c.S. In 1953 he was the first American conductor to appear at La Scala in Milan.[26] Some of Bernstein’s Bernstein. conducting Maria Callas in Cherubini’s Medea. Bernstein composed the music for two shows. modern music.

music critic for The New York Times. He made two recordings of Shostakovich’s Leningrad Symphony. on stage at the end to congratulate Bernstein and the musicians. 9. portions of which were bers. positions for Columbia Records. Beethoven and to fade. and the Symphonic Dances from In 1964 Bernstein conducted Franco Zeffirelli's producWest Side Story with the New York Philharmonic. In 1966 he made his debut at the Vienna State .) The success of these recordings. they recorded the symphony for Columbia.S..4 1960–1969 5 and a period of concentrated effort. as abdication of personal responsibility and an attack on Gould. In 1962 the New York Philharmonic moved from especially in the U. 4. which did not reflect Bernstein’s concept of the music. Bernstein gave a brief address to the audience starting with “Don't be frightened. A highlight of the tour was tal jazz pianist and composer Dave Brubeck resulting in Bernstein’s performance of Dmitri Shostakovich's Fifth the recording “Bernstein Plays Brubeck Plays Bernstein” Symphony. and 14. whose performance Schonberg went on to criticize heavily.) Bernstein also collaborated with the experimenfilmed by CBS Television. The move was not some extent at the time include the Danish composer without controversy because of acoustic problems with Carl Nielsen (who was then only little known in the U. the York. depending on the people involved.. and the premiere of Aaron Copland’s cle in New York of Sibelius’s symphonies and three of Connotations. Throughout his life. his views were not shared by the audiences (with many full houses) and probably not by the musicians themselves (who had greater financial security arising from Bernstein’s many TV and recording activities amongst other things). 1.ceived. published in October 2013. that won't go away”. Bernstein. of course. 2. Bernstein championed pre-inaugural gala. Bernstein conducted the gala opening conand Jean Sibelius. Kennedy's public performance in Denmark. was an important. sometimes the one and sometimes the other. Bernstein eventually recorded a complete cy. 7.several members of the original Broadway cast. In 1960 Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic held a Mahler Festival to mark the centenary of the composer’s birth. and 5). one with the New York Philharmonic in the 1960s and another recorded live in 1988 with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (one of the few recordings he made with them. in the conductor’s own words. who came (1961). He recorded it for a second time with the orchestra on tour in Japan in 1979. as well as con. 6. However. who is the boss (audience laughter)—the soloist or the conductor?" (Audience laughter grows louder).first (almost) complete recording of the original featuring way premiere in 1957 and has since proven to be Bern. Bernstein seems to have limited himself to only conducting certain Shostakovich symphonies.” and going on to “In a concerto.”[27] This speech was subsequently interpreted by Harold C. Bernstein always denied that this had been his intent and has stated that he made these remarks with Gould’s blessing. In 1961 the Royal Danish Orchestra after a critically acclaimed Bernstein had conducted at President John F.. ing Betty Comden and Adolph Green. 5. if not vital. in April 1962 Bernstein appeared on stage before a performance of the Brahms Piano Concerto No. Schonberg. he professed admiration and friendship for Gould.4 1960–1969 In one oft-reported incident. This included his three symphonies. includstein’s most popular and enduring score. Alma. and he was an occasional guest in the U. William Schuman and David Diamond. attended some of Bernstein’s rehearsals.1. his ballets. 1). In October. a serial-work that was merely politely reNielsen’s symphonies (Nos. a break certos.S. author Jonathan Cott provided a thorough debunking. clarinet and flute con. During rehearsals. along with Bernstein’s concert performances and television talks. namely the numbers 1. The composer’s widow. In 1960 Bernstein also made his first commercial recording of a Mahler symphony (the fourth) and over the next seven years he made the first complete cycle of recordings of all nine of Mahler’s completed symphonies.[28] In the book Dinner with Lenny. when Bernstein and the orchestra returned to the U.cheek of the President’s wife Jacqueline Kennedy. part of the revival of interest in Mahler in the 1960s. mass in 1968 for the late President Kennedy’s brother He also started to more extensively record his own com. whose popularity had by then started cert featuring vocal works by Mahler. The answer is.) the new hall.S.Vaughan Williams.S. in the presence of the composer.. of the legend which Bernstein himself described in the book as “one . composers. especially those that he was close to like Kennedy White House. He also tion of Verdi's Falstaff at the Metropolitan Opera in New conducted an LP of his 1944 musical On The Town. it received its Broad. 1 in D minor with the pianist Glenn Gould. Carnegie Hall to Philharmonic Hall (now Avery Fisher Other non-U. (The 1949 film In 1959. he took the New York Philharmonic on a tour version only contains four of Bernstein’s original numof Europe and the Soviet Union. Mr Gould is here.S. Walter and Mitropoulos conducted performances. He also recorded Nielsen’s 3rd Symphony with with protocol that was commented on at the time.Robert Kennedy. Gould had argued for tempi much broader than normal.. He also conducted at the funeral Aaron Copland. composers that Bernstein championed to Hall) in the new Lincoln Center. Schonberg was often (though not always) harshly critical of Bernstein as a conductor during his tenure as Music Director. also including the Symphony No. (All featured the New York Philharmonic except the 8th Symphony which was recorded with the London Symphony Orchestra following a concert in the Royal Albert Hall in London in 1966. During the intermission Bernstein kissed the ducting recordings of his violin.

He also strengthened his relationship with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra – he conducted all nine completed Mahler symphonies with them (plus the adagio from the 10th) in the period from 1967 to 1976. during the Festival of London. Kennedy and the Chichester Psalms which he produced during a sabbatical year he took from the Philharmonic in 1965 to concentrate on composition. he conducted Verdi’s Requiem Mass in St. Sixteen years later.5 1970–1979 Leonard Bernstein by Allan Warren Like many of his friends and colleagues. on Christmas Eve 1971. due to a gathering hosted at his Manhattan apartment on January 14.[31][32] This reaction culminated in June 1970 with the appearance of “Radical Chic: That Party at Lenny’s”. won an Emmy and was issued on DVD in 2005. It led to the popularization of "radical chic" as a critical term. Bernstein playing the 1st piano concerto and the Ninth Symphony with the Vienna Philharmonic and the young Plácido Domingo amongst the soloists.S. at the State Opera. A Quiet Place. Bernstein conducted his sequel to Trouble in Tahiti. with the London Symphony Orchestra.[29] His political life received substantial press coverage though in 1970. During his time in Vienna he also recorded the opera for Columbia Records and conducted his first subscription concert with the Vienna Philharmonic (which is made up of players from the Vienna State Opera) featuring Mahler’s Das Lied von der Erde with Fischer-Dieskau and James King. the Orchestre National de France. In the late 1970s Bernstein conducted a complete Beethoven symphony cycle with the Vienna Philharmonic. All of these were filmed for Unitel with the exception of the 1967 Mahler 2nd.[33] The article contrasted the Bernsteins’ comfortable lifestyle in one of the world’s most expensive neighborhoods with the anti-establishment politics of the Black Panthers. arguing that they were motivated not by a shallow . 1. originally entitled Beethoven’s Birthday: A Celebration in Vienna. Bernstein had little time for composition during the 1960s. The program was first telecast in 1970 on Austrian and British television. He was blacklisted by the US State Department and CBS in the early 1950s. and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The two major works he produced at this time were his Kaddish Symphony dedicated to the recently assassinated President John F. Bernstein continued to appear with them in most years until his death.6 1 BIOGRAPHY Opera conducting Luchino Visconti's production of the same opera with Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau as Falstaff. 1970. In the summer of 1970. which instead Bernstein filmed with the London Symphony Orchestra in Ely Cathedral in 1973. It featured parts of Bernstein’s rehearsals and performance for the Otto Schenk production of Fidelio. He returned to the State Opera in 1968 for a production of Der Rosenkavalier and in 1970 for Otto Schenk's production of Beethoven’s Fidelio. To try to have more time for composition was probably a major factor in his decision to step down as Music Director of the Philharmonic in 1969. and he toured with them to Europe in 1976 and to Asia in 1979. and to never accept such a position anywhere again.[30] The New York Times initially covered the gathering as a lifestyle item. and then on CBS in the U. but unlike others his career was not greatly affected. but later posted an editorial harshly unfavorable to Bernstein following generally negative reaction to the widely publicized story. After stepping down from the New York Philharmonic. and cycles of Brahms and Schumann were to follow in the 1980s.[34] Both Bernstein and his wife Felicia responded to the criticism. with the ORF orchestra. an essay by satirist Tom Wolfe featured on the cover of New York Magazine. Bernstein had been involved in various left wing causes and organizations since the 1940s. Paul’s Cathedral. With his commitment to the New York Philharmonic and his many other activities. Bernstein and his wife held the event seeking to raise awareness and money for the defense of several members of the Black Panther Party against a variety of charges. The show. In 1970 Bernstein wrote and narrated a ninety-minute program filmed on location in and around Vienna as a celebration of Beethoven’s 200th birthday. he unexpectedly entered the stage and embraced conductor Claudio Abbado in front of a cheering audience. and he was never required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee. Bernstein’s final farewell to the State Opera happened accidentally in 1989: following a performance of Modest Mussorgsky's Khovanshchina. Other orchestras he conducted on numerous occasions in the 1970s include the Israel Philharmonic.

his public standing and many of his close friendships appear to have remained unaffected.” Chevy Chase states in his biography that Lorne Michaels wanted Bernstein to host Saturday Night Live in the A major period of upheaval in Bernstein’s personal life began in 1976 when he decided that he could no longer conceal his bisexuality and he left his wife Felicia for a period to live with the writer Tom Cothran.[21] Most biographies of Bernstein state that his lifestyle became more excessive and his personal behavior sometimes cruder after her death. and delivered a series of six televised lectures on music with musical examples played by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. and he resumed his busy schedule of musical activity. including classical and rock music. Hebrew prayer. after leading several stage performances of the opera at the Metropolitan Opera. Noam Chomsky wrote in 2007 on the Znet forums about the linguistic aspects of the lecture: “I spent some time with Bernstein during the preparation and performance of the lectures. One oddity of the recording is that the trombone section fails to enter at the climax of the finale. the work represented a fusion not only of different religious traditions (Latin liturgy. The invitation for the concerts had come from the orchestra and not from its principal conductor Herbert von Karajan. he called the series The Unanswered Question. as a result of an audience member collapsing just behind the trombones a few seconds earlier. with Marilyn Horne in the title role and James McCracken as Don Jose. and last original Broadway show. the pitch involved of West Side Story.. and his U. In 1979. At the same time. The recording was Bernstein’s first for Deutsche Grammophon and won a Grammy. D.show’s first season (1975–76). 1978. The world premiere of Bernstein’s MASS took place on September 8. In 1972 Bernstein recorded Bizet's Carmen. Players. My feeling was that he was onto something. and at Carnegie Hall in New York. 1971. his orchestral vocal work Songfest. performed Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony and Bernstein’s Chichester Psalms at the Kennedy Center in Washington. it was a set of interdisciplinary lectures in which he borrowed terminology from contemporary linguistics to analyze and compare musical construction to language. The recording was one of the first in stereo to use the original spoken dialogue between the sung portions of the opera. The lectures are presently available in both book and DVD form. This appears to be the only surviving Norton lectures series available to the general public in video format.[21] One of the concerts was broadcast on radio and was posthumously released on CD by Deutsche Grammophon. rather than the musical recitatives that were composed by Ernest Guiraud after Bizet’s death. the Israel Philharmonic played two U. It was originally a target of criticism from the Roman Catholic Church on the one hand and contemporary music critics who objected to its Broadway/populist elements on the other.C. Chase was seated next cern for civil liberties. bicentenary musical 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue written with lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner which was his first real theatrical flop.) The full reasons will probably never be known – reports suggest they were on friendly terms when they met. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. (Karajan did conduct the New York Philharmonic during Bernstein’s tenure. The next year she was diagnosed with lung cancer and eventually Bernstein moved back in with her and cared for her until she died on June 16. Hastily written in places.5 1970–1979 7 desire to express fashionable sympathy but by their con. Commissioned by Jacqueline Kennedy for the opening of the John F. probably his MASS: A Theatre Piece for Singers.C. Bernstein returned to the Vienna State Opera to conduct a revival of the Otto Schenk production of Fidelio. now featuring Gundula Janowitz and Rene Kollo in the lead roles. There has been speculation about why Karajan never invited Bernstein to conduct his orchestra. In May 1978. Bernstein is reported to have often spoken of his terrible guilt over his wife’s death. his score for the ballet Dybbuk. it was partly intended as an anti-war statement.[21] Cothran himself died of AIDS in 1981. a Bernstein-conducted SNL version [37] and Bernstein was uninterested. but sometimes practiced a little mutual one-upmanship. . these lectures were not televised until 1976. In the present day. but I couldn't really judge how significant it was. The DVD video was not taken directly from the lectures at Harvard. and plenty of contemporary English lyrics) but also of different musical styles. Harvard University. with the Choral Arts Society of Washington. Bernstein was appointed in 1973 to the Charles Eliot Norton Chair as Professor of Poetry at his alma mater. D. it is perhaps seen as less blasphemous and more a piece of its era: in 2000 it was even performed in the Vatican. the Orchestra.S. Bernstein made a studio recording of the opera for Deutsche Grammophon and the opera itself was filmed by Unitel and released on DVD by Deutsche Grammophon in late 2006. However.[35][36] to Bernstein at a birthday party for Kurt Vonnegut and Bernstein’s major compositions during the 1970s were made the request in person. Taking the title from a Charles Ives work. rather they were recreated again at the WGBH studios for filming. In 1978. concerts under his direction to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Orchestra under that name. However. However.. and Dancers. Bernstein conducted the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra for the first and only time. in two charity concerts for Amnesty International involving performances of Mahler’s Ninth Symphony.1. On consecutive nights.S.

Fourth. Bernstein was a regular guest conductor of other orchestras in the 1980s. he and Ernest Fleischmann founded the Los Angeles Philharmonic Institute as a summer training academy along the lines of Tanglewood. Bernstein served as artistic director and taught conducting there until 1984. Bernstein was also at the time a committed supporter of nuclear disarmament. with whom he recorded Mahler’s First. Haydn’s Creation. A TV documentary showing the making of the recording was made at the same time and is available on DVD. 1989.8 1. Bernstein’s life and work was celebrated around the world (as it has been since his death). The concert was broadcast live in more than twenty countries to an estimated audience of 100 million people. The Israel Philharmonic celebrated his involvement with them at Festivals in Israel and Austria in 1977. the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich. The opening night (which Bernstein attended in Glasgow) was conducted by Bernstein’s former student John Mauceri. In 1985 he took the European Community Youth Orchestra in a In December 1989. Candide had had a troubled history. In 1986 the London Symphony Orchestra mounted a Bernstein Festival in London with one concert that Bernstein himself conducted attended by the Queen.6 1 BIOGRAPHY 1980–1990 Bernstein received the Kennedy Center Honors award in 1980. and Israel. the first time he had conducted the entire work. In 1982. which was named after a comment President Dwight D. and his song cycle Arias and Barcarolles. reading from Beethoven’s letters. and Tatiana Troyanos in the leading roles. with whom he recorded some Debussy and Puccini’s La bohème. and The Love of Three Orchestras. Bernstein reworded Friedrich Schiller's text of the Ode to Joy. Vienna and Israel. apparently believed in some quarters. in which he discussed his work in New York. José Carreras. and the orchestra of Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. Adolph Green. his Halil for flute and orchestra.” . Bernstein’s concert and recording were based on a “final” version that had been first performed by Scottish Opera in 1988. “I'm sure that Beethoven would have given us his blessing. Eisenhower had made to him in 1960. In 1988 Bernstein’s 70th birthday was celebrated by a lavish televised gala at Tanglewood featuring many performers who had worked with him over the years. In 1985. These included the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam. Around the same time.. PBS aired an 11-part series of Bernstein’s late 1970s films for Unitel of the Vienna Philharmonic playing all nine Beethoven symphonies and various other Beethoven works. with many rewrites and writers involved. Vienna. was nevertheless an international bestseller. His most significant compositions of the decade were probably his opera A Quiet Place. he conducted a recording of West Side Story. in his spoken introduction. and Christa Ludwig in the leading roles. “Journey for Peace” tour around Europe and to Japan. On December 25. with Maximilian Schell on PBS Beethoven TV series (1982) In 1982 in the U. Bernstein added. teach. 9 in East Berlin’s Schauspielhaus as part of a celebration of the fall of the Berlin Wall. with whom he recorded Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde. and produce the occasional TV documentary. in which he discussed the music of Gustav Mahler.S. Bernstein conducted live performances and recorded in the studio his operetta Candide with the London Symphony Orchestra. which he wrote with Stephen Wadsworth and which premiered (in its original version) in Houston in 1983. He had conducted the same work in West Berlin the previous day.[38] The original films have since been released on DVD by Deutsche Grammophon. The recording starred Jerry Hadley. Bernstein gave spoken introduction and actor Maximilian Schell was also featured on the programs. that Schiller wrote an “Ode to Freedom” that is now presumed lost. In addition to conducting in New York. One of the live concerts from the Barbican Centre in London is available on DVD. his Concerto for Orchestra “Jubilee Games”. Bernstein also continued to make his own TV documentaries during the 1980s. perhaps the composer he was most passionately interested in. For the occasion. The recording.[39] Bernstein. said that they had “taken the liberty” of doing this because of a “most likely phony” story. featuring what some critics felt were miscast opera singers such as Kiri Te Kanawa. his Divertimento for Orchestra. June Anderson. and Ninth Symphonies amongst other works. compose. and the recording (released posthumously in 1991) was universally praised. Bernstein conducted Beethoven's Symphony No. Mozart’s Requiem and Great Mass in C minor. For the rest of the 1980s he continued to conduct. In his later years. substituting the word Freiheit (freedom) for Freude (joy). including The Little Drummer Boy. he performed and recorded some of his own works with the Los Angeles Philharmonic for Deutsche Grammophon. The use of opera singers in some roles perhaps fitted the style of operetta better than some critics had thought was the case for West Side Story.

Lenny. criticizing American civilization and suburban upper-class life in particular.[43] and died of a heart attack five days later. Bernstein and Michael Tilson Thomas founded the Pacific Music Festival in Sapporo.9 ber 9. Japan. Bernstein was already at this time suffering from the lung disease that would lead to his death. construction workers removed their hats and waved. an international prize awarded by the Japan Arts Association for lifetime achievement in the arts.[41] 2. New York. Mr. As he went on in his career Bernstein would go on to fight for everything from the influences of “American Music” to the disarming of western nuclear weapons.ceived of an institution called the Academy for the Love .[46] 2 Social activism Bernstein’s grave in Green-Wood Cemetery While Bernstein was very well known for his music compositions and conducting. with the Boston nately. When he won the Japan Arts Association award for lifetime achievement. I and a musician friend named Aaron Stern have conHe announced his retirement from conducting on Octo. that would strive to teach teachtheater into Bernstein made his final performance as a conductor ers how to better integrate music. He was 72 years old. His first aspirations for social change were made apparent in his producing (as a student) a recently banned opera. Bernstein was named in the book Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television as a Communist along with Aaron Copland. In his opening address Bernstein said that he had decided to devote what time he had left to education. Red Channels was issued by the right-wing journal Counterattack and was edited by Vincent Hartnett. this was a summer training school for musicians modeled on Tanglewood.[51] he used the $100. at Tanglewood on August 19. was dedicated to Blitzstein and has a strong social theme.000 prize to establish The Bernstein Education Through the Arts (BETA) Fund. Artie Shaw and other prominent figures of the performing arts. ludes” from Peter Grimes. about the disparity between the working and upper class. The concert was later issued on CD by of Learning. and[52] Unfortuthe school system which was “not working”. he was also known for his outspoken political views and his strong desire to further social change. who was later found to have libeled and defamed the noted radio personality John Henry Faulk.[48] In 1990. dance. Trouble in Tahiti. the school was not able to open until shortly after Symphony playing Benjamin Britten's “Four Sea InterBernstein’s death.”[44] Bernstein is buried in GreenWood Cemetery. The Cradle Will Rock. Brooklyn. yelling “Goodbye. On the day of his funeral procession through the streets of Manhattan. resulting in the Bernstein Model.[45] next to his wife and with a copy of Mahler’s Fifth lying across his heart. His first opera. and is still in existence. by Marc Blitzstein. Lena Horne.[47] In the summer of 1990. he had battled emphysema from his mid-50s.[42] He suffered a coughing fit in the middle of the In a 1990 Rolling Stone interview Bernstein outlined his Beethoven performance which almost caused the concert conception of a school called The Academy for the Love to break down. A video showing Bernstein speaking and rehearsing at the first Festival is available on DVD in Japan. Pete Seeger. 1990. and Beethoven's Seventh Symphony. and initiated extensive school-based research. Like his earlier activity in Los Angeles. The Leonard Bernstein Center was established in April 1992. Leonard Bernstein received the Praemium Imperiale. He had for a long time wanted to develop an international school to help promote the integration of arts into education.[40] Leonard Bernstein provided this grant to develop an artsbased education program.[2] A longtime heavy smoker.000 that came with the award to build such a school in Nashville. Inc. Bernstein used the $100.[53] Deutsche Grammophon.1 Philanthropy [49] [50] Among the many awards Bernstein earned throughout his life one allowed him to make one of his philanthropic dreams a reality. 1990.

and reflect. Nielsen. New Mexico where it continues to explore Bernstein’s dream of integrated arts in education by offering courses in transformational learning. Extreme examples of this style can be found in his Deutsche Grammophon recordings of Nimrod from Elgar’s Enigma Variations (1982). inquire. As the first American-born music director of ably include individual works from Haydn. He was Bernstein performed a wide repertoire from the baroque held in high regard amongst many musicians. (Oscar Levant. are considered definitive by many. although Bernstein cut the Rhapsody slightly. A and part of Bernstein’s fame was based on his role as a list of his other well-thought-of recordings would probcomposer. including era to the 20th century. Liszt. and the finale of Tchaikovsky’s Pathetique Symphony (1986). where in each case the tempos are well Bernstein was one of the major figures in orchestral con. and Shostakovich. of which he was President. there will be the overriding goal of teaching teachers to discover their own love of learning. although perhaps from the 1970s the members of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.10 4 INFLUENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS AS A CONDUCTOR of Learning. The Academy for the Love of Learning was completed in 1998 and is located in Santa Fe. among others. Beethoven. but it’s registered as a nonprofit corporation. his rise to prominence was Berlioz. with which he appeared ican composers in general. Musicians often reported that his manner in rehearsal was the same as in concert. released in 1959.[56] 4 Influence and characteristics as a conductor Leonard Bernstein in 1971 (1985). Earl Wild.of works by these composers would likely appear on though unlike Karajan he conducted relatively little opera many music critics’ lists of recommended recordings. and of course himself.) Bernstein never conducted Gershwin’s Piano Concerto in F. Schumann. Stravinsky. William Schuconductor from the 1960s onwards who acquired a sort of man. including George Gershwin. or more than a few excerpts from Porgy and Bess. Some of his recordings superstar status similar to that of Herbert von Karajan. evident from his two recordings.romantic era. Charles Ives. and besides the obvious attempts to get music and kids together.” which each consist of four core elements: experience.[55] After two decades of research and implementation across the United States. a factor in overcoming the perception of the time that the Hindemith. although he did discuss the latter in his article Why Don't You Run Upstairs . Artful Learning Schools demonstrate that Units of Study that utilize rigor. regularly as guest conductor. We haven't done too much with the idea yet. the London Sym. and the plished with the works of Gustav Mahler and with AmerIsrael Philharmonic Orchestra. ducting in the second half of the 20th century. He was probably the main Aaron Copland. 3 Artful Learning Artful Learning is based on Bernstein’s philosophy that the arts can strengthen learning and be incorporated in all academic subjects. the end of Mahler’s 9th Symphony and An American in Paris for Columbia Records. cognitive complexity and deep understanding through a commitment to collaborative and independent learning demonstrate high levels of student engagement and academic achievement. Roy Harris. As he got older his performances tended to be overlaid to a greater extent with a personal expressiveness which often divided critical opinion.below those typically chosen. and others come closer to Gershwin’s own style.[54] The program is based on “units of study. the New York Philharmonic. al. and his more 'symphonic' approach with slower tempi is quite far from Gershwin’s own conception of the piece. Sibelius. evionwards he tended to focus more on music from the denced by his honorary membership. recordings of Rhapsody in Blue (full-orchestra version) Bernstein’s conducting was characterized by extremes of emotion with the rhythmic pulse of the music conveyed visually through his balletic podium manner. create. He was considered especially accomphony Orchestra.[57] His top conductors were necessarily trained in Europe.

On the Town. and he was the 16th most frequently performed composer overall by U. Carl St.[59] he was the second most frequently performed American composer by U. though he would occasionally return to the Columbia Masterworks label. originally published in phonies (with the Vienna Philharmonic and London SymThe New York Times and later reprinted in his 1959 book phony Orchestra). Aside from those 1940s’ recordings. Many of these performances were digitally remastered and reissued by Sony as part of their 100 Volume. Beethoven. the Serenade for Violin. “could in some sense be thought of as 'theatre' pieces.11 and Write a Nice Gershwin Tune?. the Symphonic Dances from West Side Story. In addition to his audio recordings. 6 Influence and characteristics as a composer Bernstein was an eclectic composer whose music fused elements of jazz. Paavo Järvi. as well as complete cycles of the The Joy of Music. Eiji Oue. Despite the fact that he was a popular success as a composer. Bernstein himself . Maurice Peress. Many replicate repertoire that he recorded in the 1950s and 60s. he directly taught or mentored many conductors who are performing now.”[58] According to the League of American orchestras. Harp and Percussion and the Three Dance Episodes from On the Town. Bernstein recorded primarily for Columbia Masterworks Records. Unlike his studio recordings for Columbia Masterworks. (Some performances were probably due to the 90th anniversary of his birth in 2008. and Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (1981) for Philips Records. In the late 1960s. most of his later Deutsche Grammophon recordings were taken from live concerts (or edited together from several concerts with additional sessions to correct errors). Darius Milhaud. Seiji Ozawa (who made his American TV debut as the guest conductor on one of the Young People’s Concerts). Marin Alsop. including several for posthumously released recordings. helped bridge the gap between classical and popular music. George Gershwin. which has been recorded more than 10 times. Alexander Frey. and his symphonies and concert works are programmed from time to time by orchestras around the world. Bernstein himself said his main motivation for composing was “to communicate” and that all his pieces. including his symphonies and concert works. He also undoubtedly influenced the career choices of many American musicians who grew up watching his television programmes in the 1950s and 60s. especially when he was music director of the New York Philharmonic between 1958 and 1971. with any spare time used to record short orchestral showpieces and similar works. The Serenade. which were made for RCA Victor. Michael Tilson Thomas. Some of his works.Clair. is probably his most recorded work not taken from an actual theatre piece. 5 Recordings Bernstein recorded extensively from the mid-1940s until just a few months before his death. such as John Mauceri. Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique and Harold in Italy (1976) for EMI. This included a complete cycle of the Mahler sym- In total Bernstein was awarded 16 Grammys for his recordings in various categories. Strings. Brahms and Schumann symphonies recorded In addition to being an active conductor.S. Bernstein was at the same series of concerts as the audio recordings by a very influential teacher of conducting. and that he himself had not been able to devote more time to composing because of his conducting and other activities. His typical pattern of recording at that time was to record major works in the studio immediately after they were presented in the orchestra’s subscription concerts or on one of the Young People’s Concerts.[44] Professional criticism of Bernstein’s music often involves discussing the degree to which he created something new as art versus simply skillfully borrowing and fusing together elements from others. Bernstein himself is reported to have been disillusioned that some of his more serious works were not rated more highly by critics. Igor Stravinsky. Notable exceptions include recordings of Gustav Mahler's Song of the Earth and Mozart's 15th piano concerto and “Linz” symphony with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra for Decca Records (1966).) His most popular pieces were the Overture to Candide. Since his death many of his works have been commercially recorded by artists other than himself. and Jaap van Zweden. 125 CDs “Royal Edition” and their later “Bernstein Century” series. on Laserdisc and are now on DVD. During his Deutsche Grammophon. Edo de Waart. theatre music and the work of earlier composers like Aaron Copland. His later recordings (starting with Bizet’s Carmen in 1972) were mostly made for Deutsche Grammophon. and Marc Blitzstein. orchestras. Helmuth Rilling. many of Bernstein’s concerts from the 1970s onwards were recorded on motion picture film by the German film company Unitel. His music was rooted in tonality but in some works like his Kaddish Symphony and the opera A Quiet Place he mixed in 12-tone elements. Wonderful Town and Candide are regularly performed. especially his score for West Side Story. Herbert Blomstedt. orchestras in 2008-9 behind Copland.S. He was also awarded a Lifetime Achievement Grammy in 1985. His shows West Side Story. Many of these films appeared many years of teaching at Tanglewood and elsewhere. a label that like Deutsche Grammophon was part of PolyGram at that time. Jewish music. In 2010 many of these recordings were repackaged in a 60 CD “Bernstein Symphony Edition”.

1949 (revised in 1965) 7. (after W. and that he was still seeking to enrich his own personal musical language in the manner of the great composers of the past. concert premiere 1947 • Dybbuk (ballet). 1971 Although he taught conducting. 1954 • Candide. Speaker and Soprano Solo. 1944 • Wonderful Town. who from the 1970s onwards indirectly adopted 7. for Orchestra. 1954 • West Side Story. 1974 • Symphony No. concert premieres 1975 . Bernstein’s works were performed several times for Pope John Paul II. • The Race to Urga (incomplete). Auden) for Piano and Orchestra. 1949 • A Quiet Place.5 Film scores elements of his eclectic. The Age of Anxiety. 1993 (excerpts from “MASS”). 1994. including at World Youth Day in Denver on August 14. 1957 • Symphonic Dances from “West Side Story”. Mixed Chorus. 1976 • "A Party with Betty Comden and Adolph Green".6 Orchestral 7. 1983 • Symphonic Suite from “On the Waterfront”.1 Ballet • Symphony No.12 7 WORKS reflected that his eclecticism was in part due to his lack of lengthy periods devoted to composition. Both performances were conducted by Gilbert Levine. • On the Town. 1958 • Mass (theatre piece for singers.4 Incidental music and other theatre • Peter Pan. Despite this. Fugue. 1 and 2 for Orchestra. (contributed to) 1979 7. and Riffs for Solo Clarinet and Jazz Ensemble. Kaddish. all of whom had borrowed elements from others. 1944 • Fancy Free and Three Dance Variations from “Fancy Free”. his MASS and the opera A Quiet Place. Boys’ Choir. Strings. “Kaddish” [excerpt]) in the Sala Nervi at the Vatican. where they found the underlying message of the piece or the text as either mildly embarrassing.[60] Perhaps the harshest criticism he received from some critics in his lifetime though was directed at works like his Kaddish Symphony.3 Musicals • On The Town. 1961 • Symphony No. 1975 • 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. Harp and Percussion (after Plato’s “Symposium”). Perhaps the closest are composers like John Adams. players and dancers). 1946 • Three Dance Episodes from “On the Town”. 1961 Main article: List of compositions by Leonard Bernstein 7. clichéd or offensive. 1942 • Fancy Free. Jeremiah. 1977 • The Madwoman of Central Park West. 1963 (revised in 1977) • Dybbuk. theatrical style. 1956 (new libretto in 1973. 1949 (only part of his music was used) 7 Works • On the Waterfront. Bernstein was not a • "Side by Side by Sondheim"* 1976 teacher of composition as such. and he has no direct composing heirs. 1950 • The Lark. all these pieces have been performed. 1969 • “By Bernstein” (a Revue).2 Opera • Trouble in Tahiti. 1953 • West Side Story. H. operetta final revised version in 1989) • Prelude. Suites No. 2. 1955 7. with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (“Chichester Psalms” and Symphony No. discussed and reconsidered since his death. 1952 • Serenade for Solo Violin. 3. concert premiere 1946 • Facsimile – Choreographic Essay for Orchestra. 1. 3. and at the Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah on April 7. 1955 • The Firstborn.

written as gifts and other forms of memorial and tribute • “The Skin of Our Teeth": An aborted work from which Bernstein took material to use in his “Chichester Psalms” • “Simhu Na” (arrangement of traditional song) • “Waltz for Mippy III” for Tuba and Piano • “Elegy for Mippy II” for Trombone alone • “Elegy for Mippy I” for Horn and Piano • “Rondo for Lifey” for Trumpet and Piano • “Fanfare for Bima” for Brass Quartet: composed in 1947 as a birthday tribute to Koussevitzky using the tune he whistled to call his cocker spaniel[61] • “Shivaree: A Fanfare” for Double Brass Ensemble and Percussion. Harp and Strings. New York: Anchor Books. Percussion. 1948 • Halil. 1937. you can help by expanding it.9 Vocal music • I Hate Music: A cycle of Five Kids Songs for Soprano and Piano. 1988 • Variations on an Octatonic Scale for recorder and cello. 1951 Other music • Other occasional works. sung by Billie Holiday • La Bonne Cuisine: Four Recipes for Voice and Piano.11 Solo. nocturne for Solo Flute. 1944 • Divertimento for Orchestra. 1938 • Slava! A Political Overture for Orchestra.10 Piano music 13 • Songfest: A Cycle of American Poems for Six Singers 7. Piccolo. 1988 7. with Percussion. 1965 (Reduced version for Organ. Harp and Percussion) 7. 1960 • Moby Diptych. 1980 • 4 Anniversaries.” This list is incomplete. 1943 • Big Stuff. 1959 • Dance Suite. 1977 • Music for Two Pianos. 1948 • Silhouette (Galilee). Alto Flute. 1977 • 7 Anniversaries. Mixed Chorus and Organ. Findings. Boosey & Hawkes • Sonata for Clarinet and Piano. 1945 • Bridal Suite. 1981 (republished as Anniversaries nos. 1989 (Originally Jubilee Games from 1986. 1960 • So Pretty. Commissioned by and dedicated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in honor of its Centenary. 1988 8 Bibliography • Bernstein. 1988 • Missa Brevis for Mixed Chorus and Countertenor 7. Leonard (1993 – reprinting) [1982]. 1942 • Brass Music. Check date values in: |date= (help) .[62] Musical material later used in “Mass. 1977 • Piano Sonata. 1988 • Chichester Psalms for Boy Soprano (or Countertenor). 1979 • Arias and Barcarolles for Mezzo-Soprano. Mixed Chorus.7 Choral • Hashkiveinu for Cantor (tenor). 1937 • Three Meditations from “Mass” for Violoncello and Orchestra. and Orchestra. 1970.10 Piano music and Orchestra.7. revised in 1989) 7.8 Chamber music • Piano Trio. 1981 • 5 Anniversaries. 1 and 2 in Thirteen Anniversaries) • Touches. 1952 • Concerto for Orchestra. Baritone and Piano four-hands. 1981 • 13 Anniversaries. • Two Love Songs. 1968 • Piccola Serenata. ISBN 0-38542437-X.

DVD ISBN 0-7697-1503-6. Originally aired Theater Hall of Fame. 1958 • George Peabody Medal – Johns Hopkins University. • Tony Award for Best Musical • Bernstein/Beethoven (1982). 1989 • Grammy Award for Best Album for Children 9 Videography • Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance • The Unanswered Question: Six Talks at Harvard. DVD . Yale University Press. Leonard (1993 – reprinting) [1966]. Pompton Plains. 2010. (videotape of the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures given at Harvard in 1973. Check date values in: |date= (help) • Bernstein.[66] on PBS’s American Masters series. ISBN 978-0-30017909-5. 1980 • Ernst von Siemens Music Prize 1987 • Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medal (UK). [2013] The Leonard Bernstein Letters. • Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award • Bernstein: Reflections (1978). ISBN 1-57467-104-9. Milwaukee.) • Leonard Bernstein’s Young People’s Concerts with the New York Philharmonic. • Bernstein on Beethoven: A Celebration in Vienna/Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 1951[63] • Sonning Award (Denmark). New Jersey: Kultur Video. Check date values in: |date= Main article: List of Leonard Bernstein awards (help) • Bernstein. Young People’s Concerts. West Long Branch. Euroarts. [1976] The Unanswered Question: Six Talks at Harvard. Leonard. 1965 • Ditson Conductor’s Award. Leonard (2006 – reprinting) [1962]. 1986 • “Leonard Bernstein: Reaching for the Note” (1998) Leonard Bernstein is also a member of both the American Documentary on his life and music. E1 Ent. Harvard University Press. Check date values in: |date= (help) • Bernstein. mophon. ISBN 0-674-92001-5. The Joy of Music. Kultur Video. DVD ISBN 0-76971570-2. New Jersey: Amadeus Press. DVD • Special Tony Award Deutsche Gram- • Bernstein Conducts “West Side Story” (1985) (retitled The Making of West Side Story in re-releases) Deutsche Grammophon. West Long Branch. New Jersey: Kultur Video. 1987 • Knight Grand Cross Order of Merit (Italy). Cambridge: Amadeus Press. DVD • “The Rite of Spring” in Rehearsal • Japan Arts Association Lifetime Achievement Award • Gramophone Hall of Fame entrant[64] • Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur. Leonard. • Bernstein. Leonard (2004 – reprinting) [1959]. The 10 Awards Infinite Variety of Music. DVD • Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance • Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording • Grammy Award for Best Classical Vocal Performance • Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance • Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Composition • Grammy Award for Best Classical Album • Leonard Bernstein: Omnibus – The Historic TV Broadcasts. • Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. VHS ISBN 1-56127-570-0.14 10 AWARDS • Bernstein. ISBN 1-57467-102-2. ISBN 0-385-42438-8. West Long Branch. 1.[65] and the Television Hall of Fame. New York: Anchor Books.

a biography. Retrieved March 12. Retrieved September 20. Routledge.php. New York: Schirmer. Tom.leonardbernstein. p. leonardbernstein. 2007. The New York Times. 2009. 2009. [37] Fruchter. 2002. Bernstein: The Best of All Possible Worlds. [24] Peyser (1987). 2010. Retrieved December 14. [29] Seldes. pp. Leonard Bernstein: A Life. Listening to Movies 8 (recording). Retrieved February 11. 84. New York: Beech Tree Books. 184 [38] Leonard Bernstein and Maximilian Schell discussing Beethoven’s 6th and 7th Symphony on YouTube. Leonard Bernstein. Bernstein West. [14] “Bernstein Chronology”. [25] The Official Leonard Bernstein Web Site. Amadeus Press. New York City: 1940–1996. 10. [27] Transcription of Bernstein’s Glenn Gould Introduction (from a Rutgers University webpage). 1970. New York. The Times (UK). [9] Peyser. [20] Arturo Toscanini: the NBC years. Retrieved March 12. Barry (2009). ISBN 0-688-04918-4. Bernstein. He was 72 years old. Composer Music: Renaissance man of his art was 72. 1970). [40] http://www. pompous – and a great father'".. Bernstein’s spokeswoman. pp. “Letters to the Editor of The Times: Panthers’ Legal Aid”. “Tom Wolfe on Radical Chic and Leonard Bernstein’s Party for the Black Panthers”. 22–24. The Gay Metropolis. http://www. “Leonard Bernstein: ‘charismatic. died yesterday evening at his apartment at the Dakota on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Philharmonic carved a niche in history with `West Side Story. [6] Oliver. 1990). New York: Doubleday. [30] “Radical Chic”. Los Angeles Times.” Opera News 67 (Oct. Sony Classical. 1990). 2010. 204. Paul R. [7] “Great Escape composer dies at 82”. [15] “About Bernstein”. Hope for America: Performers. John McGreevy (1983). “Leonard Bernstein. I'm Chevy Chase. [21] Burton. New York. [3] http://barbaraanneshaircombblog. 2010. Felicia M. Politics and Pop Culture. 39–40. pp. one of the most prodigally talented and successful musicians in American history. Joan (1987).'". Mr. Humphrey (1994). (January 21. p. 38–9. “Leonard Bernstein Dies. “Radical Chic: that Party at Lenny’s” (PDF). Radical Chic: That Party at Lenny’s. 2004. 264. [35] Bernstein. Retrieved December 12. [12] See for instance Bernstein’s 1980 TV Documentary. [2] Henahan.15 11 References [1] Karlin. Tom (June 8. 2010.com/ images/symphonyofthenewworld/ benjaminsteinberg-leonardbernstein-peterpan. August 19. 2007).com Classical Music Catalogue. 2010. 2010). [36] “The Social Activist”.. 2002. Retrieved January 15. The New York Times. 2007. [10] Peyser (1987). [31] “False Note on Black Panthers”. John (December 15. 2010. ISBN 978-1-57467-069-1. 72.jpg [19] Rockwell. p. Music’s Monarch. January 16. p. Margaret Carson. Retrieved January 15. Fred (1994). Leonard Bernstein. The “event” was due in part to the efforts of Dorle Soria who had been on the staff of the New York Philharmonic since the late 1920s. "Ode To Freedom – Beethoven: Symphony No. Carnegie Hall Corporation. Retrieved December 11. Leonard Bernstein Official Site. Leonard Bernstein. [34] “Leonard Bernstein: A political life”. Naxos. Retrieved March 1.Y. New York Times. Retrieved November 26. 9 minutes [39] Naxos (2006). US dict: bûrn′·stīn Bernstein’s pronunciation of his own name as he introduces his Peter and the Wolf. [17] Deems Taylor (July 25. The longtime leader of the N. Pathétique. 322. 2002). May 28.pdf . Teachers and Teaching available on a Deutsche Grammophon DVD. [5] Dougary. Leonard Bernstein: The Political Life of an American Musician. Myrna (October 15. “Maestro 'The Leonard Bernstein Letters’". and you're not. Donal (October 15. said he died of a heart attack caused by progressive lung failure. Library of Congress. Retrieved December 12. 2010. 34. Retrieved December 12. Conductor. Ginny (March 13. [8] “Introduction”. p. “Dorle Jarmel Soria. 2010.com/about. 9 (NTSC)". 1970). [22] Charles Kaiser. Leonard Bernstein: A Guide to Research. [4] Laird. p. The New York Times. BBC News. 196. 2006.com/pfr/pfr_FALL05_ rev2. Dies”. [11] Peyser (1987). MusicAppreciation Records [18] David Hamilton. [32] Wolfe. University of California Press. [13] Peyser (1987) (Bernstein complained later that she taught him an incorrect piano technique). [33] Wolfe. video clip. 2012. [16] “Leonard Bernstein – Biography”. 2013. Ed. [26] “Young People’s Concerts”. The Economist. Retrieved May 3. [23] Meryle Secrest (1995). 2013). [28] Glenn Gould: Variations.

com/this-day-in-history/ • Gottlieb. [55] “Leonard Bernstein’s Arts-Based Education Revolution”.wordpress. (1997). (2008). (2002). New York: Doubleday. http://digitalcommons. [49] “Fear On Trial” by John Henry Faulk [50] “The Jury Returns” by Louis Nizer [51] “Temple Emanuel”. Thesis (PhD). “Small wonder that Bernstein is buried with the score of Mahler’s Fifth Symphony placed over his heart. Themusicsover. 2011). Retrieved 7 February 2015. eds. http://www. 28 November 1990: 70-93. American Public Media. [57] Holmes. Leonard Bernstein: Notes from a Friend. 2011. Jonathan Rosenberg. OCLC 48156751. 2015. Leonard Bernstein. [45] “Find A Grave”. Yale University Press. New York: Walker. (May 17.) (1992). Gramophone. 13 External links • Official website • Discography . Aaron and Perlis.edu. The Leonard Bernstein Center. Retrieved 2013-06-12. New York: HarperCollins. 2011. 2009. Joseph Horowitz. ISBN 0-385-42345-4. 130 [54] “THE LEONARD BERNSTEIN ARTFUL LEARNING MODEL: A CASE STUDY OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL”. com/''.). Peter G. Ken (1968). Schuyler (1992). Vivian (1984). [56] “Artful Learning Model”.The Private World of Leonard Bernstein. “The maestro’s legacy reverberates in Nashville : Leonard Bernstein’s dream of creating a center that integrates the arts and the classroom is in full swing”.com. Brian D. Carol J. [66] “Television Hall of Fame Honorees: The Complete List”. ISBN 0-313-22990-2. • Chapin. Jack (ed. Alfred A.. Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). 1993). Leonard Bernstein: A Guide to Research. [46] Davis. [42] Garrison Keillor (August 25. Retrieved 2015-01-02. (1982). 2012. 2003). [58] In the 1978 Peter Rosen documentary Leonard Bernstein: Reflections. Nigel (2013). now on DVD. ISBN 9780300179095. 2011. http://www.leonardbernstein. [44] See the TV Documentary: Leonard Bernstein: Reaching for the Note originally shown in the series American Masters on PBS in the U. New York: et_cid=76800153&et_rid=1221598356&linkid=http% Anchor Books.com. The Leonard Bernstein Letters. John and Heyman. Jonathan. [62] Finding aid for the George Trescher records related to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Centennial. “Leonard Bernstein-The Last Interview”. Bill McGlaughlin. ISBN 0-80271216-9. 1949. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Paul Boyer. Retrieved January 17. Retrieved 6 August 2014. [52] Harrison.16 13 EXTERNAL LINKS [41] “History of the Leonard Bernstein Center for Learning”. Retrieved May 3.S. conductor and pianist)". Leonard Bernstein’s bernstein-copland-seeger-and-others-are-named-as-communists? Young People’s Concerts (revised ed. 1994. [60] Gruen. [61] Copland. “When Mahler Took Manhattan.com%2fthis-day-in-history% 2fbernstein-copland-seeger-and-others-are-named-as-communists • Bernstein. now available on a Medici Arts DVD. Knopf. Retrieved May 17. 3a%2f%2fwww.history. ISBN 0-385-42435-3. John L. http://webadrenaline.com. Contains chapters by Alan Rich. New York: University of Rochester. 1780–2010: Chapter B” (PDF). James M. Retrieved Oct 11. Paul R. 12 Further reading • Burton. • Laird. [53] Cott.” Retrieved 2011-5-18. [59] Retrieved January 21. 2007. The Contributions of Leonard Bernstein to Music Education: An Analysis of his 53 Young People’s Concerts. Retrieved June 24. isbn=0679407316. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Eric (August 9. “Causes and Effecting Change”. New York. • Simeone. Tim Page. Haws. ISBN 0-06-153786-1. 19601971 (bulk 1967-1970). [48] http://www. Conductors on Record. Copland Since 1943.” [47] Bernstein:The Best of All Possible Worlds. Retrieved 2013-12-01. New York: The Viking Press. Rolling Stone. UK: Greenwood Press. Leonard Bernstein: American Original.history. New York: Routledge.Meryle. p119. [64] “Leonard Bernstein (composer. Keller. (online Life at Google Books) • Secrest. Rochester. Leonard Bernstein A Life. Humphrey (1994).huffingtonpost. 1990) Leonard Bernstein / World Renowned Composer The Music’s Over”. and John Adams. ISBN 0-81533517-2.nl. Burton Bernstein. Barbara. [43] "» Died On This Date (October 14. [63] “Book of Members. Burton. • Rozen. October 14. “The Writer’s Almanac”. [65] “Theater Hall of Fame members”. Oja.

Oja. Bill McGlaughlin. 2008) Chapters by Alan Rich. New York Times. Burton Bernstein. Tim Page. Paul Boyer. Carol J. • Arias and Barcarolles. James M. a Harvard University research project • Find A Grave . a book by Tom Wolfe describing a gathering at Bernstein’s apartment of New York’s social elite and the Black Panther Party. October 15.Leonard Bernstein • FBI file on Leonard Bernstein • Leonard Bernstein Festival of the Creative Arts • Gay Great – Leonard Bernstein • Radical Chic. written by Peter Gutmann.17 • The Leonard Bernstein Collection at the Library of Congress Music Division • Leonard Bernstein discography at MusicBrainz • Discography at SonyBMG Masterworks • Bernstein’s Boston. Jonathan Rosenberg. founded by Leonard Bernstein and Michael Tilson Thomas . The Leonard Bernstein Pages • Leonard Bernstein at the Internet Movie Database • Leonard Bernstein at the Internet Broadway Database • Leonard Bernstein at the Internet Off-Broadway Database • Leonard Bernstein’s maximum card from Israel • Obituary. Joseph Horowitz. John Adams • Pacific Music Festival. 1990 • Leonard Bernstein: American Original (HarperCollins. music journalist. • Leonard Bernstein: A Total Embrace of Music. Keller.

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World Telegram staff photographer • File:Question_book-new.jpg Source: https://upload.jpg Source: https://upload.0 .wikimedia.wikimedia.svg Source: https://upload. World Telegram staff photographer • File:Leonard_Bernstein_NYWTS_1955._Sunset.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Leonard_Bernstein_ NYWTS_1955.org/wikipedia/ commons/6/67/Bernstein%2C_Leonard_%281918-1990%29_-_1944_-_foto_van_Vechten2. Van Vechten Collection Original artist: Carl Van Vechten • File:Commons-logo.jpg License: CC BY 2.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo._Green-Wood_Cemetery.allanwarren.3 Content license • Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.jpg Source: https://upload.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ebay Original artist: Unknown • File:Unbalanced_scales.svg Source: https://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Leonard_Bernstein_ NYWTS_1945.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Leonard_Bernstein_ Allan_Warren.wikimedia.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID ppmsc.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Leonard_Bernstein_1971. Green-Wood Cemetery Original artist: Tony • File:Leonard_Bernstein_NYWTS_1945.loc.3c27783 Original artist: Fred Palumbo.jpg Source: https://upload.0 Contributors: Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator.gov/loc.pnp/cph.loc.wikimedia.jpg Source: https://upload. This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work.0 Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as Leonard Bernstein Grave.wikimedia.3 Content license 19 • File:Bernstein.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division.0 Contributors: Own work www.gov/loc.wikimedia.com Original artist: Allan warren • File:Leonard_Bernstein_Grave.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Leonard_Bernstein_-_1950s.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Wikiquote-logo.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist: Tkgd2007 • File:Schell_and_Bernstein-83-1.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.wikimedia. A normal copyright tag is still required.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Library of Congress. See Commons:Licensing for more information.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Schell_and_Bernstein-83-1.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ ca/Leonard_Bernstein_Grave%2C_Sunset%2C_Green-Wood_Cemetery.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Leonard_Bernstein_-_1950s.jpg Source: https://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Unbalanced_scales. JPG License: Public domain Contributors: eBay Original artist: Unknown photographer • File:Leonard_Bernstein_1971. Based on Image:Question book. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Library of Congress. Trikosko • File:Leonard_Bernstein_Allan_Warren.14.3c27784 Original artist: Al Ravenna. Original artist: Marion S.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.03255.pnp/cph.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? 14. Sunset. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection. http://hdl. http://hdl._Leonard_(1918-1990)_-_1944_-_foto_van_Vechten2.JPG Source: https://upload.