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Sanskrit remained the main language, and literature of various kinds continued to be written in it.

Pali and Prakrit were used for writing the Buddhist and Jain religious literature.

Vakapati’s Gaudayaho, a biography of Yashovarman of Kanauj was the last major work in the
older tradition of Prakrit. The last stage of Prakrit languages is represented by the Apabhramsha,
which was considered important on account of the fact that the modern languages like Hindi,
Gujarati, Marathi and Bangla have all evolved from it. The Ramacharita of Sandhyakara Nandi
written during the reign of the Pala king, Mahipal, presents both the story of Rama and the life
of, king Ramapala of Bengal. The Raghayaphandavija of Dhananjaya Shrutokriti describes the
stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata at the same time. The marriage of Shiva and
Parvati, and Krishna and Rukmini are described in the Parvati-Rukminiya of Vidyamadhava, the
court poet of the Chalukya king Somadeva. Hemachandra is also credited with having composed
a work entitled Saptasandhana (having seven alternative interpretations). A large number of Jaina
narratives dealing with the lives of Jain teachers were composed. The most famous are
Adinathachrita by Vardhamana. Shantinathacharita by Devachandra. Prithvichandracharita by
Shantisuri, Parshyanathachrita by Devabhadra, Kuarapalacharita and Neminathacharita by
Hemachandra etc. The Sukumalacharita by Shrihara and the Neminathacharita by Haribhadra are
wholly written in Apabhramsa. Many historical texts in the Kavya form were written during this
period. The most remarkable of them is the Rajatarangini by Kalhana. The text is unique as it is
the only known attempt at writing history in modern sense. The Prithviraja Vijay of Jayanka,
Dyayashraya Mahakavya by Hemachandra and Kirtikaumudi by Someshvara and
Vitcramankadevachrita of Bilhana, avasahasankachrita of Padmagupta and Kirtikaumudi of
Somadeva belong to the same genre. A large number of treatises were written on poetics. The
most important among such works are Kavyamimamsa by Rajashekhara, Dasharupa by
Dhananjaya, Saraswati Kanthabharana by Bhoja, Kavyanushasana’ of Hemachandra and
Kavikanthabharana by Kshemendra etc. In the field of prose literature, Brihatkathamanjari by
Kshemendra, Kathasaritasagara by Somadeva, Kathakoshaprakarana by Jaineshvarasuri are
The famous dramas are Lalitavigraharaja nataka by Somadeva, the Harikeli nataka by
Visaladeva, Prasannaraghaya by Jayadeva, the Karnasundari by Bilhana. Abhidhana Chintamani,
Deshi-namamala, nekarthasamgraha Nighantushesha written by Hemachandra. In the field of
astronomy and mathematics, the famous mathematician Bhaskaracharya flourished in the twelfth
century A.D. His SiddhantaShiromani comprises four parts - Lilavati,
Vijaganita, Grahaganita and Gola. The last one deals with astronomy. A very significant principle
of Siddhanta Shiromani is that of perpetual motion which was transmitted by Islam about A.D.
1200 to Europe. King Bhoja of Paramara dynasty had written the Rajmariganka on astronomy. In
the field of medicine in the eighth century, Charaka, Sushruta and Ashtangahridaya were
rendered into Tibetan and Arabic. Dridhabala of Panchananda in Kashmir revised the text of
Charaka-Samhita. Madhava wrote several works on medicine. His best known work is the
Nidana or Rigvimshchana on Pathology translated into Arabic under the guidance of Harun-al
Rashid. His other works are Chikitsa Kutamudgara and Yogavyakhya. Vagabhata II’s son Tisata
wrote Chikitsakalika or Yoga-mala and Tisata’s son Chandratha wrote Yogaratnasamuchchhaya.

He stayed at . One of the most famous works is Panchatantra written by Vishnu Sharma which was translated into Persian and Arabic in the eighth century A. He studied at Nalanda University which was at that time one of the most famous and prestigious centres of education. the commentary on the Yajnavalkyasmriti by Aparaka. He came to India via sea route spending several years in umatra and Sri Vijaya learning Buddhism. the Nitivakyamrita of Somadevasuri are important.000 stanzas. He came to India via central Asia. Smrityarthasara by Shridhara. He was honoured by Harshavardhana of Kanauj and Bhaskarvarma of Assam. Hiuen-Tsang also came to India via central Asia. As he was interested only in Buddhism. This period is particularly memorable for the compilation of the Amarkosha by Amarasimha who was a luminary in the court of Chandragupta II. his report does not contain much political information but he has given a general description of northern India at that time. Smriitichandrika by Devanna Bhatta are other outstanding creations of this period. The collection of their works known as Nalayiraprabandham. The book on grammar of Pali is Katyayanaprakarna. Krityakalpataru of Lakshmidhara and Chaturvarga Chintamani of Hemadri were compiled during this period. But unlike Fa-Hien. Like Fa-Hien.-”Brinda of Bengal wrote his Siddhayoga between A. The Vaishnava saints known as Alvars are traditionally twelve in numbers. Kashmir and travelled all over north India. Vijnaneshvara wrote Mitakasara and commentry on the Yajnavalkyasmriti.D. Jimutavahana wrote Dayabhaga (Law of inheritance). learning Sanskrit. written by Banabhatta is an outstanding work of the period. The biography of Harsha. giving details of the various Indian kingdoms visited by him. Tamil Literature Among the Nayanar saints. and has been translated in almost all European languages since then. Harshacharita. consists of 4. The well known Prakrit and Pali grammar works of the period are Prakritaprakasha written by Vararuchi and Prakritalakshana written by Chanda. The greatest among these later pilgrims was I-tsing. Mention may also be made of three Shatakas of Bhartrihari. Foreign Accounts Fa-Hien with four other monks came to India during the reign of Chandragupta II. The Svetambara Jain canon was written in Ardha Magadhi Prakrit and religious texts of the Digambara Jains of the south were written in the Maharashtri and Sauraseni Prakrits. Hiuen.. He stayed at Pataliputra for three years. The hymns composed by them were collected into eleven Tirmurais which are held in great venerations by the people of India. His report gives an idea of general peace and welfare during Gupta period. Manuvritti by Govindaraja. Another important work contains the lives of sixty-three Saiva saints. The popular work Hitopadesa is based on the panchatantra. Hiuen-Tsang has left an account of his travels. He spent thirteen years in India (A. He has also been credited for writing the commentary on the Mahubhasya of Patanjali. Nitisara by Kamandaka. 975—1000. 630-643) of which eight were in Harsha’s kingdom. Vyavaharamatrika and Kalaviveka. There are several commentaries on the religious texts.Tsang visited India during Harsha’s reign.D. Tirumular occupies a very high position. Various works on-polity such as Nitishastra by Mathara. This period also saw the development of Sanskrit grammar based on Panini and Patanjali.D.

Nalanda for ten years studying and translating Buddhist texts and returned to China with a collection of 400 Sanskrit manuscripts. . In his book entitled. he gives detailed account of Buddhism and general condition of the two countries. He translated a number of texts and compiled a SanskritChinese dictionary. “A record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archepelago”.