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convection

Thermal radiation is the transfer of heat energy by

electromagnetic waves

Conduction and convection involves the transfer of energy by

particles

Conduction is the main form of heat transfer in solids

Convection is the main form of heat transfer in liquids and

gases

Emission of thermal radiation occurs in solids, liquids and

gases. Any object can both absorb and emit heat radiation,

whether or not conduction or convection are also taking place

The bigger the temperature difference, the faster heat is

transferred between a body and its surroundings

consists of electromagnetic waves of a certain range of

frequencies

All objects are continually emitting and absorbing heat

radiation

An object thats hotter than its surroundings emits more

radiation than it absorbs

An object that is cooler than its surroundings absorbs more

radiation than it emits

particle vibrates, it collides with other nearby particles and

the vibrations quickly pass from particle to particle

This process continues throughout the solid and gradually

some of the extra kinetic energy (heat) is passed all the

way through the solid, causing a rise in temperature at the

other side of the solid. And hence an increase in heat

radiating from its surface

Conduction of heat is the process where vibrating

particles pass on their extra kinetic energy to

neighboring particles

allows them to transfer heat by convection

particles move from the hotter region to the cooler

region and take the heat energy with them

This is how immersion heaters work:

the water by conduction

2. The particles near the coils get more energy so they

start moving around faster

3. This means there is more distance between them, i.e.

the water expands and becomes less dens

4. This reduction in density means the hotter water

tends to rise above the denser, cooler water

5. As the hot water rises it displaces the colder water

out of the way making it sink towards the heater coils

6. This cold water is then heated by coils and rises the

process goes on and on. You end up with convection

currents

*Convection works best in round/square containers

*Convection currents are changes in density

Insulation in humans and homes

thicker layer of insulating air around the body. This limits

the amount of heat loss by convection

Humans wear clothes to reduce heat transfer. The

pockets of air trapped in clothes and between layers

mainly reduce heat transfer by conduction and

convection because air is an insulator

Clothes also reduce heat loss by radiation from the body

as the material absorbs some heat radiated out by our

bodies

Cavity wall insulation: foam squirted into the gap

between the bricks stops convection currents being set

up in the gap and radiation across the gap. The

insulating foam and the air pockets trapped in it also

helps reduce heat loss by conduction

(insulator) gap which reduces conduction and

convection

Draught-proofing: strips of foam and plastic around

doors and windows stop draughts of cold air blowing in.

this reduces heat loss due to convection

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