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CHAPTER 3

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


In this chapter, the researchers gathered all the required components for
the construction of the hardware and software, presented the prototype and
conducted an experiment that tested the accuracy and effectiveness of the said
system and the researchers interpreted the result of the experiments and came
up to a conclusion.
Technical Specification
Parts and Specification
Materials and Tools
Main Components

Figure Fingerprint Scanner


Fingerprint

scanners are

of biometrics a direct fingerprint reader is

security

systems

a biometrics device

that

uses

automated methods of recognizing a person based on unique physical


characteristics of a person's fingerprint. A fingerprint is made up of a pattern of
ridges and furrows as well as characteristics that occur at minutiae points (ridge
bifurcation or a ridge ending). Fingerprint scanning essentially provides an
identification of

person

based

on

the

acquisition

and

recognition

(or verification) of those unique patterns and ridges in a fingerprint. These marks
have a pattern and this pattern is called the fingerprint. Every fingerprint is

special, and different from any other in the world. Because there are countless
combinations, fingerprints have become an ideal means of identification.

Figure Arduino ATMega2560


The Arduino is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has
54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog
inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB
connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains
everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a
computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to
get started. The Mega 2560 board is compatible with most shields designed for
Arduino/Genuino Uno and the former boards Duemilanove or Diecimila.

Figure Relay Module

A relay is

an electrically operated switch.

an electromagnet to

mechanically

operate

Many

switch,

but

relays

use

other operating

principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is
necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must
be

controlled

by

one

signal.

The

first

relays

were

used

in

long

distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from
one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively
in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control
an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control
power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to
perform

switching.

Relays

with

calibrated

operating

characteristics

and

sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from
overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are
performed by digital instruments still called protective relays.

Figure GSM Module


A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless
network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modems. The main difference
between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed
telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio

waves. A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC card/PCMCIA card.


Typically, an external GSM modem is connected to a computer through a serial
cable or a USB cable. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a SIM
card from a wireless carrier in order to operate.

A photoresistor or light-dependent resistor (LDR) or photocell is a lightcontrolled variable resistor. The resistance of a photoresistor decreases with
increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. A
photoresistor can be applied in light-sensitive detector circuits, and light- and
dark-activated switching circuits.
A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. In the dark, a
photoresistor can have a resistance as high as several megohms (M), while in
the light, a photoresistor can have a resistance as low as a few hundred ohms. If
incident light on a photoresistor exceeds a certain frequency, photons absorbed
by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into
the conduction band. The resulting free electrons (and their hole partners)
conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. The resistance range and
sensitivity of a photoresistor can substantially differ among dissimilar devices.
Moreover, unique photoresistors may react substantially differently to photons
within certain wavelength bands.

Figure Servo Motor


Servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise
control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration. [1] It consists of a
suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a
relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically
for use with servomotors.Servomotors are not a specific class of motor although
the term servomotor is often used to refer to a motor suitable for use in a closedloop

control

system.Servomotors

are

used

in

applications

such

as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.


A servomotor consumes power as it rotates to the commanded position
but then the servomotor rests. Stepper motors run warm to the touch because
they continue to consume power to lock in and hold the commanded position.
Servomotors are generally used as a high performance alternative to the stepper
motor. Stepper motors have some inherent ability to control position, as they
have built-in output steps. This often allows them to be used as an open-loop
position control, without any feedback encoder, as their drive signal specifies the
number of steps of movement to rotate, but for this the controller needs to
'know' the position of the stepper motor on power up. Therefore, on first power
up, the controller will have to activate the stepper motor and turn it to a known
position, e.g. until it activates an end limit switch.

Figure 16 X 2 LCD
Liquid Crystal Display screen is an electronic display module and find a
wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very
commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred
over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs
are economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of displaying special &
even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on.
A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2
such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD
has two registers, namely, Command and Data.The command register stores the
command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to
LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the
cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be
displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be
displayed on the LCD.

Figure Potentiometer
A potentiometer informally a pot, is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding
or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals
are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat.
The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is essentially a voltage divider
used

for

measuring electric

potential (voltage);

the

component

is

an

implementation of the same principle, hence its name.


Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as
volume controls on audio equipment. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism
can be used as position transducers, for example, in a joystick. Potentiometers
are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt), since the
power dissipated in the potentiometer would be comparable to the power in the
controlled load.

Figure Resistor
A resistor is

a passive two-terminal electrical

component that

implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce


current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In
electronic circuits, resistors are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal
levels, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines among other uses.
High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat
may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test

loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly
with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to
adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as
sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity.
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and
are

ubiquitous

in electronic

equipment.

Practical

resistors

as

discrete

components can be composed of various compounds and forms. Resistors are


also implemented withinintegrated circuits.

Figure Printed Circuit Board


A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically
connects electronic
features etched from

components using conductive tracks, pads and other


copper

sheets laminated onto

non-

conductive substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double
sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Multi-layer PCBs
allow for much higher component density. Conductors on different layers are
connected with plated-through holes called vias. Advanced PCBs may contain
components - capacitors, resistors or active devices - embedded in the substrate.

Figure Electrical Connector


An electrical
joining electrical

connector is
circuits as

an electro-mechanical device

an interface using

mechanical

for

assembly.

Connectors consist of plugs (male-ended) and jacks (female-ended). The


connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for
assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two
wires or devices.[1] An adapter can be used to effectively bring together dissimilar
connectors.
There are hundreds of types of electrical connectors. Connectors may join
two lengths of flexible copper wire or cable, or connect a wire or cable to an
electrical terminal. In computing, an electrical connector can also be known as
a physical interface (compare physical layer in OSI model of networking). Cable
glands, known as cable connectors in the US, connect wires to devices
mechanically rather than electrically and are distinct from quick-disconnects
performing the latter.

Figure Light Emitting Diode (LED)

A light-emitting

diode (LED)

is

two-lead semiconductor light

source. It is a pn junction diode, which emits light when activated. When


a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine
with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form
of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the
light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the
energy band gap of the semiconductor. A LED is often small in area (less
than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape
its radiation pattern.

Figure Power Supply Unit

A power supply unit or PSU, the component that supplies


power to a computer. Most personal computers can be plugged into
standard electrical outlets. The power supply then pulls the required
amount of electricity and converts the AC current to DC current. It
also regulates the voltage to eliminate spikes and surges common in
most electrical systems. Not all power supplies, however, do an

adequate

voltage-regulation

job,

so

computer

is

always

susceptible to large voltage fluctuations.


A power supply unit (PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage
regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer.
Modern personal computers universally use a switched-mode power
supply. Some power supplies have a manual selector for input
voltage, while others automatically adapt to the supply voltage.
Schematic Diagram

Figure Space Saving Home Automation System Schematic Diagram


The Space Saving Home Automation System is an integrated system
which facilitate the condominium unit owner with an easy to use home
automation system that can be operated based on biometric and speech
commands. The system is portable and constructed in a way that is easy to
install, configure, run and maintain. The proposed project demonstrates a system
that can be integrated as a single portable unit and allows one to wirelessly
control lights, furnitures and appliances. Internally, the system is overall

controlled from a microphone which is connected to Voice Recognition Module v


4.0.

The module sends the voice commands in binary sequence to the

microcontroller. The base station unit takes the decision and send the commands
to the remote station or to the servo motors.
The above Figure is the schematic diagram of the Space Recognition System,
the system is made by integrated circuit which is connected to the power supply
which has an output of 12V and 5V DC. It is completely assembled and easy to
use programmable speech recognition circuit. Programmable, in the sense that
the words or vocal utterances which we want the circuit to recognize;
Management Aspect
The management aspect implies a

clear and precise identification of duties

and responsibilities, flow of authority and manpower level requirement. It must


be set up for optimum effectiveness. To achieve these, management must be
able to plan all activities, for the company to become productive and competitive
industry through human resource company, financial capability and new
technologies. The central idea of management is no make every action or
decision help achieve a careful chosen goal.
The researchers provided the following qualification for managing the Space
Saving Home Automation System.
A graduate of Bachelor of Science in

Computer or Electronics or Electrical

Engineering or any computer and electrical related field with a 1-3 years
experiences associated with electronics circuits and systems.
Familiarity with the electrical systems, tools, equipment, codes and safety
procedures.
With general skills in hardware troubleshooting in electrical component or circuit
and knowledge
Must be willing to work and has a strong work ethics.

With a good personal background

Condominium developer is in charge in the management operation of the Space


Saving Home Automation system. The staff or the employee under the
Engineering Department of the establishment is responsible in creating reports
for the maintenance as well as for the electrical safety of the system. The
department job and duties include making schedules for the maintenance,
electrical system installation, troubleshooting and repair as needed.

Policy and Guidelines


The policy shall apply to all Condominium Unit owner, operations and facilities.
The Security Department of the Condominium developer shall administer all
locking system which include the entrance and exit of the establishment but the
use of private locking system are not issued and maintained by the security
department thus this is accountability of the condominium unit owner.
Facilities Management Division of the establishment is responsible to notify
intruder within the premises.
The installation or enrolment

of a Fingerprint Door Lock System may be

considered for authorization where the unit has/ areas where:


Multiple owner living on one unit
There is a need to limit access for reasons of safety, where the safeguarding of
assets is required or other considerations.
Programming and enrolling to the door lock system is the responsibility of the
Facilities Management Division which is under the establishment developer, to
which the unit of the system has been assigned.

The nature of the Space Saving System is introduced on this paper. It is argued
that end users or the owner should be able to define how the system reacts to
changing circumstances.

The architecture design of the unit is according to the desire implemented by the
developer not by the owner.

Marketing Aspect
Determining the suitability of property for profitable development and to define
optimal products and amenities in accordance with market demand is the
essence of marketing aspect.

Market Description
The target market of this Space Saving home automation system are the
condominium developer and condominium unit owner.

With this market, the

proposed business would have an advantage, since the target market is readily
available and has the buying power thus with significant calculations and
marketing strategies, the business would be profitable.
But to market the system, there are literally hundreds of effective ideas that the
researchers used in this study.m Through the use of innovative technology, the
system can be easily market by means of different promotional strategies.
Social Media Interaction: Social media is a powerful marketing tool that the
researchers used to spread the word regarding the system (across Facebook,
Twitter or other social networking sites.
Internet Advertisement:

These advertisement which would go up on website

which meet the audience criteria and budget, can funnel traffic into the
researchers web.

Electronic mail marketing. They can consider an email marketing campaign.


Send a well crafted email indicating establishment or developer why they should
purchade the product, where they can get it, and give them a great hook to draw
them in.
Press release. The researchers would find a media outlet which is related to the
type of product they are selling and give them a press release about the product
becoming available.
Utilize digital coupons. These digital coupon could draw customers in. the
researchers can use codes, print-out coupons(flyers, brochures) or digital QR
codes which can be displayed on a phone and scanned.

Financial Aspect:
Financial aspect involves the capability of the project to raise the appropriate
funds needed to implement the proposed project. A financial feasibility study
projects how much start-up capital is needed or any financial considerations.
The aspect covers the expenses of the researchers in obtaining and completing
the materials, components and equipment need for the construction of the
project. This also include the computation of fund for the needed materials,
equipment and profit for the implementation of the proposed project.

ITEM

SPECIFICATION

UNIT

UNIT

TOTAL PRICE

PRICE

Fingerprint

Model: ADST11SD300 v 4.0

Scanner

Power Input: 3.3v DC Nominal


Operating Current: 140mA
Standby Current: 18uA

1pc

2,550

P 2,550.00

Arduino

Model:Atmel ATMega 2560

Microcontroller

Power Input: 7-12v DC

1pc

1350

P 1,350

2pcs

350

P 700.00

1pc

1680

P 1680.00

Operating Voltage: 5VDC


Digital I/O Pins : 54
Analog input Pins: 16
Flash

memory:

256

kb/8k

for

boatloader
Relay Module

Power Input: 12V- 2 Channel Relay


Driver Current: 50-60mA

GSM Module

Power Input:4.5 -5.5V


Current:40mA

Recognition Accuracy: 99% (under


ideal environment)
Program Code Complete Code
from

P17,000

Chris

Malecdan
Servo motor
Textile Paint

Servo Motors Tower Pro MG995

7 pcs

350

2450

Pangasinan to Manila
Manila to Pangasinan
(John Villafania)
12 V
12v-50w
12v-.2mSH
Color Green

300
300
1550
49.50
49.501
150

2
2

600
600
1500
149.25
-

Pangasinan to Baguio-

Latex Paint
Other
Expenses
Fare
Labor
Bulb Souldering Iro
Potentiometer

3
-

Other fees
Total
P 8,547.00