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NPTEL Syllabus

Process Control and Instrumentation Web course
COURSE OUTLINE
T h e first course in control engineering generally introduces the fundamental
concepts, principles and application of control theory and controller design to the
undergraduate students of chemical engineering.
This course " Process Control and Instrumentation " goes deeper into the
various aspects of control engineering along with bringing out the theories and
practical knowledge of control engineering.
Each topic will be developed in logical progression with up-to-date information.
The topics cover introductory concepts, modeling considerations, dynamic
behavior of chemical processes, stability aspects and design of feedback
controller.
Other topics which will be covered are control strategies such as feed-forward
controller, cascade control structure, ratio control, split-range control, selective
control and preliminary concepts of adaptive control.
Even though the course is on first course of control engineering, the topics on
multi-loop multivariable control will also be presented for completeness.
Instrumentation part will consist of valve characteristics, various measuring
devices, instrumentation symbols and introduction to P&ID.
The course material will be very useful to undergraduate students, teachers and
control practitioners.
A number of chosen problems will be solved to illustrate the concepts clearly.
Contents:
Introductory concepts; first principles model development of chemical processes,
steady state and dynamic behaviour; linearization of nonlinear processes,
Laplace Transform, initial and final value theorems.
Transfer function of chemical processes, poles and zeros of a transfer function;
stability issues, unstable and non-minimum phase behavior; dynamics of first,
second and higher order linear systems.
Frequency response analysis - Bode and Nyquist plot; introduction to feedback
control, elements of control loop, servo and regulatory problems; P, PI, PID
controllers.
Routh-Hurwitz criteria, root-locus analysis; design of feedback controller performance criteria, controller tuning methods, Cohen-Coon method, 1/4th
decay ratio method, direct synthesis methods, gain and phase margins, ZieglerNichols method, Bode & Nyquist stability criteria, robustness analysis.
Feed forward controller, cascade control structure, ratio control, split range
control, selective control, override control, auctioneering control; adaptive and
inferential control; multi loop multivariable control.
Final Control Elements; measuring devices, instrumentation symbols
introduction to process flow diagram (PFD) and piping & instrumentation
diagram (P&ID)
COURSE DETAIL

NPTEL
http://nptel.iitm.ac.in

Chemical
Engineering
Coordinators:
Dr. P.K. Saha
Department of Chemical
EngineeringIIT Guwahati

the LT of basic functions . Dynamic response of a first order process. j. 2 Modeling Considerations: 3 a. unstable and nonminimum phase behavior. f. time delay. i. General modeling principles. b. e. g. Lumped and distributed parameter systems. Concept of nonlinearity. Rationale for process modeling. fitting first and second order models using step test results. of Hours 1 a. momentum. Development of Empirical model . Transfer function of Single Input Single Output (SISO) process.Partial fraction expansion. c. impulse. b. pure dead time. 3 Dynamic behavior of Chemical Processes: a. isothermal chemical reactor. pure capacitive process. pulse. h. Incentives for Chemical Process Control. Examples – liquid serge tank. Concept of Laplace Transform (LT). Interacting and non-interacting processes.Model development using linear and nonlinear regression. Transfer function matrix of Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) process. derivative. Padé approximation. e. initial and final value theorems.No 1 Topics Introductory Concepts: No. d. deviation variables. c. 12 . exponential. Solution of differential equation using LT techniques . State variables. Thermodynamics and reaction kinetics. Properties of transfer function. direct division. inverse response. second order process. linearization of nonlinear processes. Frequency response analysis . ramp. stability issues. b. first order plus dead time process. Poles and Zeros of a transfer function. State equations. Solving algebraic equations and integration of ODEs. c. Classification of variables and design elements of a control system. higher order process. balance equations mass. Steady state and dynamic behavior. integral. energy. Representative process control problems -Liquid Surge Tank. input-output models. d. f.Bode and Nyquist plot.step. degrees of freedom analysis. Blending Process.S.

transmission lines. design with dynamic model. c. b. c. Ziegler-Nichols method. Design of feedback controller . Effects of proportional. Elements of Control loop . failure sensitivity. Types of controller . b. i. Cascade control structure . Measuring Devices for flow. Example . Instrumentation symbols. c. Decoupling and design of non-interacting control loops.Design of controller and control structure for a 4 input x 4 output Distillation Column. Relative Gain Array (RGA). d. transducers. Final Control Elements . Notion of stability .characteristic equation. transmitters. d. Cohen-Coon method. Selection of measured. I/O pairing. g.design with steady state model.Valve characteristics. 7 Instrumentation: a. controller tuning methods. Process and control loop interaction. gain and phase margins. auctioneering control. PI. final control element. robustness analysis.performance criteria. split range control. temperature. Ratio control. manipulated and controlled variables. on-off. thyristors. b. Smith Predictor. Concept of servo and regulatory problems. direct synthesis methods.analysis and design. RouthHurwitz criteria. 1/4th 12 decay ratio method. f. e.P. d. h. c. root-locus analysis. 6 Multi loop multivariable control: 4 a.controller. Introduction to feedback control. e. Feed forward controller . Sensitivity to model uncertainty. Bode & Nyquist stability criteria. block diagram.4 Feedback controller: 12 a. pressure and level. override control. selective control. Concepts of adaptive and inferential control. measuring device. 5 Other control strategies: 5 a. combination of feed forward-feedback structure. PID. b. integral and derivative actions. Compensation for large dead time and inverse response. 5 . Singular Value Decomposition (SVD).

McGraw Hill.. Govt of India http://nptel.in . Ed. D.. R.d. Coughanowr. and L. 2nd. 2. " Chemical Process Control: An Introduction to Theory and Practice ". " Process systems Analysis and Control ". Prentice-Hall. A joint venture by IISc and IITs. W. 1991. 1984.. Luyben. Introduction to Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID). Stephanopoulos.ac.iitm. L. 3. New Jersey. B. 1990. Mc-Graw-Hill." Process Modelling Simulation and Control for Chemical Engineers ". funded by MHRD. Koppel. Total 42 References: 1. G.