You are on page 1of 78

Presented by:

Koti
Engineer Automation

What is a Robot ?

Robot Definition

A robot is a mechanical intelligent agent which can


perform tasks on its own, or with guidance. In practice a
robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is
guided by computer and electronic programming

Industrial Robot Classification


Robots come in many designs. These are
determined primarily by the job they are
intended to perform. Most industrial robots are
fixed station units.

Cartesian Robot

The first type of robot is called the


Cartesian robot. This type of robot
uses the X, Y, Z three dimensional
coordinate
system
to
control
movement and location.

Gantry Robots

Gantry robots are Cartesian


robots that have been supersized! This structure minimizes
deflection along each axis.

Cylindrical Robots

Cylindrical robots have a main axis


that is in the centre of the operating
envelope. It can reach into tight
areas without sacrificing speed or
repeatability.

Spherical Robots
Spherical or polar robots are similar to
a cylindrical robot, but form a spherical
range of motion using a polar
coordinate system.

Emil Decker, 2009

SCARA Robots
SCARA robots, or Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm, are
quite popular. It is a combination of the articulated arm and the
cylindrical robot.

Parallel Robots
Parallel Robots consist of a fixed base to a platform by means of a
number of legs. This type of robot is used to create realistic flight
simulators or rides in amusement parks.

Articulated Arm Robot


Articulated arm robots have at least three rotary joints. They are
frequently called an anthropomorphic arm because they closely
resemble a human arm.

Degrees of Freedom

Degrees of Freedom refer to the


movement range available for a
given piece of equipment within
three dimensions.

Degrees of Freedom

Basics Of ABB
Robots

DEFINITION OF AN INDUSTRIAL ROBOT

An industrial robot is a programmable multifunctional,multi DOF manipulator powered by electricity.

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF ROBOT

Manipulator( body of
robot )

Controller(computer
+drives)

End-effector (tool)

Man Machine

Interface
(TeachPendant/Lapt
op)

THE END_EFFECTOR

The tool that is attached to the Tool Mounting Flange of


the robot is known as the end_effector , it may be cutting
tool, drill bit, gripper (vacuum, pneumatic or servo),
welding gun, hemming tool, glue gun etc.

PNEUMATIC GRIPPER

A WELDING TORCH

A VACUUM GRIPPER

Block Diagram of Robot

Manipulator Power cable


CONTROLLER

ROBOT MANIPULATOR
SMB Cable
Ext Ax Power
Resolver Cable
EXTERNAL AXIS

R
Y
B

3 Phase 415VAC

DESCRIPTION OF A MANIPULATOR

A manipulator is an assemblage of rigid links connected by joints.

Each joint is driven by an actuator (AC Servo motors in ABB


robots).

Actuators are coupled to joints via geared transmission.

An industrial manipulator has 4 OR 6 degrees of freedom.

Brakes are installed in every joint motor to hold the manipulator in


position against gravity in motors off state.

THE 6 AXES OF A ROBOT

Link 4
Link 3

Link 6 (tool flange)

Link 2
Link 5

Link 1

Link 0 (Base)

Manipulator Open Link Mechanism


Manipulator consists of Links (Rigid Arms)

Base of robot

Each link is connected to previous link by joints

Link 0

Link 1
Joint 1

Joint 2

Link 3

Link 2
Joint 3

Joint 4

Link 6

Tool Flange

Joint 6

Link 4

Link 5
Joint 5

USE OF RESOLVERS AND SMB

Every joint of a robot has a resolver , the resolver


measures the position and velocity of a joint and sends
the data to the SMB (Serial Measurement Board)
located at the base of the manipulator.

There is a separate battery for backing the SMB data in


case of a power failure.

The SMB is connected to the controller via resolver


cable.

DEGRES OF FREEDOM

The number of independent movements a robot


can make is known as the degree of freedom of
the robot manipulator.
In other words the number of rotary
axes a manipulator has is known as its degree
of freedom.

THE 6 AXES OF A ROBOT

THE MAJOR AND MINOR AXES OF A ROBOT

The first 3 axes (axis 1/2/3/) of a robot are known as the


major axes because they help in positioning the wrist
at a required point on the workpiece.

The last 3 axes (4/5/6) of a robot are called as the minor


axes because they allow the wrist to reorient in any
required direction without changing its position.

IRC5 Controller
overview

Flexible Controller

Control module

Contains computer unit, safety


interface, control panel, space for
standard and customer options

Drive module

Contains drive system, axis computer,


transformer, mains connection & filter

Building block for MultiMove


application (up to 4 drive cabinets
connected to a single control cabinet)

Control Module

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Customer I/O power


supply
Control panel
Main switch
System power supply
Computer unit

Drive Module: Small robot with external axes


K42 K43

*Capacitor

Drive units

Rectifier

Axes
computer

Drive units
for ext axis

* Empty for small robots, if no external axes

New Modules (Design 2006)

Single cabinet controller and process module added

Module range enables optimization for different customer needs

Single Cabinet Controller

Drive and control functions combined in


one cabinet

New Design 2006 encapsulation


Clean AluZinc cabinet
(only front painted)

resistant to environmental
influence

self healing if scratched

Dimensions 970 x 725 x 710 (H x D x W)

Full option range, including MultiMove

Max 2 internal I/O units (compared to 4)

Less connector space

900

Inside IRC5 Single Cabinet Controller


Power supply units

Computer unit
Computer UltraCap

Panel unit (safety interface)


(right inside wall)

Power ON/OFF

Manipulator signal
interface

Operators panel

Service ports
USB (option)
Ethernet

FlexPendant
connection

Drive unit
section

Customer (I/O) space

Axis computer
(right inside wall)

Options:
Duty Time Counter
230/120 V service
outlet

Power intake
Motors On contactors
and interface board
(left inside wall)

Manipulator connections
Customer connections
(behind optional cover)

Single Cabinet Controller

Differentiation

Single Cabinet Controller

The standard controller

Dual Cabinet Controller

Premium version for higher demands

Differentiating selling points vs. single cabinet and vs.


competition

More connector space

More internal space

Distributability

Minimized height (with modules side by side)

Offers possibility to convert a MultiMove system to multiple


single systems by adding control module

Block
Diagram
of Controller
IRC5 HW
Overview

Control module
Power &
UPS
USB
LAN
Service

Drive module

Power
Panel
Safety

MC

I/O, Sensors and


Process equipments

S4CPlus
Carry over

Drive
Safety

IRB xxx

AXC

SMB

Drives

Motor

Communication
Field
buses

Fieldbuses

DeviceNet Master/Slave one or dual channel

Profibus DP Master/Slave

Interbus Master/Slave

Both copper-wire and fiber-optic interface available

EtherNet-IP slave

IRC5 FlexPendant continue

IRC5 FlexPendant

Intuitive standard screens

3 ax joystick

8 hard keys (4 customizable)

User Authorization System, allowing


defined access levels for different
user groups

Hot Plug - possibility to connect and


disconnect during operation

Asian character support

Right and left-handed support

Swap HMI language without restart

IRC5 FlexPendant continue


Emergency stop
Graphical colour touch screen

4 Hard keys for fast access


Assignable

3-way joystick

4 Hard keys for running programs


Start
Execute Backward/Forward
Stop program

IRC5 FlexPendant continue


ABB Menu
Main menu

Windows style
switch between
open windows/views

Status bar

Quickset Menu

IRC5 FlexPendant continue

ABB Main Menu

IRC5 FlexPendant continue

Inputs and Outputs (I/O Window).

IRC5 FlexPendant continue

Jogging window

IRC5 FlexPendant continue

Quickset Menu

Learning to Move a Robot

JOGGING

Jogging means manually moving a robot using the


joystick on the flexpendant.

The Robot gains more as per the Joystick Deflection.

Jogging cannot be done in auto mode.

Jogging is used while teaching a robot points in space.

Jogging can be done while programming.

JOGGING

From ABB main menu select jogging.

Operating Mode

Automatic mode

Manual mode

Production mode (programmed


speed)

< 250 mm/s max velocity 250


mm/s

Manual 100 % Option,

Robot program can execute in full


speed, (programmed speed).

Enabling Device

The enabling device is a switch with three positions

The switch must be in the middle position in order to


activate the motor on contactors and drives

All robot movement will immediately stop if the switch is


released or pressed to the bottom

Enabling device

Hold-to-Run (Manual 100 %)

Option (3-mode selector)

The Enabling device and one of the hold-to-run


buttons must be pressed simultaneously to
start the motors. Or Start/Step button
constantly pressed (FlexPendant gen2,
supported from RW5.06.04)

Enabling device

Hold-to-run buttons
(for left or right hand)

Safeguarded Stop

The connection of safeguarded stops enables inter-lock of external


safety equipment, such as: doors, photo-electric trip device, photo
cells or sensible mats

Safeguarded stop can be connected in three ways:

Auto Stop (AS) active when automatic mode is selected. Possible to


jog and run program in Manual Mode

General Stop (GS) active regardless of operating mode

Superior Stop (SS) the safeguard stop is active regardless of


operating mode

Possibility to activate Delayed Safeguarded Stop and Emergency


Stop. Delayed stop gives a smooth stop. The robot stops in the
same way as at a normal program stop with no deviation from the
programmed path. After approx. 1 second the power supplied to the
motors shuts off

JOGGING WINDOW

MODES OF JOGGING
Jogging can be done in three modes:

Axes mode (joint by joint )

Linear mode (along X / Y / Z)

Reorient mode (changing orientation of tool)

AXIS MODE

We can jog axes 1-3 or axes 4-6 at one go.

The position format shows the angular position of each


joint in degrees or radians.

LINEAR MODE

In linear mode the TCP moves in a straight line.

The TCP can move parallel to either the x-axis or the y-axis or the
z-axis of the selected coordinate system of the robot which can be
the base,world,tool or workobject coordinate system.

The position format shows the position of the TCP w.r.t the
coordinate system selected in mm and orientation of tool in
Quaternions or Euler Angles.

During linear jogging orientation of tool remains same.

REORIENTATION MODE

In reorientation mode the TCP of the selected tool


remains at a fixed positon in space.

However the orientation of the tool about that fixed point


changes.

INCREMENTAL MODE

JOYSTICK LOCK

The movements of the joystick can be restricted in few


or all directions using the joystick lock.

QUICKSET MENU

The quickset menu can be used for easy selection of


jogging modes and setting the speed.

SPEED AND RUN MODE

MultiMove!

ROBOT SPECIFICATION

ABB robots are specified using a designation IRB say for example,
IRB140, IRB1400, IRB2400, IRB1600, IRB6600, IRB340 etc.

IRB stands for Industrial Robot Body

Some important specifications to look for in a


Robot are:

1.Payload
2.Reach
3.Supplementary load.
4.Speed

TECHNICAL DATA FOR IRB 140

TECHNICAL DATA FOR IRB140

OPERATING MODES OF A ROBOT

A robot can be operated in three different modes:

Manual mode.

Manual 100% mode.

Automatic mode.

OPERATING MODES
MANUAL
Robot can be
jogged at less
than 250 mm/s
Enabling device
needs to be pre_
_ssed
Programmed
speed is not
followed.

MANUAL 100%
Robot can be
jogged at less
than 250 mm/s
Enabling device
and Hold to Run
button needs to
be pressed

Programmed speed
is followed.

AUTOMATIC
Robot cannot be
jogged
No need of enabl_
ing device or hold
to run button
Programmed speed
is followed.

COORDINATE SYSTEMS
A coordinate system = origin O and
3 perpendicular axes X, Y, & Z.
It is used to specify the position of a point in space.
The various types of coordinate systems used in a
Robot are:

THE BASE COORDINATE SYSTEM.

THE WORLD COORDINATE SYSTEM.

THE TOOL COORDINATE SYSTEM.

THE WORK OBJECT COORDINATE SYSTEM.

COORDINATE SYSTEMS

TOOL COORDINATE SYSTEM

IRC5 Safety

Emergency Stop

Emergency stop pushbuttons


as default on FlexPendant
and Control module

Additional emergency stops


to be connected to IRC5
safety chain on Panel unit by
the integrator

External Operators panel with


Emergency stop (Option)

Safety Regarding Releasing the Brakes


Emergency release of the robots arm
In an emergency situation, any of the robots axes may be released
manually by pushing the brake release buttons on the robot
The robot arm may be moved manually on smaller robot models, but larger
models may require using an overhead crane or similar

Increased injury

Before releasing the brakes, make sure that the weight of the arms
does not increase the pressure on the trapped person, further
increasing any injury!

Recover from Emergency stop


Action

Make sure the hazardous situation that resulted in the


emergency stop condition no longer exists

Locate and reset the device or devices that gave the


emergency stop condition

Acknowledge the emergency stop event (20202) in the


event log

Press the Motors On button to recover from the


emergency stop condition

BRAKE RELEASE BUTTON

The brake release buttons when pressed release the


brakes.