You are on page 1of 66

Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) Preparation Course

Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) Preparation Course........................................................1
ECC (Thailand) Teacher Training Centre............................................................................2
Enabling teachers worldwide .................................................................................................. 2
Innovation and development................................................................................................... 2
The training courses ............................................................................................................... 2
The experience ...................................................................................................................... 2
The trainers............................................................................................................................ 2
Overview ................................................................................................................................ 3
Preparation course – content.................................................................................................. 3
Module 1............................................................................................................................ 3
Module 2............................................................................................................................ 3
Module 3............................................................................................................................ 3
Teaching Knowledge Test Preparation Course (TKT)........................................................4
TKT Preparation Course – Timetable (sample) ....................................................................... 4
Teaching Knowledge Test Preparation Course (TKT)........................................................5
Pre-course reading ................................................................................................................. 5
TKT Preparation Course – Entry Requirements and Cost .................................................6
Entry ...................................................................................................................................... 6
Number of participants ........................................................................................................... 6
Cost + Payment...................................................................................................................... 6
TKT Preparation Course – Schedule and Location............................................................7
Location of Training ................................................................................................................ 7
Preparation Course - Schedule............................................................................................... 7
TKT Preparation Course – Pre Course Task ......................................................................9
TKT Preparation Course – Pre Course Task ....................................................................10
Appendix A – Dates and Prices 2006...............................................................................13
Teaching Knowledge Test – Preparation Course ...............................................................13
Appendix B - Credit Card Payment Authorization Form..................................................14
Appendix C - Accommodation - Bangkok .......................................................................15
Accommodation while training ...........................................................................................15
Walking to ECC from Soi Kasem 1 ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Appendix C - Accommodation - Phuket ..........................................................................16
Getting to the Training Centre ...........................................................................................16
Accommodation ................................................................................................................16
Guest Houses ...................................................................................................................16
Mid-Level Hotels ...............................................................................................................16
Hotels – Top End ..............................................................................................................16
Appendix D - Contact Details - Bangkok ..........................................................................16
General and employment enquiries ...................................................................................16
Teacher training enquiries .................................................................................................16
International enquiries .......................................................................................................16
Siam Square Branch
Map………………………………………………………………………...Error! Bookmark not
defined.
Appendix E - Contact Details – Phuket.............................................................................16
Teacher training enquiries .................................................................................................16
Phuket Branch Map
.....................................................................................................16

2008TKT.doc

-1-

ECC (Thailand) Teacher Training Centre
Enabling teachers worldwide
ECC (Thailand) is the largest private language school in Thailand, with a network of
schools in Bangkok and all over Thailand, from Chiang Rai in the north to Yala in the
south.
ECC (Thailand) runs a variety of courses from general conversation to specialized test
preparation. Our students range in age from young learners to retirement age adult
learners, and in ability from absolute beginners to advanced learners.

Innovation and development
The teacher training centre of ECC (Thailand) was established in 1988 with the aim of
improving the quality of in-house teaching and to provide pre-service and in-service
training for other teachers in Thailand.
In 1990 the teacher training centre was accredited to run the CTEFLA (now the CELTA).
In 2003, we held the first YL Extension to CELTA course in Thailand. In March 2005, we
opened our second teaching training centre in Phuket and in September 2006 we
opened a third centre in Chiang Mai.

The training courses
The training centre runs a variety of teacher training courses. Apart from the CELTA, the
centre runs the following courses: YL Extension to CELTA, a pre-service Introduction to
TESOL course, a Teaching English to Young Learners course and a Teaching Business
English course.
All the above courses are fully accredited by the ministry of education in Thailand.
Courses can be taken at all our teacher training centres.
We offer the Teaching Knowledge Test Preparation course in Bangkok and at other
locations on request.

The experience
Every year hundreds of English teachers come to ECC to improve their teaching skills.
Studying with other teachers from around the world will give you exposure to stimulating
exchanges of ideas and the opportunity to learn from other teachers as well as the
trainers.
We can also offer an exciting choice of locations; Bangkok: a central location in one of
the most dynamic cities in Asia; Phuket: a tropical island paradise with easy access to
some of the best beaches in Thailand and Chiang Mai: rose of the north and cool
mountain air.

The trainers
All of our teacher training courses are led by our team of highly qualified and
experienced teacher trainers, who amongst them have a wealth of varied teacher
training experience on 4 continents.

2008TKT.doc

-2-

Teaching Knowledge Test Preparation Course (TKT)
Overview
The TKT Preparation Course is designed to give candidates the tools and the knowledge
to complete the TKT to the best of their ability.
The Teacher Knowledge Test (TKT) was developed by Cambridge ESOL for teachers of
English to speakers of other languages. The TKT aims to test candidates’ knowledge of
concepts related to language, language use and the background to and practice of
language teaching and learning.
The TKT Preparation Course is one week in length (09:00-16:30).

Preparation course – content
The preparation course will have four main goals:
The preparation course will have four main goals:
1. To introduce candidates to the concepts and terms about teaching and learning
that are central to TKT and to give them opportunities to do sample tasks,
questions and tests.
2. To introduce candidates to the major current theories, approaches and activities
in ELT and assess their validity in the classroom.
3. To introduce participants to the various resources available to English language
teachers.
4. To provide materials and activities that give candidates opportunities for
professional development by looking at the concepts introduced during the
preparation course.
The course will take the form of various input sessions that focus on the three individual
modules of the TKT. The three modules involved in the TKT are as follows:

Module 1
This module focuses on terms and concepts commonly used to describe language and
language skills. The background to language learning and activities and approaches in
ELT and assessment.

Module 2
This module focuses on lesson planning and the use of resources and materials.

Module 3
This module focuses on the language teachers and learners use in the classroom and
on techniques for classroom management.

2008TKT.doc

-3-

All candidates should be free to complete such assignments as and when they occur. The timetable is subject to change. These tests will consist of practice tests. 2008TKT. All input sessions will cover the areas that are to be tested in the TKT. with regard to the last practice test. Some of the input sessions may include homework assignments which will need to be completed outside of classroom time. Input sessions will be interactive.). e-mailed to the participants. tasks. samples from Cambridge ESOL and sample questions we design ourselves. meaning that participants will be encouraged and expected to take part and not just sit there in lecture fashion in silence. giving feedback and correction). 09:0010:30 10:3011:00 11:0012:30 12:3013:30 13:3015:00 15:0015:15 15:1516:30 Day One Overview/Getting to know you/The TKT – an overview Coffee break Teachers’ and learners’ language in the classroom Lunch Classroom management Coffee break Practice Test Module Three Day Two Lexis Day Three Background to language learning Day Four Writing Day Five Reading Coffee break Planning and preparation Coffee break Background to language teaching Coffee break Functions Coffee break Grammar 2 Lunch Lunch Lunch Lunch Resources and materials Coffee break Practice Test Module Two Phonology 1 Speaking Listening Coffee break Grammar 1 Coffee break Phonology 2 Coffee break Practice Test Module One This is a sample timetable. invigilation. Feedback on these tests will take place on the following day or. practice activities. Where possible the practice tests will be simulations of the real test conditions (including time. marking answers with a pencil etc.doc -4- . grouping students.Teaching Knowledge Test Preparation Course (TKT) TKT Preparation Course – Timetable (sample) Below is a sample timetable for the TKT Preparation Course. error correction (‘mistakes’) and language used by the teacher. Where possible the input sessions will be so designed and conducted to show some of issues covered in the TKT particularly in the area of classroom management (including teacher roles. presentation techniques.

OUP) All of these books will be available at the training centre for teachers to borrow and read. The TKT Course (Spratt. Longman) Process Writing (White and Arndt. OUP) Sound Foundations (Underhill. CUP) Practical English Usage (Swan. CUP) Tasks for Language Teachers (Parrott. Longman) Grammar for English Language Teachers (Parrott. CUP) Tasks for Teacher Education (Tanner and Green. Longman) The Practice of English Language Teaching (Harmer. Longman) English for the Teacher (Spratt. Macmillan) Headway Elementary – Advanced (John and Liz Soars. CUP.doc -5- . Pulverness and Williams. Longman) Inside Out Elementary – Advanced (Jones and Kay. Some of the books available are listed below: Cutting Edge Starter + Advanced (Cunningham and Moor.Teaching Knowledge Test Preparation Course (TKT) Pre-course reading For candidates who have been offered a place on the TKT Preparation Course we recommend that students do some pre-course reading.g. Longman) New Cutting Edge Elementary – Upper Intermediate (Cunningham and Moor. The reading isn’t compulsory and it is up to individual candidates to decide for themselves if they want to do any background reading. Heinemann) How to Teach Vocabulary (Thornbury. Resources and Materials). OUP) 2008TKT. A number of course books will be available for reference and will also be used in some input sessions (e. 2005) How to Teach English (Harmer. Longman) Reading (Wallace.

g. illness. they can attend an alternative course at a later date. a copy of The TKT Course (Spratt. Where an individual school would like to send a larger number of teachers to be trained. then they do not have to complete the pre-course task. The maximum number of candidates per course will be 20. Cost + Payment The initial cost of the course will be 10.TKT Preparation Course – Entry Requirements and Cost Entry Before starting the TKT preparation course candidates should complete an application form and a pre-course task. Pulverness and Williams. Places are allocated on a first come basis. PET or Council of Europe B1 gained within the last two years). Candidates will be expected to attend the whole course (100% attendance is expected) and take an active part in the course. All course fees are non-refundable.000 Baht. Candidates will have to provide their own lunches. Candidates will only be allowed to take the TKT Preparation Course only once with ECC (Thailand). Once accepted onto the preparation course. In this case. Payment facilities will include online payment via our secure payment gateway on our website and all the usual payment methods (credit card or cash). Course fees will include all course materials (handouts).doc -6- . Number of participants Courses will run with a minimum of 12 fully paid candidates per course. they will need to provide a doctor’s certificate. 2008TKT.g. candidates will be expected to pay the full course fees at the latest seven days before course begin. this can be arranged on a case-by-case basis. CUP 2005) and coffee breaks (morning and afternoon). If candidates can’t attend for any reason e. If candidates can show evidence of English ability (e.

Here is a sample schedule for a typical day: Time 09:00 – 10:30 10:30 – 11:00 11:00 – 12:30 12:30 – 13:30 13:30 – 15:00 15:00 – 15:15 15:15 – 16:30 2008TKT.doc Input Coffee break Input Lunch Input Coffee break Input -7- . Other locations are possible on request. Preparation Course . If individual schools want to have their own TKT Preparation Course. these locations can be considered as long as they meet the following criteria: • • • Air-conditioned Whiteboards Flexible classroom set-up Where other locations are considered for individual schools extra charges may be levied to pay for transportation and accommodation.TKT Preparation Course – Schedule and Location Location of Training Training is scheduled to be held at our training centre at Big C Rajdamri.Schedule Dates for 2008 are as follows: • 20th – 24th October The course will last for 5 days and the days will be divided up into four input sessions per day.

PET. How did you find out about the ECC (Thailand) Teacher Training Centre? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Preferred course date: _________________________________________________ Preferred course location: ο Bangkok o Other _____________ Applicant’s signature: __________________________________________________ 2008TKT.g.Teacher Training Centre – TKT Preparation Course Application Form Photo here Given name:________________________ Family name: _____________________ Address: ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Telephone (home): __________________ Telephone (mobile): _________________ Telephone (work): ___________________ Fax: _____________________________ Email: _____________________________ Nationality: _______________________ Education + qualifications: ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ English language teaching experience: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ English proficiency level: _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ (include qualification taken e.doc -8- . IELTS. TOEFL and TOEIC etc. and date taken.) The test score needs to have been awarded within the last two years.

learner F. his. that A. village C. yourself. demonstrative adjectives 5. There is one extra option which you do not need to use. possessive adjective 2. baby H. prepositions of movement Section 2. Draw lines to match the words and the symbols. /Ω←/ /Ω/ 2. / ±⊃/ 2008TKT. above. prepositions of place F. / ±⊃/ / Ω/ 5. themselves C. which. There is one extra option which you do not need to use. paper D. /Ω←/ / ±⊃/ 4.TKT Preparation Course – Pre Course Task This task should be sent in with your application form. Look at the two vowel sounds in each word in column A and match the vowel sounds in the words with the pairs of phonemic symbols in column B. / α/ 7.doc -9- / ℘/ / / / Ω/ / / . by E. curly A. our D. /ε/ / / 3. Name: ______________________________________ Date: __________________ Section 1. off B. / ε/ I. / α/ / Ω/ 6. Column A Column B 1. along. nightclub G. across. ourselves. over B. / / 8. who. your. relative pronoun 3. Column A Column B 1. You attempt the task by yourself without referring to reference materials. reflexive pronouns 4. against. homework E. Draw a line to match the example language in column A with the grammatical terms in column B.

1. Read the dictionary entry below. ο 3. B. D. Draw a line to match the extracts from the dictionary entry in column A with the information provided in column B. The teacher notices that his intermediate students are making careless mistakes with basic question formation. On the first day of the course. ο 5. ο 2. / I’m convinced that she is telling the truth.doc . Dictionary entry Convince / κΩν∩ϖνσ / v [ T (of) ] to make someone completely certain about something. to persuade: We finally convinced them of our innocence. The students do not prepare for this test. [ + obj + (that) ] They failed to convince the directors that their proposals would work. The teacher monitors students whenever they carry out speaking tasks and keeps notes about each student. she sets a test which covers some language points she expects the students to be familiar with and others that she thinks the students may not know. He announces that there will be a test on this the following week. which they should know. The teacher gives them an example paper to do under test conditions. The teacher gives the class a surprise test on this. The students have time to prepare for the test.TKT Preparation Course – Pre Course Task Section 3. The class has recently finished a unit of the coursebook which focused on the use of the present perfect simple with ‘for’ and ‘since’. There is one extra option that you do need to use. E. to familiarize students with the test format to allow the teacher to plan an appropriate scheme of work to show students how well they have learned specific language to allow students to assess each other to motivate the students to revise a particular language area to assess students’ progress on a continuous basis Section 4. C. ο A. There is one extra option which you do not need to use. The students are going to take a public examination soon. The teacher has a new class. ο 4. F. 2008TKT. Match the situations in which a teacher sets a test (column A) with the reasons for assessment (column B) by putting the correct letter in the box provided.10 - .

Actually. Example sentence 3. 4. Single-word synonym 5. It was about 30 kilometers. 2008TKT. And my brother started first. (of) F. coming … on the way back. and it was very hot. And erm. Why does Raquel use ‘In fact’? (line 4) a) She’s introducing a contrast with what she said earlier. A. Answer the questions about their use of the language by circling the correct option (A. carried by water. no sorry. 10 Cristina: Oh. Cristina: Are you a good sailor? Have you ever been seasick? Raquel: Yeah. c) She’s giving herself some time to think. 3. The many uses of ‘and’ in lines 6-10 in Raquel’s story a) summarise Raquel’s ideas. I’m convinced that she is telling the truth. B or C) below. c) She is suddenly interrupted by Christina. Headword 7. Definition Section 5. b) She can’t understand the first question. I - Cristina: Was that on a long journey? Raquel: Yeah. and then everyone started feeling sick. terrible. But there was erm … er … not on a long journey. Dependent preposition 4. Phonemic transcription 6. Why does Rachel stop after saying ‘Actually. [ + obj + (that) ] E. c) To show she is unsure about her answer. I –‘? (line 2) a) She can’t remember the first word. to make someone completely certain about something G. Verb pattern H. Part of speech 2. 12 1. b) She’s correcting what Christina said. it was a very small boat.doc .11 - 2 4 6 .Column A Column B 1. persuade D. 11 Raquel: It was horrible. v C. I have been seasick once. 2. b) To ask for the question to be repeated. and me and the rest of my family were on the very … in the inside of the boat. In fact I’m quite a good traveler normally. Why does Rachel say ‘Yeah’ at the beginning of line 4? a) to show that she heard Christina’s question. And it was just like being in a cork. convince B. Read the conversation between two advanced learners.

__________ 9. __________ 7. 2. 7. 3. 8. C and D next to the correct number below. 6. The adjectives ‘terrible’ and ‘horrible’ (lines 11 and 12) show that Raquel and Christina both a) dislike the way Raquel told the story. c) Have had a similar experience. 5. 5. PLANNER (chooses materials and/or methodology before the course or lesson) C. The teacher gives students a questionnaire in order to find out more about their learning styles and preferences. __________ 5. The teacher decides which coursebook activities will fit into the time available for the lesson. 9. Match the teacher activities with the teacher role by putting the correct letter A. Section 6. PROVIDER (gives expert information about target language) D. Write about the following: Why are you going to take the Teaching Knowledge Test? What are you going to do with the knowledge gained on this preparation course when you go back to teach in your school? 2008TKT. DIAGNOSTICIAN (finds out the needs and interests of students) 1. The teacher wants to identify gaps in their knowledge so she asks students to brainstorm crime vocabulary.12 - . the teacher walks round the class helping students who make errors or ask for new words.doc . A. The teacher finds a video to fit into the topic of the unit. __________ 6. B. The teacher invites students to suggest topics for course content. 1. You will need to use some options more than once. While students write a story. __________ Section 7.b) repeat what happened in the story. The teacher asks a noisy student to speak more quietly. 4. c) Mark new points in the story. MANAGER (manages students and activities during class time) B. __________ 8. __________ 3. The teacher puts students into groups of three for a role-play. b) Have the same reaction. __________ 2. __________ 4. The teacher introduces the present perfect continuous.

13 - . Please check our site at http://www. Please visit the website for confirmation of all dates and prices. Krissakorn (Kate) Tel. 0-2655-1236-7 email: krissakorn@ecc.000 Baht (Prices are subject to change without notice.th for confirmation 2008TKT.) All dates and prices are subject to change without notice.doc .ac.com or contact Ms. Where students can show an English ability level equivalent to PET or Council of Europe B1 (gained within the last two years). 100% attendance is required for this course. they do not have to complete the precourse task.Appendix A – Dates and Prices 2008 Teaching Knowledge Test – Preparation Course 20th – 24th October All candidates must complete the relevant application form and complete the pre-course task. The cost of the course is 10.eccthai.

If you do not receive this confirmation within three working days please contact us immediately. 2008TKT. Lumpini. we can’t process payment) Signature: _______________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________ Important: after payment has been received. 97/11 Rajdamri Road.Appendix B Credit Card Payment Authorization Form TEACHER TRAINING CENTRE Thai Fax Number: + 66 (2) 655 1237 UK Fax Number: +44 (870) 161 1256 US Fax Number: +1 (425) 930 5421 ECC (Thailand) Big C Rajdamri 5th Floor. All fees are payable in full a minimum of 4 weeks before the start of the course. Bangkok 10330 Thailand I___________________________would like to join the_________ course commencing ___/___/____ in Bangkok o Please deduct the payment from my credit card [ ] Full Payment of __________ [ ] Master Card [ ] Visa Card Number: _____________________________ Name on Card: ____________________________ Expiry Date: ______________________________ (mm/yyyy) Three figure number on the reverse of the credit card ______________________ (If this is missing.14 - . Pathumwan.doc . we will send you confirmation of both your payment and place on the course.

Patumwan. The approximate price from the airport to downtown is 750 baht. hotels and hostels near the training centre. A taxi from the airport will take you to the nearest sky train station at On Nuch. there are many cheap good quality guest houses. Only use authorized taxis. We've given you the street name in Thai to show to your taxi driver. he will pay himself and add the cost to the sum on the meter. at the end of your trip. The closest cheap accommodation to Big C Rajdamri can be found in the following areas: Soi Kasem San 1 and Rajchapraop Road. the driver may ask you to give him the 30 – 70 baht for the toll. Here the sky train and the underground have made a big difference to transport in the areas they cover but it is still more convenient to live near to where you will work. In Bangkok there is. None of the airport buses go to ECC Big C Rajdamri.Bangkok If you are training with us at our Big C Rajdamri branch in Bangkok. Once you have found work in Thailand. Address in English: Soi Kasem 1. we've compiled a list of some of the accommodation available near our Big C Rajdamri training centre. check to ensure your taxi has seat belts installed when you get in and then wear them. When your journey begins. 2008TKT. Accommodation while training To help you get started. For your own safety. Soi Kasem San 1 is adjacent to the National Stadium sky train station. These can be found at the clearly signed public taxi stands immediately outside the arrival hall. an oversupply of rented accommodation.15 - . if anything. If money is no object. tell the receptionist in the booth where you want to go and she will give you an invoice for the 50 baht airport surcharge which you should hand in to your driver at the end of the trip. Join the queue. together with the 50 baht airport surcharge. Bangkok 10330 (Opposite the National Stadium) Address in Thai: ซอย เกษม 1 ถนนพระราม 1 ปทุม วัน กรุงเทพ ฯ 10330 (ตรงขามศูนยกีฬาแหงชาติ) There are several ways to get here from the airport. More probably. If you use the expressway. Rama 1 Road. ensure that the driver has the meter turned on. but if you take Airport Bus number 552 this will take you to On Nuch Skytrain station. The total cost to downtown should be less than 300 -500 baht. Take the Skytrain to the National stadium (change at Siam Square) and you are about a 2-minute walk from the top end of Soi Kasem 1. You can usually find places by asking other teachers or just by walking around the area. It is also usually possible to rent a simple one-room apartment for the period of your training if you allow yourself time to organize this. clearly signed limousine service counters are located in the arrival hall on the ground floor.doc .Appendix C Accommodation . The 'taxi meter' sign is clearly displayed on the top of the taxi (don't get into one which doesn't have this). finding cheap accommodation is not difficult. Leaving the station by Exit 3 brings you out at the end of the Soi.

All rooms are all air-conditioned with hot showers. 73 (air. Thailand Tel: 662-219-4445 Fax: 662--216-8053 Email: mpmbkk@loxinfo. Supachai Wongworakan or Kaithip Address: 931/9 soi Kasemsan 1. There are 78 rooms. Alternatively you can take the bus from the National Stadium to Central World (the old World Trade Centre).000 Baht per month. Prices range from 450-600 Baht per night or from 10. There is no refund on advanced payments A-one Inn Contact: Ms.com URL: none Description: Probably the nicest hotel in this soi and a good place for your first night in Bangkok. Rama 1 Road Patumwan. 662-612-3096-7 Fax: 662-215-3430 Email: renohotel@clickta.th URL: None Description: As you enter the soi Muangphol Mansion is the first Hotel on the left hand side. The following busses are available. Take the Skytrain to Siam Square.com URL: http://www. Rooms have Air-conditioning and hot water. 662-219-4995-6 Fax: 662-216-4771 Email: aoneinn@thaimail. Rama 1 Road Patumwan. Reno Hotel Contact: Maneda Pongsagongnuanit (Manager) Address: 40 soi Kasaem 1.co. Patumwan Bangkok 10330.Getting to ECC Big C Rajdamri from Kasem San 1 Soi Kasem San 1 is a two to three minute walk to the Skytrain station at the National Stadium. You’ll find the training centre on the fifth floor. All prices are subject to change.aoneinn. The rooms on the 3rd floor from 303 -309 are the quietest.conditioned) and 204 (non air-conditioned). Bangkok 10330 Tel: 662-215-0026-7. Bangkok 10330 Tel: 662-215-3029. You can book by fax or phone and pay upon arrival. Rama 1 Road.doc . hot water and TV. Muangphol Mansion Contact: Mr. The restaurant is comfortable.16 - . Walk up to the Rachaprasong intersection and turn right. Prices start at 780 per night or 890 with TV and reduce to 700 per night or 800 with TV with two weeks advanced payment. The daily rate is 480 Baht and they should give you a 15% discount if you tell them you are from ECC and pay for a month in advance. Keep walking up the road until you come to Big C (about 3-4 minutes). Paying for a month in advance will reduced the cost to 600 per night or 700 with TV. Tell them you are from ECC and want a quiet room at the back on the side.000-15. Get off the train at Chidlom and take exit number 1. Please don’t ask us to confirm prices – confirm with the guest houses/hotels concerned. All rooms have air-con. 2008TKT. 662-216-4770. Take the Skytrain one station to Chidlom Station. Busaba Nimsuan (Manager) Address: Soi Kasaem 1. Get off at Siam Square and walk to the opposite side of the platform.com Description: This guest house has an internet cafe and restaurant on the ground floor.

800 Baht.201 Baht per day. All rooms have air conditioning and hot showers.com URL: http://www. Rama 1 Road Patumwan. which represent a 50% discount of the rack rate please book via Ms. Rama 1 Road Patumwan.000 Baht per month.co. These rates also include a large buffet breakfast that should keep you going all day. Open 24 hours for those who come home late! Address in English: Rajchaprarop Road. To get the above prices. We have been quoted the following net rates per night: daily .com URL: http://www.accorhotels-asia. These can be found at the clearly signed public taxi stands immediately outside the arrival hall. Pratunam. The staff mentioned that they always try to provide ECC teachers with a quiet room with table and lamp for doing homework! Prices start at 400 baht per night for a single 450 for a double 10% discount by the month at 10. 10330 Bangkok. If money is no object. Erawadee. Monthly rates are available if you email. The Novotel is only a 1 minute walk from our Head Office and Teacher Training Centre.com/hotelsearch/default. Naeng Address: 36/8 sio Kasaem 1. Bangkok 10400. cheerful popular with trainees on a budget. Bangkok 10330 Tel: 662 2168867.co.300 Baht per day.17 - . 2153042 Fax: 662 2168228 Email: none URL: http://www.html# Description: Reasonable Guest House priced at 400 Baht per night 2. Supha Chaisrisak (Receptionist) also ask for Ms. The approximate price from the airport to downtown is 750 baht. Bangkok 10330 Tel: 662-214-1149.doc . Only use authorized taxis. weekly .th/e-inforoutes.3.bts. tell the receptionist in the booth where you want to go and she will give you an invoice for the 50 baht airport surcharge 2008TKT. clearly signed limousine service counters are located in the arrival hall on the ground floor. Address in Thai: ถนนราชปรารภ ประตูนาม กรุงเทพฯ 10400 There are several ways to get here from the airport. White Lodge Guest House Contact: Ms.asp?hc=1031 Description: For those who want luxury accommodation. Tel: (+66)2 255 6888 Fax: (+66)2 255 1824 Email: corpsale@novotelbkk.Wendy House Contact: Miss Somwang or Miss Mui Address: 36/2 soi Kasaem 1.520 per week or 9. Novotel Siam Square Contact: Erawadee Essarum Sales Executive Address: Siam Square soi 6 Pratumwan.2. Join the queue.html# Description: Cheap.bts.th/e-inforoutes. 662-214-1150 Fax: 662-612-3487 Email: wendyweb@cscoms.

th Description: A small. More probably.000 Baht per month plus 750 Baht per month for electricity. check to ensure your taxi has seat belts installed when you get in and then wear them. TV (with satellite channels) and 24 hour room service. PJ Watergate Hotel Contact: Reception Address: 467 Soi Wattanasil. Bangkok 10400 Tel: 66 -02-651-6826-30.18 - . Bangkok 10400 Tel: 66-02-650-0953-5 Fax: 66-02-650-0952 Email: makkasaninn@makkasaninn. For your own safety.com Description: New and clean hotel with bright airy rooms. Golden Inn Contact: Reception Address: 463/3 Soi Wattanawong. If you use the expressway. When your journey begins. Rajchaprarop Road. Pratunam. Bangkok 10400 Tel: 66-02-254-3314 Fax: 66-02-651-6358-59 Email: none URL: http://pjwatergate. Makkasan. Rooms are equipped with the following items: IDD phone. a fridge and air conditioning. boutique style hotel located in a quite side street but within easy walking distance of the training centre. at the end of your trip. The 'taxi meter' sign is clearly displayed on the top of the taxi (don't get into one which doesn't have this). Rooms are air-conditioned and include a mini bar/fridge. All rooms have private bathrooms with hot and cold water. There is an internet café in the lobby downstairs. 2008TKT. ensure that the driver has the meter turned on. satellite TV. 66-02-651-6751-53 Fax: 66. air conditioning. Rajthevee.02-651-6831 Email: none URL: none Description: Nice one room apartment type accommodation with bathroom/shower. None of the airport buses go to Big C Rajdamri. but if you take Airport Bus number 552 this will take you to On Nuch Skytrain station.which you should hand in to your driver at the end of the trip.doc . Take the Skytrain to Chidlom station (and exit at exit 1) and you are about a 5 to 10-minute walk from most of the accommodation listed below. No charge for water. the driver may ask you to give him the 30 – 70 baht for the toll.co.makkasaninn. The room comes equipped with TV (with cable). 9. Makkasan Inn Contact: Reception Address: 57/5 Soi Wattanawong. together with the 50 baht airport surcharge.com URL: http://www. shower and bath with hot and cold water. he will pay himself and add the cost to the sum on the meter. The monthly rate is 19. Ratchaprarop Road. Breakfast can be had from as little as 55 Baht per person. The hotel has a fitness centre attached and an internet café (80 Baht per hour). Rajchaprarop Road.000 Baht. mini bar. The total cost to downtown should be less than 300 -500 baht.

dmahotel. this hotel offers Thai style decorated rooms.600 Baht for a studio single room for long stay residents (e. Prices start at 1.280 per day (which is 20% discount off the rack price) for guests staying for a month.com) D’Ma Hotel (66-02-650-0288.19 - . The price includes breakfast. This price is exclusive of 10% service charge and VAT (7%).com. Pathumwan.bangkokpalace. http://www. arnoma@arnoma. http://www.com. All rooms have airconditioning.500 Baht for a monthly stay (breakfast included).900 Baht or 28. You can choose between smoking and non-smoking floors.arnoma.com URL: http://www.indrahotel. Indra Regent Hotel Contact: Reception Address: 120/126 Ratchaprarop Road.th.com Description: Large hotel located about a five-minute walk from the training centre. satellite TV. http://www. Arnoma Hotel (66-02-255-3444.g.Rates start at 1.co.doc . dema@loxinfo. fully equipped bathroom and coffee/tea making facilities. There are a number of higher priced hotels in the Ratchaprarop area and we have listed some of these here for your convenience. in-room safe. The above prices are exclusive of 10% service charge and 10% government tax. Bangkok City Inn Contact: Khun Ushenee Address: 43/5 Rajdamri Road. All rooms come with satellite TV. This hotel has all the facilities you would expect from such a hotel. air conditioning and a bathroom with bath and hot and cold water.com) 2008TKT.com URL: Description: Situated a three-minute walk from the training centre. Bangkok 10440 Tel: 66-02-208-0022-23 Fax: 66-02-208-0388-89 Email: sales@indrahotel. IDD phone.com or bkkcityinn@gmail. Daily prices for standard rooms are 1. Bangkok 10330 Tel: 66-02-253-5373 Fax: 66-02-253-7774 Email: ushenee@hotmail. sales@bangkokpalace.com) Bangkok Palace Hotel (66-02-253-0510. one month).

When you get to the taxis ask them to take you to the Tavorn Hotel. Getting to the Training Centre To help you get started. It is also possible to rent a simple one-room apartment for the month if you allow yourself time to organize this. If money is no object.20 - . clearly signed limousine service counters are located in the arrival hall on the ground floor. These taxis come in a variety of colours (just like in Bangkok). The prices outlined here are subject to change. The training centre is directly opposite this hotel. The break in the journey can last up to an hour so. There are a number of different ways to get to the training centre from the airport. There is also a minibus service into town which costs 100 Baht. No matter how pleasant or persistent they are. Speak to the teachers at the branch. Nearly all of the accommodation is within easy walking distance of the training centre. Thailand 2008TKT.doc . keep calm and cool because you will eventually arrive at your destination. The approximate price from the airport to Phuket City is 400 baht. they’ll certainly know some cheap places to stay. When you see this sign. if you decide on this route. The places here are in easy walking distance (2-10 minutes) of the training centre. Accommodation We have compiled a list of accommodation around town. As you leave the airport. Guest Houses Rattana Mansion Address: 18 Chanajaroen. the training centre is opposite this hotel. The other option is to take a ‘taxi meter’. look across the car park and you’ll see the taxis about 100 meters away. don't be tempted to use these! At the very least you will end up paying a great deal more than you should and much worse things have been known to happen. Muang.Appendix C Accommodation . The price into town is the price shown on the meter plus a 100 Baht airport surcharge. hotels and hostels near the training centre. Road.Phuket If you are training with us at our Phuket branch. you will very probably be besieged by people offering you unauthorized taxis. When you come out of the airport you will see a sign saying ‘Taxi Meter – 100 metres’. Phuket 83000. Ask the driver to drop you off at the Tavorn Hotel. You may be able to obtain better deals by negotiating the price. we've compiled a list of some of the accommodation available near our Phuket training centre. This can be a long journey as the minibus stops just before you get to town and passengers are subjected to a sales pitch for hotels around Phuket. Prices are sometimes lower during the low season (May-October). check to ensure your taxi has seat belts installed when you get in and then wear them. there are many cheap good quality guest houses. Check that the driver switches the meter on! For your own safety.

This guest house boasts a laundry service.doc . Thailand Tel: 66-76-218424 or 66-76-354833 Just around the corner from the training centre and with an attached restaurant and internet café (20 Baht per hour). 121 A small apartment-like establishment situated about 5 minutes from the training centre. 3 Fax: 66-76-230053 ext. 2008TKT. Phuket 83000. Muang.Tel: 66-76-222600 or 66-76-223056 or 66-76-223042 Fax: 66-76-222603 Email: info@rattanabeach.com URL: www. All rooms come with TV. double fan rooms at 350 Baht per night. Prices start at 700 Baht for a twin room and 850 Baht per night for a double. There is also a restaurant in the lobby area. Rattana Mansion offers nice. Phuket 83000. Phuket 83000. Thailand Tel: 66-76-213951 or 66-76-216428 Fax: 66-76-213884 Email: daengplazahotel@hotmail. radio.21 - . Different types of rooms are available starting with single fan rooms at 250 Baht per night (300 Baht if you want a TV). Rooms start from 300 Baht a night for a fan room and 450 Baht a night for an air-con room. an internet café (20 baht per hour) and is very near to a large second-hand bookshop. clean and well equipped rooms. Thailand Tel: 66-76-230041-2 or 66-76-230050 ext. On On Hotel Address: 19 Phang Nga Road. There are different types of room available at the On On: a Single room with fan but no bathroom goes for 140 Baht a night. Thailand Tel: 66-76-211154 or 66-76-225740 or 66-76-225741 One of the first guest houses in Phuket.com URL: www. Nana Chart Mansion Address: 41/34 Montri Road. Phuket 83000.com Located near the two biggest department store complexes in Phuket town (Robinson and Ocean) and about a ten minute walk to the training centre.phukettoday. Muang. air-con singles at 400 Baht per night and air-con doubles at 450 Baht per night. Muang. and based in an old style Chinese shop house.rattanabeach. established in 1929. a coffee shop and restaurant. Muang.com/daengplaza Description: Reasonable mid-level type hotel located about 3 minutes away from the ECC training centre. a double with fan and bathroom costs 280 Baht per night and an air-con double with bathroom costs 380 Baht per night. IDD and a refrigerator. Mid-Level Hotels Daeng Plaza Hotel Address: 57 Phuket Road. Holiday Plaza Address: 174 Phuket Road. a single with fan and bathroom goes for 200 Baht a night. the Holiday Plaza offers basic accommodation. The air-con rooms come with a TV and a fridge.

fitness centres and internet cafes. Thailand Tel: 66-76-212311 Fax: 66-76-212894 Email: reservation@imperialphuket. air conditioning in all rooms.000 Baht per night for a standard double or single room.imperialphuket. Imperial Hotel Address: 51 Phuket Road. clean hotel in the mid-level range. a deluxe twin or double costs from 850-950 Baht and a suite costs 1. Muang.in.600 Baht per month). Thailand Tel: 66-76-215050 or 66-76-214020-9 Fax: 66-76-215990 Email: metropole@phuketinternet.000 Baht per month.phukettoday. Thailand Tel: 66-76-211941 or 66-76-212936 or 66-76-216294 Fax: 66-76-212849 Email: montree@e-mail. This is a basic mid-level Thai hotel.g.com URL: www. Taladyai. Breakfast isn’t included in the price and there is a government tax charge of 11%. Prices vary depending on the type of room you choose. for 30 Baht. you can get the standard twin room for 550 Baht per night.doc .co. Prices start from 280 Baht per night for a standard room with fan rising to 450 Baht per night for a standard air-con room. They do a monthly deal on the air-con rooms (12. cable TV.500 Baht per month. Deals are also available on the other room types as long as you let them know you are from ECC.22 - . For guests staying longer than 10 nights deduct 50 Baht per night from the above prices. the Imperial is a small. A standard twin or double costs from 650-750 Baht.com Description: Situated two minutes away from the training centre. The price for a standard room is 550 Baht per night. Muang. swimming pool. 83000.Prices start at 1. restaurants.th URL: www. Hotels – Top End The hotels in this category have all the facilities you would expect from 3-5 star establishments e. Phuket Montree Resotel Address: 12/6 Montree Road. Tavorn Hotel Address: 74 Rasada Road. It could be rather noisy.th 2008TKT. Thailand Tel: 66-76-211333-5 Fax: 66-76-215559 This hotel is located directly opposite the training centre and is also the oldest hotel in Phuket town. The Metropole Hotel Phuket Address: 1 Soi Surin. Muang.com/montreeresotel About a 10 minute walk from the training centre and close to O’Malley’s Irish Pub and Restaurant. You can visit the Phuket museum. Phuket 83000. If you let them know you are training with ECC. Phuket 83000. which is located within the hotel.500 Baht per night. Has a small coffee corner located in the lobby and a laundry service is available. They offer a monthly deal of 12. Phuket. Phuket 83000. They have an annex called ‘Budget Hotel’ where you can get a fan room for 4. Montri Road.

Phuket 83000. They also offer a monthly rate of 45. Thailand Tel: 66-76-211044 Fax: 66-76-212911 Email: pearlhkt@loxinfo.000 Baht per night for a single (or 2.com Description: The Metropole is a deluxe hotel with all the facilities you’d expect. Royal Phuket City Hotel Address: 154 Phang-Nga Road.550 Baht for a single.500 Baht for a twin) and the price doesn’t include breakfast.23 - .com Description: Another top end hotel with all the usual facilities including a spa. Prices are 3. Phuket 83000. Prices start at 2.royalphuketcity.000 Baht per night for a single room (3. You need to add a 10% service charge and 7% VAT to the above prices.phuket. Prices don’t include breakfast but carry a 10% service charge and 7% VAT. Pearl Hotel Address: 42 Montri Road. 1.650 for a double/twin room.metropolephuket.th URL: www. Prices start at 1.400 with breakfast). Guests staying at the Pearl also get to use the facilities of the Pearl Village on Ni Yang Beach.com/pearlhotel Description: Another top end hotel with all the usual facilities plus a rooftop Chinese restaurant and a very inviting swimming pool.doc .co. 2008TKT. The usual 10% service charge and 7% VAT applies here.000 Baht without breakfast. Muang.URL: www.com URL: www. Thailand Tel: 66-76-233333 Fax: 66-76-233335 Email: hotel@royalphuketcity.

Appendix D Contact Details - Bangkok
We can be contacted by email, phone, fax or "snail mail", via any of the addresses
below. Telephone charges to and from Thailand can be quite expensive, so we
recommend using electronic form where you can. If you would like to call us, our office
hours are 9:00am to 6:00pm. Thailand standard time is 7 hours ahead of GMT.

General and employment enquiries
ECC (Thailand) Big C Rajdamri
5th Floor, 97/11 Rajdamri Road,
Lumpini, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330
Tel. +66 (2) 253 3312 Fax.
Email: jobs@ecc.ac.th (job enquiries
only)

If calling from within Thailand, due to
new numbering systems you must
include the 02 area code regardless of
which province you are calling from.

Teacher training enquiries
Teacher Training Centre – Big C
Rajdamri
5th Floor, 97/11 Rajdamri Road,
Lumpini, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330
Tel: +66 2 655 1236-7
Fax: +66 2 655 1237 (24 Hour voice,
fax and answering machine)
Email: tesol@ecc.ac.th

International enquiries
From outside Thailand, it may be
faster and cheaper to contact us for
job or teacher training enquiries via
our international fax service:
UK Fax Number: +44 (870) 161 1256
US Fax Number: +1 (425) 930 5421

2008TKT.doc

- 24 -

Big C Rajdamri Branch Map
Our Big C Rajdamri branch is most easily reached by taking the skytrain (BTS) to the
Chidlom station. After disembarking the skytrain, walk to exit 1, and then head down
to the Ratchaprasong Intersection. Turn right at the intersection and walk up the road
until you come to Big C. We are on the fifth floor.
When attending a training course at ECC Big C Rajdamri, you will need to enter the
building from the side entrance. This can be found on the right hand side of the
building (looking from the front of the building). Just take the lift here to the 5th floor.

2008TKT.doc

- 25 -

Appendix E Contact Details – Phuket
Teacher training enquiries
Teacher Training Centre – Phuket
ECC (Thailand) Phuket, 73/1-2 Rasada Road, Taladyai, Muang, Phuket 83000
Thailand.
Telephone: 66-76-214498, 66-76-219062-3
Fax: 66-76-215933
Email: celtaphuket@ecc.ac.th

Phuket Branch Map
Our Phuket branch is most easily reached by taking either the limousine service (400
Baht) or the minibus (100 Baht) from the airport into town. There are also ‘Taxi
Meters’ available costing 100 Baht airport surcharge and the fare on the meter. Ask
the driver to drop you at the Tavorn Hotel in Phuket City and you’ll see ECC directly
opposite. From the bus station ask a Tuk Tuk or Songthaew driver to take you to the
Tavorn Hotel. You will need to negotiate the fare before the journey commences
(price range 20-50 Baht).

2008TKT.doc

- 26 -

University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations Teaching Knowledge Test Glossary ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 © UCLES 2009 .

Adverb An adverb describes or gives more information about how. possessive adjective. and also that the list of grammar items in this section is not exhaustive.g. e. The continuous aspect.TKT GLOSSARY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT) TERMINOLOGY The words in this glossary are entered into categories to help the reader. Other terms may also appear in TKT. They went to Spain last year. demonstrative adjective. e. therefore. whether it is repetitive or not. e. when. e. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 © UCLES 2009 . See passive voice. The list is indicative only.com Auxiliary verb An auxiliary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make questions. There are two aspects in English. I was at (-) home in the sitting room when I heard a noise. or to what degree etc something is done.g. Candidates preparing for specific modules should. John’s house. MODULE 1 Concepts and terminology for describing language GRAMMAR Please note that you should refer to a grammar reference book for more detailed information about the grammar items in this Glossary. be. Some entries fall into more than one category. e. where. Aspect A way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time.g. whether it is complete or not. indefinite (a/an) or zero (-). whether it is long or short. -ing/-ed adjective. the subject of the verb usually does or causes the action. Article An article can be definite (the). Apostrophe A punctuation mark (’). have.g.g. The car hit the tree. the continuous/progressive and the perfect. superlative adjective. Active voice In an active sentence.g. negatives. ‘At’ symbol A punctuation mark (@) used instead of ‘at’ in email addresses.g. tenses. whether it is connected to the time of speaking or not. go. The ’ is added to a singular noun before an s to show that something belongs to someone. to economise on space they have only been entered once. a cold day. for example. See comparative adjective. e. suggests that something is happening temporarily. e. However. Aspect relates to the type of event.g. Adjective An adjective describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun. john@yahoo. e. Base form of a verb The base form of a verb is the infinitive form of a verb without ‘to’. Capital letter A letter of the form and size used at the beginning of a sentence or a name. etc e. he worked quickly and well.g. e.g. do. ensure that they are familiar with all the terms in the glossary.

Demonstrative adjective A demonstrative adjective shows whether something is near or far from the speaker.g. e. Dependent preposition A dependent preposition is a word that is always used with a particular noun.g. object. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 © UCLES 2009 . e. Subordinate clause When the teacher arrived. oranges. Conditional (forms) A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation. depend on. phrases. Relative clause The learners who were sitting near the front stood up. e. e.g. a headache. the police. Demonstrative pronoun A demonstrative pronoun is a word which refers to a noun (phrase) and shows whether it is near or far from the speaker. e.g. I met my friend. e. If I’d arrived refers to the past and I wouldn’t have to wait refers to the present. I wouldn’t have to wait now. that (far). Main clause When the teacher arrived. Conjunction A conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words. the learners stopped talking. bookÆ books. e. e.g. Second conditional – refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossible or unlikely. I will come if I can. e. When I went to the market. this. e. which are used as a single word. Mixed conditional – is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence. this (near). I would have seen her if I had arrived earlier (but I didn’t so I couldn’t). I bought some apples. Connector: see conjunction. clauses or sentences. the government.g. e. Compound noun A compound noun is a combination of two or more words.g. I like tea but I don’t like coffee because it’s too strong for me. those.g.g. the learners stopped talking. bananas and lemons. Comma A punctuation mark (. e. If I’d arrived on time.g. Countable noun A countable noun has a singular and plural form.Clause A clause generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject and any other elements.g. these. Collective noun A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of people or things. e. He is taller than she is. e.g. Third conditional – refers to past situations that cannot be changed.g. a flower shop. that.) used to separate items in a list or to show where there is a pause in a sentence.g. Grammar books often mention four kinds of conditionals: First conditional – refers to present or future possible or likely situations. interested in. Comparative adjective A comparative adjective compares two things. Complex sentence A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. I would go if they asked me. A clause can be a full sentence or a part of a sentence. bored with. verb or adjective before another word.

e. question and reported speech. Indirect object: see object. e. function or lexical set. Imperative The form of a verb that gives an order or instruction. Infinitive The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with ‘to’. e. e.’. or to give information about quantity. e. Full stop A punctuation mark (.g. See direct speech. ‘It’s difficult to understand . It is used after another verb. Future forms Future with going to I’m going to visit my aunt on Sunday. Future with present continuous He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow. He said.g. question. asked Peter.g.g. Indirect speech. a. See indirect speech. e. 'I want to stud y . Turn to page 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 © UCLES 2009 . ‘I was wondering if you could help me. Direct object: see object. and the parts which combine to make it. e. some.g. ‘What do you mean. statement. and includes words such as the. (Grammatical) structure. e.00 next Saturday. It will be lovely and sunny tomorrow.g. question The actual words someone says. ‘My name is Ron. I hate shopping. question. statement.g. which ends in -ing. I went to the lesson to learn English.Determiner A determiner is used to make clear which noun is referred to. That car is mine. An indirect question can also be used when someone wants to ask something in a more polite way.) used at the end of a sentence. He told me his name was Ron.g.g. Direct speech. ’. after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence. Exclamation mark A punctuation mark (!) written after an exclamation. Be careful! Exponent An example of a grammar point. e. ’ Infinitive of purpose This is used to express why something is done. Peter asked Sue what she meant. Future with present simple The plane leaves at 9.g. my. It’s going to rain. Sue?’.g. Gerund. have + past participle. -ing form A form of a verb functioning as a noun. this. First conditional: see conditional forms. I like chocolate.g. present perfect simple. e. e. form A grammatical structure is a grammatical language pattern. that. e.’ (indirect question) instead of ‘Could you help me?’ (direct question). Future with will or shall I’ll help with the cleaning. question and reported speech. question The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody else said or asked.

The book is very interesting. See collective noun. look after. Past continuous. e. I went out. She never cried. Participle (past and present) –ed and –ing forms of the verb.g. He gave the book to me. I haven’t seen him today. An indirect object is an object affected by a verb but not directly acted on. school.g. They include can. Past perfect continuous. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 © UCLES 2009 . e. go Æ went (past simple) Æ gone (past participle). Object pronoun An object pronoun is a word which replaces an object noun or an object noun phrase.g. uncountable noun. should. e. e. e. I can speak French. I saw Mary in the classroom.g. Interrogative A question form. must. Each irregular verb has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle.g. him. Intransitive Is used to describe a verb which does not take a direct object. elephant. An -ed adjective describes feelings. countable noun. girl. progressive I was watching TV all evening. her. e. e. often an adverb or preposition which does not change its form when used in a sentence. compound noun. I’m very tired. plural noun. an interesting film (present participle). after is a particle. Modal verb A modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or obligation or possibility. progressive In a passive sentence.g. See active voice. Noun A person. e. Past perfect simple After I had phoned Mary. grass. Past simple I went on holiday to France last year. e. See subject.g.g.g.g. Main clause: see clause. e. The tree was hit by the car.-ing/-ed adjective An -ing/-ed adjective describes things or feelings.g. He’s much taller than his brother. Passive voice. See transitive. e. e. e. they are often used to make tenses or adjectives. A direct object is the main object of a transitive verb. Intensifier A word used to make the meaning of another word stronger. something is done to or happens to the subject of the verb. Irregular verb An irregular verb does not follow the same pattern as regular verbs. but I should study even harder. An -ing adjective describes things or people. Object This is a noun or phrase that describes the thing or person that is affected by the action of a verb. will. progressive I had been studying for three hours so I felt tired.g. singular noun. place or thing. In this sentence. (past participle) Particle A small grammatical word. I am very interested in the book.g. the book is the direct object and me is an indirect object. proper noun.

Punctuation The symbols or marks used to organise writing into clauses. my. Possessive adjective A possessive adjective shows who something belongs to. object pronoun.g. e. Also a group of words that together have a particular meaning. e. me (object pronoun). Robert. the green car. you. progressive: see tense. which are used instead of the name of that person. on Friday morning are phrases.g. He was in the garden. progressive: see tense. See demonstrative pronoun.g.g.). Present perfect simple I have known him for a long time. possessive pronoun.g. Present continuous. I don’t have much time. Preposition A word used before a noun. I. e. he. pronoun or gerund to connect it to another word. boys. place or thing and can be regular or irregular.g. they. Personal pronoun Personal pronouns are words. I (subject pronoun). e. reflexive pronoun. Possessive ‘s’ and whose Ways of showing or asking who something belongs to. e. Phonology noun. Second person – the person spoken to.g. e. Present simple and continuous. women. progressive I have been studying for three years. phrases and sentences to make the meaning clear. e.g. Proper noun A proper noun is the name of a person or place.g. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 © UCLES 2009 . we. personal pronoun. Possessive pronoun A possessive pronoun is used to replace a noun and shows something belongs to someone.g. full stop (. Phrase A group of words often without a finite verb that do not form a sentence. e. question mark (?).g. she. capital letter (A). e. London.g. apostrophe (‘). ‘at’ symbol (@) and speech marks (“ ”). I have a lot of books. Quantifier A word or phrase such as much. few or a lot of which is used with a noun to show an amount.Person First person – the person speaking.). Third person – the person spoken about. Pronoun A word that replaces or refers to a noun or noun phrase just mentioned. Plural noun A plural noun is more than one person. Present perfect simple and continuous. the house is mine. ‘Whose book is it?’ ‘It’s Sue’s’. e. exclamation mark (!). e. progressive I am working in London now. Present continuous. phonological adjective The study of sounds in a language or languages. e. our. comma (. Present perfect continuous. progressive for future He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.g. relative pronoun. e.

past perfect continuous/progressive. Superlative adjective A superlative adjective compares more than two things.Question mark A punctuation mark (?) used in writing after a question. present continuous/progressive. future with present simple. See object. e.g. Speech marks Punctuation mark (“ ”) They are written before and after a word or a sentence to show that it is what someone said. present or future. See indirect speech. then it is wrong because there is no subject-verb agreement. e. statement. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 © UCLES 2009 . Tense A form of the verb that shows whether something happens in the past. How are you? Question tag A phrase such as isn’t it? or doesn’t he? that is added to the end of a sentence to make it a question. Sarah”. reported speech to report what someone has said. park. e. e. suggest used in indirect. I walk. Time expression A word or phrase that indicates time.g. He is the tallest boy in the class.g. e. e. e. present perfect continuous/progressive.g. e. Subordinate clause: see clause. Transitive Is used to describe a verb which takes a direct object. such as after. the food was cooked yesterday. he walks.g. Reporting verb A verb such as tell. Jane advised John to study harder. Third conditional: see conditional (forms). e.g. Second conditional: see conditional (forms). e. See future with going to.g. He cut himself. It’s very cold. Reported speech. walk Æ walked.g.g. or who the action is done to in a passive sentence. She said she was sorry. or to check that someone agrees with the statement just made. boy. past simple. bicycle. e. Relative clause: see clause. John said “Hello. Subject This is the noun or phrase that goes before the verb to show who is doing the action in an active sentence. question.g. Singular noun A singular noun is one person.g. past continuous/progressive. advise.g. place or thing. the book which I’m reading is interesting. future with present continuous. present perfect simple. last weekend. past perfect simple. e. question When someone’s words are reported by another person. e.g. She wrote a letter. e. Relative pronoun A relative pronoun introduces a relative clause.g. e. Subject-verb agreement When the form of the verb matches the person doing the action of the verb. If a learner writes I walks.g. isn’t it? Reflexive pronoun A reflexive pronoun is used when the object of a sentence refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence. Regular verb A regular verb changes its forms by adding -ed in the past simple and past participle. John plays tennis every Saturday. I will meet you after the lesson.

where.g when certain verbs collocate with particular prepositions. you do not buy books but borrow them instead. False friend A word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the same meaning as a similar word in the learners’ first language but does not. interviewer. Wh.g. whom. Collocations may also be lexical when two content words are regularly used together. regular verb. information. In French ‘librairie’ is a place where people can buy books. irregular verb. e. Where do you live? I live in France. e. Used to A structure that shows something happened in the past but does not happen now. Wh. Collocation Words which are regularly used together. bit (past tense of ‘bite’) and a bit (a little). Verb A word used to show an action. state. e. I like cheese. when. interview. See prefix.g. I bought a new book. hot is an antonym of cold. which. Base word: see root word. e. See auxiliary verb. base form of a verb.g. He advised me to get there early. whose. Wh.questions start with a wh. affixation noun A meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word. e. phrasal verbs.g.questions and indirect questions. suffix. Affixation is the process of adding a prefix or suffix to a word. Verb pattern The form of the words following the verb. which can be a different part of speech from the original word. e. e.g. verbs. In a library in English. collocations. infinitive.g. Homophone A word which sounds the same as another word. e. but now I live in Paris.word Wh. Compound Nouns.g. The relation between the words may be grammatical. e. in which the meaning of the whole word group is different from the meaning of each individual word. long-legged. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 © UCLES 2009 . good at or when a verb like make or do collocates with a noun.g.questions expect information in reply. Chunk Any pair or group of words commonly found together or near one another.g.g. but has a different meaning or spelling. We went the wrong way NOT We went the incorrect way. She felt under the weather means that she felt ill. Idiom noun. adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two or more words and have one unit of meaning.g. e. depend on. not just yes or no. event or process. e.words introduce wh. I used to live in London.g. e. e. modal verb. e. idioms. (advise + object pronoun + to + base form). I knew he had won. e. do the shopping. but which has a different meaning. idiomatic adjective A group of words that are used together.g. make a plan. Homonym A word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word. Wh. Antonym The opposite of another word. fixed expressions.word.g. what.words include who.question Wh. e.Uncountable noun An uncountable noun does not have a plural form. LEXIS Affix verb. He speaks Italian. assistant office manager.g.g. why. e.

e. Phrasal verb. weak forms. e.g. be on time. pronoun. Prefix A prefix is a meaningful group of letters added to the beginning of a root/base word to make a new word which can be a different part of speech from the original word. Suffix A suffix is a meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root or base word to make a new word which can be a different part of speech from the original word. e. Part of speech A way of categorising words according to their grammatical function and meaning. See contraction. nice is a synonym of pleasant.g. e. It was my AUNT who bought the car (not my uncle) or My aunt bought the CAKE (not the biscuits)! Contraction A shorter form of a group of words. you have = you’ve. e. it is = it’s. adverb. e. teeth etc. / aˆ / as in my is pronounced by moving from / æ / to / ˆ /. homework.Lexical set A group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or subject. e.g. noun. It involves stressing the important word according to the different meanings. a verb + adverb particle or preposition) which has a different meaning from each individual word. multi-word verb/unit A verb/any part of speech which is made up of more than one word (e. cloudy. economic or by topic (see lexical set). economy. Any letter of the English alphabet which represents these sounds. get dressed. tongue. e.g. base word The basic word or part of a word from which other words can be made by adding a prefix or suffix.g. photograph is the root or base word of photographer and photographic. Contrastive stress Contrastive stress is used to express an unusual or emphatic meaning in a sentence.g. Synonym A word which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. Word family A group of words that come from the same root or base word.g. e. Consonant A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips. care – careful. preposition. c  /k/. Is he busy  / ˆzi…bˆzi… /. look after – A mother looks after her children. vocabulary Individual words or sets of words. e. Vocabulary: see lexis. Contrast To compare the differences between two things.g.g.g. e. conjunction. stress. to rain. economist. e.g.g. whiteboard. See vowel.g. appear – disappear. verb. wind. Root word. PHONOLOGY Connected speech Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds. Diphthong A vowel combination which is pronounced by moving from one vowel to another. which usually occurs in auxiliary verbs.g. weather – storm. study. e. Lexis. e. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 © UCLES 2009 . adjective. linking.g. d  /d/. Multi-word verb: see phrasal verb. In connected speech some sounds in words may be left out or may be pronounced in a weak way.

Linking The way different sounds can link into each other in connected speech. not/lot. e. distinguish To identify the difference between two or more things. e. Words that sound similar because they have the same ending. I believe I can touch the sky. identify verb To recognise something. If I were YOU.g. it ’s a good day – / ˆtsW˝¨deˆ /. e. e. Emphasis noun. /»kÅntrW«v±…ßWl/ which has the primary or main stress on / v±… / and the secondary stress on / kÅn /. / kWn / in I can play tennis. Stress Primary.g. It is a feature of weak forms. /b/ in ban. Rhyme 1. Rhythm The rhythm of speech is the way that some words in a sentence are emphasised or stressed to produce a regular pattern. heat /hi…t /. 2. Secondary stress Stress on a syllable or word in a sentence that is less strong than the primary (main) stress. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 © UCLES 2009 . main stress The main stress on a word.g. emphasise verb.g. Phonemes have their own symbols (phonemic symbols). if they are angry or pleased or to make speech sound polite in English. The primary stress on a word is marked in the dictionary as follows 'difficult. e. of connected speech) A feature of something is an interesting or important part or characteristic of it. Main stress: see stress. cat.g. to show meaning such as how they feel about something. A song or poem with words that sound the same at the end of each line I believe I can fly.g. e. each of which represents one sound. Identification noun. Primary stress: see stress. / dÅktW / – doctor.g. Sentence stress: see stress. hat. e.g. Secondary stress: see stress. e. sound discrimination is hearing the differences between sounds.g. Phoneme The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning e. Feature (e.g. hit / hˆt / . I’d GO by BUS.g.g. e. e. Minimal pair Two words which are different from each other by only one meaningful sound.Discriminate. Schwa The / W / sound is called the schwa. e.g. e.g. indiVIDual. particularly minimal pairs. /p/ in pan. Intonation The way the level of a speaker’s voice changes. emphatic adjective When special force or attention is given to a word or information because it is important. DIFFicult. e. I want to start the lesson at SIX o’clock not seven o’clock. Phonemic transcription is used in dictionaries to show pronunciation. in I can play tennis can is pronounced / kWn / the weak form / W / is a feature of this sentence. Words can be presented in phonemic script (usually International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA). Intonation can be rising or falling or both.g.

the voice is used. In the sentence It was a lovely evening.g. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11 © UCLES 2009 . Movement or vibration can be felt in the throat. /p/ in pad. You must wear a seatbelt. Word stress: see stress. /d/ in dentist. e. Syllable A part of a word that usually contains a single vowel sound. then the strong form is used. See register.g.g. the weak form of vowels may be used. English and Spanish. Weak forms If a word is unstressed. is probably on the word perfect. Express obligation. Enquire To ask for information. umbrella / √m«brelW /. appropriate/inappropriate adjective Language which is suitable in a particular situation.g. OK? Decline. I’m planning to visit him next year. e. pen = one syllable. Appropriacy noun. /b/ in bad. I’m sorry but I can’t. replying. e. Colloquial Language normally used in informal conversation but not in formal speech or writing. The letters a. e.g. Word stress is the pronunciation of a syllable with more force or emphasis than the surrounding syllables which are said to be unstressed. when spoken.g. FUNCTIONS Candidates should already be familiar with common functions such as asking. and the temperature was perfect. I can (/ kWn /) speak Italian. What time does the train leave? Express To show or make known a feeling or an opinion in words. i. Vowels in English are voiced. /t/ in tomorrow. Express intention. teacher = two syllables – teach/er. Give Gran a ring.g.g. Word boundary Where one word ends and the next one begins. The sound / W / is called schwa. to emphasise a particular point or feeling. e. Strong form If a word is important. I can /kaen/ speak a little Spanish in an emergency.g. refuse an invitation To say that you will not accept an invitation. e. o. No movement or vibration can be felt in the throat. He needs to get a new passport.g. especially in connected speech. Movement or vibration is felt in the throat because the voice is used. e. u and sometimes y are used to represent these sounds. In English these are usually the information-carrying words. umbrella = three syllables – um/brell/a. See weak form. See strong form. I can swim.g. e.Sentence stress refers to the way some words in a sentence are stressed. Voiced sound To produce a voiced sound. French. teeth etc. Express necessity.g. Unvoiced sound To produce an unvoiced sound. no voice is used. e. telling.g. e. the main stress. and the pronunciation changes. lips. Vowel A sound in which the air is not blocked by the tongue. e. thanking and suggesting. e. e. Stress can therefore be used to show meaning. e. Express ability.

g. Predict To guess or say what you think may happen. Informal language Language used in informal conversations or writing. Please turn to page 12 and do exercise 1. This phrase is one way to make a suggestion. Yours faithfully. I think it might be an easy test.g. See register. See concrete. e. concrete concepts.g.g.g. e.g. You can have a look at my book. e. You mustn’t use your mobile phone while driving. It is appropriate for most situations. e. He should be in later. how are you? Inappropriate Language which is not suitable in a particular situation. Neutral A style of speaking or writing that is neither formal nor informal. Negotiate To discuss with someone to reach an agreement.g. I think the story will end happily. Express prohibition. e.Express permission.g.g. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 © UCLES 2009 . e.g. informal language. e. Formal language Language used in formal conversations or writing. words to express thoughts or feelings are often abstract words. e. often with words. Register The formality or informality of the language used in a particular situation.g. e. with family or friends.g. Request. Formal register or language is used in serious or important situations.g. Express probability. Please could you open the window? Speculate To guess something based on information you have. e. Express preference. Informal register or language is used in relaxed or friendly situations. e. Hello. e.g. Concepts and terminology for describing language skills Abstract Relating to complex thoughts and ideas rather than simple. make a (polite) request To ask someone politely to do something. giving advice. Hi John. See formal language. See register. in a job application.. Formality (level of): see register. See function. I’d rather have coffee than tea. Let’s . If you help me now.g. e. e. It is an example (or exponent) of the function of suggesting. I’ll help you next week. e.g. basic.g. See appropriacy. making a suggestion. A text or language can be abstract. Functional exponent A phrase which is an example of a function and shows the purpose of what the speaker is communicating. but in between.. e. Instruct To order or tell someone to do something. Informality (level of): see register. Greet To welcome someone. Function The reason or purpose for communication. e.

coherent adjective When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly. e. food. and so are logical and make sense to the listener or reader. animals that can be seen or touched. 2. referring words (it. In an accuracy activity. Extensive listening/reading Listening to or reading long pieces of text.g. The situation in which language is used or presented. which cannot be seen or touched. Coherence noun. secondly). feelings. of referencing words (pronouns – he. a story about a holiday experience could be used as the context to present past tenses. him. Extract Part of a text which is removed from an original text. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13 © UCLES 2009 . Van must be some kind of vehicle because you drive it and park it. Discourse Spoken or written language in texts or groups of sentences. Edit To shorten or change or correct the words or content of some parts of a written text to make it clearer or easier to understand. words for real objects like clothes.Accuracy The use of correct forms of grammar. coherent adjective When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly. cohesive adjective The way spoken or written texts are joined together with logical grammar or lexis. not simple. and may be changed. words to express thoughts. Cohesion noun. reading. Develop skills To help learners to improve their listening. Authenticity: see authentic material. vocabulary. of conjunctions (however. use of topic-related vocabulary throughout a text. or abstract. this). e. Concrete Relating to real or specific ideas or concepts. Deduce meaning from context To guess the meaning of an unknown word by using the information in a situation and/or around the word to help. etc. they write it for the first time but not exactly as it will be when it is finished. and so are logical and make sense to the listener or reader. lexical sets. spelling and pronunciation. Comprehension Understanding a spoken or written text. See re-draft. That is. I drove my van to the town centre and parked it in the central car park. e. Teachers do this in class by providing activities which focus on skills development. Draft noun + verb A draft is a piece of writing that is not yet finished.g.g. complex ideas.g. conjunctions (Firstly. Complex Complicated.). e. such as stories or newspapers. e. Lexis can be concrete. A writer drafts a piece of writing. Coherence noun.g.). See oral fluency. The words or phrases before or after a word in discourse which help someone to understand that word. after that etc. although etc. e.). them. writing and speaking ability.g. Cohesive device A feature in a text which provides cohesion. Context 1. See intensive listening/reading. See deduce meaning from context. teachers and learners typically focus on using and producing language. spelling correctly. of sequencing words (then. next.

In a written or spoken fluency activity. Listen/read for detail To listen to or read a text in order to understand most of what it says or particular details. he/she is creating paragraphs. global listening/reading: see listen/read for gist/global understanding. Infer attitude. fossilised errors The process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be corrected. listening and speaking. global understanding To understand the general meaning of a text. writing. Paraphrase can also be used to describe what a learner does if he/she is not sure of the exact language they need to use. rather than from what they openly say. eye contact. use of gestures. This is how intensive listening/reading is used in TKT. learners typically give attention to the communication of meaning. to keep people involved and interested in what is said or to keep communication going. interact verb. Paraphrase noun + verb To say or write something that has been read or heard using different words. repetition or self-correction. or reader and text. which is important for understanding the text. interactive strategies Interaction is ‘two-way communication’ between listener and speaker. especially in speaking. feeling. See infer attitude. rather than trying to be correct. This makes it easier for them to understand what they read or hear. Note-taking noun. Interaction noun.g. predict verb A technique or learner strategy learners can use to help with listening or reading. Key word A word in a piece of discourse or text. See accuracy. mood To decide how a writer or speaker feels about something from the way that they speak or write. without paying attention to specific details. Process noun + verb To actively think about new information in order to understand it completely and be able to use it in future. functions such as repeating. i. It starts on a new line and usually contains a single new idea. Oral fluency The use of connected speech at a natural speed with little hesitation. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14 © UCLES 2009 . See topic sentence. explain their meaning using different language. Layout The way in which a text is organised and presented on a page. feeling. Learners think about the topic before they read or listen. Listen/read for gist. Intensive listening/reading One meaning of intensive listening/reading is reading or listening to focus on how language is used in a text. e. When a writer is paragraphing.g. Certain texts have special layouts. take notes verb To take notes means to listen and write down ideas from the text in short form. e. letters and newspaper articles. See extensive listening/reading. Gist. Listen/read for mood To read or listen to a text in order to identify the feelings of the writer or speaker. Paragraph noun + verb A paragraph is a section in a longer piece of writing such as an essay. They try to imagine what the topic will be or what they are going to read about or listen to. Interactive strategies are the means used.e. using clues like headlines or pictures accompanying the text or their general knowledge about the text type or topic. asking for clarification.Fossilisation. mood. Integrated skills An integrated skills lesson combines work on reading. Prediction noun.

Productive skills When learners produce language. an essay typically has an introduction. a written text may have different versions. punctuation etc. See listen/read for gist. Text structure The way a text is organised. layout. a main section and a conclusion. Speaking and then allowing another person to speak in reply is called ‘turn-taking’. scan.g. A writer’s first draft may be re-drafted. Relevance noun. e. grammar. Summary noun. listen/read for detail. Theme noun. editing. Receptive skills When learners do not have to produce language. proofreading. emails. Version A particular form of something in which some details are different from an earlier or later form of it. reading and writing. e. a text or a lesson. drafting. Re-draft When a piece of writing is changed with the intention of improving it. Text type Texts that have specific features. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15 © UCLES 2009 . news reports.Process writing An approach to writing. Scan To read a text quickly to pick out specific information. See process writing. guided writing. Topic The subject of a text or lesson. relevant adjective The degree to which something is related to or useful in a situation. use of language.g. See product writing.g. e. See productive skills. letters. See receptive skills. speaking. summarise verb To take out the main points of a long text. re-drafting. Product writing An approach to writing which involves analysing and then reproducing models of particular text types. Proofread To read a text in order to check whether there are any mistakes in spelling. Subskill Each of the four language skills can be divided into smaller subskills that are all part of the main skill. Speaking and writing are productive skills. This is usually the opening sentence in a paragraph. clear way. turn-taking When someone speaks in a conversation this is called a turn. See draft. identifying word stress (listening). For example. Skim To read a text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about. Topic sentence A sentence that gives the main point or subject of a paragraph. e. listening and reading are receptive skills. Skill The four language skills are listening. thematic adjective The main subject of a conversation. finding a phone number in a phone book. that make them part of a recognisable type of text. and rewrite or retell them in a short. which thinks of writing as a process which includes different stages of writing such as planning.g. identifying text organisation (reading). global understanding. Turn. e.g.

Conscious (of) To know that something exists or is happening. L1/L2. e. Error A mistake that a learner makes when trying to say something above their level of language or language processing. achieve verb. the factors which decide whether someone learns a language successfully or not. understanding or learning. confident adjective The feeling someone has when they are sure of their ability to do something well. Expectation A belief about the way something will happen.g. something done successfully. Cognitive (processes) The mental processes involved in thinking. This is the way people usually learn their first language. First language: see mother tongue.Background to language learning Achievement noun. a teacher could give the first letter of a word she is trying to elicit as a clue to learners to help them find the word. Attention span How long a learner is able to concentrate at any one time. Auditory learner: see learning style.g. Teachers often do activities that help learners to feel more confident about their own ability. Exposure noun. Demotivate: see motivation. I goed there last week (I went there last week). Developmental error: see error. acquire verb To learn a language without studying it. e. Confidence noun. Learners often have expectations about what and how they should learn. English-medium school A school in a non-English speaking country. Clue A piece of information that helps someone to find the answer to a problem. e. in which all subjects are taught using English. See slip.g. A developmental error is an error made by a second language learner which could also be made by a young person learning their mother tongue as part of their normal development. to be aware. Factor A fact or situation which influences the result of something. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 © UCLES 2009 . Acquisition noun. just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. expose verb When learners listen to or read language without being consciously aware of it. achievable adjective Something reached by effort. Something which is achievable for learners is something they can succeed in. Effective Having the intended or desired result. or to have knowledge or experience of something.

L2 is the learner’s second language. L1.g. Language awareness A learner’s understanding of the rules of how language works and his/her ability to notice language. independent learners. target An aim that a learner or teacher may have. Learning strategies The techniques which a learner consciously uses to help them when learning or using language. Learner autonomy noun. Many activities in coursebooks help learners to be more independent by developing learning strategies and focusing on learner training. Intensive course A course which takes place over a short period of time. e.g. A learner may make a mistake because they use the same grammatical pattern in the target language as they use in their mother tongue. Guidance noun. Ignore (errors) To choose not to pay attention to something such as an error made by a learner. Learner training The use of activities to help learners understand how they learn and help them to become autonomous. but which consists of a high number of hours. guide verb Help given by a teacher with learning. Interlanguage is constantly changing and developing as learners learn more of the second language. Interlanguage Learners’ own version of the second language which they speak as they learn. Kinaesthetic learner: see learning style. or with doing a task. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17 © UCLES 2009 .g. This could be done at home or with minimum involvement of the teacher in class. e. past learning experience. e. deducing the meaning of words from context. books.Focus on form Paying attention to the words/parts of words that make a language structure or to spelling or pronunciation. Independent study Studying without a teacher present or without the teacher monitoring and directing the learning very closely. Learner independence: see learner autonomy. learner independence When a learner can set his/her own aims and organise his/her own study. ‘Learn by heart’ To learn something so that you can remember it perfectly. learners could carry out research on a topic using reference resources. Learning resources The materials or tools which help learners learn. autonomous adjective. but the L1 grammatical pattern is not appropriate in L2. CDs etc. e. age.g. Interference When the learner’s mother tongue affects their performance in the target language. Goal. they are autonomous and independent. computers. not accuracy. Learner characteristics The typical things about a learner or learners that influence their learning. learning style. A teacher may do this if he/she wants to help the learner with fluency. L1/L2 L1 is the learner’s mother tongue or first language. predicting content before reading.

proficient adjective Level of ability. This type of learner may like the teacher to say a new word aloud and not just write it on the board. Personalisation noun. texts or grammar to their own life. Participation noun. participate verb To take part in something. This type of learner may like the teacher to write a new word on the board and not just say it aloud. or the conditions they need to help them learn. Mother tongue The very first language that you learn as a baby. personalise verb When a teacher helps a learner to connect new words. Maturity noun. If a learner is mature in attitude. Demotivate verb demotivated adjective To make someone lose motivation. Kinaesthetic learner A learner who learns more easily by doing things physically.Learning style The way in which an individual learner naturally prefers to learn something. they behave in an adult way. language skills or learning strategies a learner still has to learn in order to reach their goals.g. Pick up To learn language without studying it. Motivation noun. Linguistic Connected with language or the study of language. mature adjective Fully grown or developed. e. just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. A learner’s maturity (physical. Notice language When a learner becomes aware of the language the speaker or writer uses to express a particular concept or meaning. emotional and mental) influences a teacher’s approaches and/or decisions. Auditory learner A learner who remembers things more easily when they hear them spoken. Proficiency noun. Also called L1 or first language. There are many learning styles. Some language items are learned before others and it can be difficult for teachers to influence this order. Unmotivated adjective Without motivation. having no motivation. This type of learner may like to move around or move objects while learning. See acquisition. Visual learner A learner who finds it easier to learn when they can see things written down or in a picture. Natural order Some people believe there is an order in which learners naturally learn some items in their first or other languages. which is usually the language spoken to you by your parents. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18 © UCLES 2009 . Memorise verb. to be very good at something because of training and practice. Literacy The ability to read and write.g. a lesson or classroom activity. topics. speaking English. Needs The language. Three of them are below. motivate verb Motivation is the thoughts and feelings which make us want to do something and help us continue doing it. memorable adjective To learn something so that you can remember it later. e. something which is easy to remember.

An example of this is the English spoken in the USA and that spoken in the UK.g. Target language The language a learner is learning.g.Silent period The time when learners who are beginning to learn a first (or second) language prefer to listen (or read) before producing the language. e. but the English spoken may be slightly or significantly different in each country or in different parts of one country. or the specific language that a teacher wants to focus on in a lesson. present perfect. English. e.g. Target language culture The traditions and culture of the country whose language is being studied. Visual learner: see learning style. Work language out When learners try to understand how and why a particular piece of language is used. e. See error. Varieties of English English is spoken as a first or second language in many countries around the world. different vocabulary or grammar may be used. Slip When a learner makes a language mistake that they are able to correct themselves.g. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19 © UCLES 2009 . babies have a silent period when they listen to their parents before starting to try to speak themselves. Unmotivated: see motivation. e.

Content-based learning An approach to teaching that focuses on teaching content. define verb An explanation of the meaning of a word.g. A short activity between the main stages of a lesson used for reasons such as time management or to provide a change of pace etc.Background to language teaching PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES. Concept questions. e. concept checking A concept question is a question asked by the teacher to make sure that a learner has understood the meaning of new language.g. 2. e.g. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20 © UCLES 2009 . e. erm. Definition noun. It aims to develop learners’ ability in both the content subject and the language. APPROACHES AND INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Activity-based learning A way of learning by doing activities. ah. See Grammar-Translation method. in a dictionary. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) An approach in which a foreign language is used as a tool in the learning of a non-language subject in which both have a joint role. See communicative approaches. See set the scene. The rules of language used in the activity are looked at either after the activity or not at all. Filler 1. Guided discovery A way of teaching in which a teacher provides examples of the target language and then guides the learners to work out the language rules for themselves. context. A teacher presents a grammar rule and vocabulary lists and then learners translate a written text from their own language into the second language or vice versa. he/she asks targeted questions or gives clues to get learners to give the information. They do not practise communication and there is little focus on speaking. which is used to convey meaning. e. hand. Concept question – Does he live in Paris now? Answer – No. Concept Idea or meaning. Teachers try to focus on meaningful communication. rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes. Gesture noun + verb A movement with part of the body. well Functional Approach A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on functions. a task followed by drilling. Concept checking is the technique of asking concept questions or using other techniques to check that learners have understood a new structure or item of lexis. Communicative approaches A way of teaching and practising language which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully involves communication rather than just memorising a series of rules. Eclectic An approach to language teaching in which the teacher uses techniques and activities taken from different methods together in one lesson. Words/sounds used to avoid pauses when speaking.g.g. rather than giving the class the information.g. Grammar-Translation method A way of teaching in which learners study grammar and translate words and texts into their own language or the target language. Elicit When a teacher thinks that some learners will know a piece of language or some information. e. a school subject in the second language. the new language structure – used to – He used to live in Paris. e. Contextualise To put new language into a situation that shows what it means. head.

e. Methodology Methods or procedures used in a particular activity. e. often by using the board and speaking to the whole class. When the teacher introduces new language usually by focusing on it formally. multi-word units. which is used to help learners to pronounce particular language. Lexical Approach A way of teaching language that focuses on lexical items or chunks such as words. Illustrate meaning To show what something means. Teaching strategy A procedure or technique used by a teacher in the classroom to encourage learning. Situational presentation A way of presenting new language through a simple story or situation. The teacher may use pictures or other aids to help him/her create the situation. Presentation noun.g. an activity can be meaningful if it is useful for learners in the real world outside the classroom or is relevant to them. teaching. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 21 © UCLES 2009 . Meaningful 1.g. 2. e. 2. Practice and Production (PPP) A way of teaching new language in which the teacher presents the language. Input noun + verb Information which is given to learners by the teacher. Introductory activity An activity which takes place at the beginning of a lesson. When a learner or learners gives a talk to their class or group. Presentation. Task-based Learning (TBL) A way of teaching in which the teacher gives learners meaningful tasks to do. gets learners to practise it in exercises or other controlled practice activities and then asks learners to use or produce the same language in a communicative and less controlled way. e. present verb 1.Ice-breaker An introductory activity that a teacher uses at the start of a new course so that learners can get to know each other. Technique A way of achieving a purpose. Project work is often task-based.g. but the main focus for learners is on the task itself. Introductory activities often include warmers and lead-ins.g. collocations and fixed expressions rather than grammatical structures. Structural Approach A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on grammatical structures. The order in which the language is presented is usually based on how difficult it is thought to be. Mime noun + verb Body movements used to convey meaning without using words. drilling is an example of a teaching technique. After this the teacher may ask learners to think about the language they used while doing the tasks. through a text or via electronic means. something which shows the meaning of language. a teacher may choose to give thinking time to learners before they speak.

learners might categorise a list of different foods into groups (categories) such as fruit and vegetables. Controlled practice: see practice. verse. It involves guided repetition or practice.g. Closed question A question which leads to a yes/no answer or another very short response. Categorisation noun. e. e. categorise verb. I bought a pen.g. stage. In an individual drill the teacher says a word or sentence and one learner repeats it. Warmer noun. Teacher: Learner: Teacher: Learner: I bought a pen. usually with others. e. Choral drill: see drill. PRACTICE ACTIVITIES AND TASKS Academic adjective Relating to schools. Didn’t I didn’t buy a pen.Test-teach-test A way of teaching new language. Communicative activity A classroom activity in which learners need to talk or write to one another to complete the activity. Chant noun + verb To repeat a phrase. The teacher then presents the new language to the learners (teach). In a substitution drill the teacher provides a sentence and a different word or phrase which the learner must use (or substitute) in exactly the same structure. warm up verb An activity that a teacher uses at the beginning of a lesson to give the class more energy. It helps the teacher diagnose what the learners need to learn so that he/she can focus only on what learners need to learn in the presentation (teach). In a transformation drill the teacher says a word or a sentence and the learner answers by changing the sentence into a new grammatical structure. Teacher: Learner: I bought a book. in a regular rhythm. See open question. Brainstorm noun + verb To think of ideas (usually quickly) about a topic (often noting these down). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 22 © UCLES 2009 . rhyme.g. Total Physical Response (TPR) A way of teaching in which the teacher presents language items in instructions and the learners have to do exactly what the teacher tells them. or connected with studying and thinking. See energy levels. For example. Didn’t I didn’t go to the cinema. sentence. Pen. e. Did you come to school by bus? Yes. This is often done as preparation before writing or speaking. poem or song. What did you have for breakfast? Toast. Open the window! Stand up! This method can be good for beginners when they start to learn a new language. In a choral drill the teacher says a word or sentence and the learners repeat it together as a class. as it allows them to have a silent period and can make fast progress. Drill A technique teachers use for encouraging learners to practise language. colleges and universities. I went to the cinema.g. then asks the learners to do another task using the new language correctly (this is the second test). The teacher asks learners to do a task to see how well they know a certain piece of language (this is the first test). This way of approaching teaching target language can be helpful if the teacher thinks the learners may already know some of the target language. category noun To put things into the group (category) to which they belong.

Less controlled practice: see practice. Guided writing A piece of writing that learners produce after the teacher has helped them to prepare for it by. words A word in which the letters are not in the correct order. e. the text is made into an information-gap activity. questions) A task or question that does not have a right or wrong answer. Freer practice: see practice. extended adjective An activity which gives learners further or extended practice of the target language or the topic of the lesson or additional skills work. The learners put the letters. e. Practice Controlled practice. Learners are given a task. paragraphs. freer practice When learners use the target language but have more choice of what they say and what language they use. Prioritising: see rank ordering. See cloze test.g. words. Mind map: see word map. How did you spend last weekend? Why do you think many people prefer to drive rather than use public transport? Open-ended (task.g.Extension task. Problem solving Learners work in pairs or groups to find the solution to a problem. a sentence in which the words are not in the correct order. Less controlled.g. The teacher and learners focus on accurate use of the target language. Problem-solving activities usually help to develop oral fluency. giving the learners a plan to follow. sentences. but they are given different information and. Gap-fill An activity in which learners fill in spaces or gaps in sentences or texts. This is often used for restricted practice or for focusing on a specific language point. but which allows learners to offer their own opinions and ideas or to respond creatively. Information-gap activity A classroom activity in which learners work in pairs or groups. Jumbled letters. then share their information with other learners so that in the end everyone knows all the information. text or pictures into the correct order. to complete the task. In this way. Why do you think the writer likes living in Paris? Picture stories Stories that are shown in pictures instead of words. Label noun + verb To match the name of an object to the object. a text in which the paragraphs or sentences are not in the correct order. Open question A question which can lead to a long response. This is different from a cloze test which can focus on reading ability or general language use. Learners listen to or read their part only. they have to find out the missing information from each other. Individual drill: see drill. Jigsaw listening/reading A text is divided into two or more different parts. restricted practice When learners use the target language repeatedly and productively in situations in which they have little or no choice of what language they use. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 23 © UCLES 2009 . pictures. e. extend verb. or a series of pictures that are not in the correct order. or ideas for the type of language to use.

The language which is the focus of the lesson or a part of the lesson. problem-solving activities or information-gap activities are tasks. Transformation drill: see drill. solve verb An answer to a problem. Rank ordering. e. Target language 1. It involves discussion. matching. 2. e. See Task-based learning. a job interview role-play where one learner would be the interviewer and the other learner would be the interviewee. Swap To change one thing for another.Project work An activity which focuses on completing an extended task or tasks on a specific topic. Task may also be used as another word for activity. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 24 © UCLES 2009 . L2. In the classroom. The language being studied.g. multiple choice.g. Task An activity that learners complete. prioritising Putting things in order of importance. For example. revision: see review. Task-type A set of questions that are all of one kind. Substitution drill: see drill. Role-play A classroom activity in which learners are given roles to act out in a given situation. agreeing/disagreeing and negotiating. Solution noun. Restricted practice: see practice. Teachers often do this in the classroom to help learners to prepare for a test. Learners sometimes do some work by themselves. Substitution table A grid giving a choice of grammatical forms: I You go He/she/it goes We You They go Do you to work by car Does he/she/it go by car? Do you/they Survey Learners find out information from others by asking questions or using questionnaires in order to practise speaking skills and/or specific language. a prioritising or rank ordering activity is a communicative activity in which learners are given a list of things to put in order of importance.g. functions or pronunciation. in class a teacher could ask learners to swap partners so that they can work with someone different. sometimes outside the classroom. lexis. Recall noun + verb To remember. Learners may work in groups to create something such as a class magazine. Review noun + verb When a learner or teacher looks again at language or skills that have already been taught in order to remember this language better. It could be grammar. A task usually focuses on communication. gap-fill. e. Revise. Role-plays are usually done in pairs or groups.

Diagnostic test noun. Continuous assessment A type of testing which is different from a final examination.Visualisation noun. Self-assessment When learners decide for themselves how good they think their progress or language use is. Assessment noun. A cloze test is used for testing reading ability or general language use. every seventh word. Cloze test A task-type in which learners read a text with missing words and try to work out what the missing words are.g. by observing learners rather than setting a test or writing an official report or giving a grade. For example. assess verb To discover. or whether a course is successful or not. (Open) Comprehension questions A task-type in which learners read or listen to a text and answer questions (using their own words). spelling and punctuation. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 25 © UCLES 2009 . Word map. Assessment criteria The qualities against which a learner’s performance is judged for assessment. e. May also include regular monitoring of classroom performance and contribution. mind map A diagram which is used to make a visual record of vocabulary on the same topic. use of vocabulary. See summative test. The missing words are removed regularly from the text. visualise verb To form a mental picture of something. Peer assessment When learners give feedback on each other’s language. proficiency or progress either formally or informally. learning strategies. See gap-fill. Formal assessment When a teacher judges learners’ work through a test and then gives a formal report or grade to learners. Continuous assessment: see assessment. Some or all of the work that learners do during a course is considered by the teacher on a regular basis and contributes to the final grade given to learners. A classroom activity where learners close their eyes and create mental images. It is different from a gap-fill activity. Visualisation can help learners to remember new words or can be used for creative story-telling. Informal assessment When a teacher decides whether a learner is doing well or not. performance.g. e. assessment criteria for judging learners’ writing may be: accuracy of grammar. judge or form an opinion on or test learners’ ability. This learner CAN express simple opinions or requirements in a familiar context. organisation of ideas. work. Formative assessment When a teacher uses information on learners’ progress during a course to adapt their teaching or to give learners feedback on their learning. which can focus on practising or testing a specific language point. diagnose verb: see test. car bus transport train plane ASSESSMENT Achievement test: see test.g. e. to say how successful or unsuccessful they have been. ‘Can-do’ statements Sentences that describe language learners’ language use or an aspect of it on a scale of proficiency.

g. Formal assessment: see assessment. Subjective test: see test. Informal assessment: see assessment. Item 1. the beginning or the end. match two halves of a sentence.g. Teachers may evaluate learners’ progress or strengths and weaknesses. Objective test: see test. I enjoy … . Sentence completion A task-type in which learners are given parts of a sentence. 2. e. and have to make a second sentence using the prompt so that it means the same as the first. Peer assessment: see assessment. Sentence transformation A task-type in which learners are given a sentence and a prompt. The questions in a test to which a learner has to respond. Portfolio A collection of work that a learner uses to show what he/she has done during a particular course. Summative test: see test. importance or effectiveness of something. and are asked to complete the sentence. They choose the correct answer from the options they are given. evaluate verb To assess or judge the quality. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 26 © UCLES 2009 . A purposeful document. In the evenings. It ____________ to play tennis. e. Proficiency test: see test.Evaluation noun. I love … .g. Self-assessment: see assessment. a vocabulary or a grammar item. It’s too cold to play tennis. Placement test: see test. e. An achievement test is used to see how well learners have learned the language and skills taught in class. At the weekend. Test A formal assessment of a learner’s language. using specific target language.g.g. Oral test A test of speaking ability. (enough) It isn’t warm enough to play tennis. or a word with a picture. Formative assessment: see assessment. A piece of language. Multiple-choice questions A task-type in which learners are given a question and three or four possible answers or options. Progress test: see test. Matching task A task-type in which learners are asked to pair related things together. regularly added to that may be part of continuous assessment. Achievement tests are often at the end of term or end of the year and test the main points of what has been taught in that time. e. e.

marking written stories.g. True/false questions A task-type in which learners read or listen to a text and decide whether statements are correct (true) or not correct (false). Tutorial When a teacher talks to a learner individually or to a small group of learners to discuss their learning and give feedback on their progress in class. A mark or grade is given. English for hotel receptionists. e. A placement test is often used at the beginning of a course in a language school in order to identify a learner’s level of language and find the best class for them. but no other feedback. story-telling. A subjective test is marked using the examiner’s opinion about the quality of the answer. compositions. A proficiency test is used to see how good learners are at using the target language. English for studying at university. A progress test is used during a course in order to assess the learning up to a particular point in the course. It helps the teacher to plan what to teach. The contents of a proficiency test are not chosen according to what has been taught. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 27 © UCLES 2009 . conversations. The teacher diagnoses the language problems learners have. English for general communication. or what not to teach. multiple-choice questions. An objective test is marked without using the examiner’s opinion. The answer is not simply right or wrong. See formative assessment/evaluation.g. It can also be used to diagnose learner strengths.g. e. true/false questions. e. in future. A summative test is used at the end of a course. interviews. Cambridge ESOL First Certificate in English (FCE) and IELTS are examples of proficiency tests. There is a clear right answer. but according to what is needed for a particular purpose.A diagnostic test is used to identify problems that learners have with language or skills.

the teacher’s main aim in a lesson could be to teach the present perfect or develop listening skills.MODULE 2 Lesson planning Aids Aids are the things that a teacher uses in a class. personal aims.g. what the form of the structure is and why it is being used in this way in this situation. learner profile A description of all the learners and any other information related to their learning in a class or each learner.g. step or short section of a lesson. pictures. handouts. to provide controlled practice of the present perfect or to develop listening for gist. It could be the language or skills learners must be able to use in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson or a skill or language area which is practised while focusing on the main aim. e. ‘Of course you can do it! You’re doing very well ’. See confidence. Consolidate To return to something in order to allow learners to understand and remember it more completely. Components (of a lesson plan) The main parts of a lesson plan. to examine it and to break it into parts in order to understand it. Assumptions When teachers think about what they believe their learners will or will not know or how they will behave in a particular lesson. Anticipate (language) problems When teachers are planning a lesson. e. Encouragement noun. timing. anticipated problems. The main aim is the most important aim. aids. The teacher may make the assumption that learners will know basic job vocabulary and so knows he/she will not need to spend time in the lesson presenting these words. e. e. including their age. Aim What the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson or in the course. flashcards. they think about what their learners might find difficult about the language or skills in the lesson so that they can help them learn more effectively at certain points in the lesson. aims. For example. e. They may also think about how learners’ previous learning experience may affect their learning in a specific lesson. interaction patterns. A personal aim is what the teacher would like to improve in his/her teaching. generate. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 28 © UCLES 2009 .g. strengths and weaknesses in language and skills. assumptions. e. To reduce the time I spend writing on the whiteboard. a teacher plans to teach the present simple using the context of jobs and daily routines. For example. Analyse language To think about language. procedure. stimulate interest To get learners interested in a task or topic. A stage aim is the aim or purpose of a stage. Arouse.g. When teachers plan lessons they think about what aids they will need.g. learners can consolidate a grammar point by doing extra practice. less important than the main aim. encourage verb When a teacher helps learners to succeed by giving them confidence. ability.g. A subsidiary aim is the secondary focus of the lesson.g. Class. e. timetable fit. Enable To help someone be able to do something.

in open class. in pairs or groups or teacher to learner. Personal aim: see aim. 1. A lesson is logical if the stages follow an order which makes sense and if one stage leads clearly and obviously to another. learners practise the language of complaints in a role-play in pairs. if you teach learning strategies.g. Pace The speed of the lesson. Focus on To pay attention to something.g. give feedback. A lead-in often includes an introduction to the topic of the text or main task and possibly study of some new key language required for the text or main task. Pre-teach (vocabulary) Before introducing a text to learners. Teachers need to be flexible and to be prepared to change or adapt if the lesson is not going to plan. Peer feedback: see feedback. A teacher can vary the pace in a lesson by planning different activities in order to keep the learners’ attention. Procedure The details of exactly what is going to happen in each stage of a lesson. to highlight a mistake by underlining it. 2. to notice something. e. learner to learner. it can raise learners’ awareness of how to learn. e. Outcome Result. Interaction patterns The different ways learners and the teacher work together in class. lead in verb The activity or activities used to prepare learners to work on a text. For example. To tell learners how well they are doing. or after an exercise that learners have just completed. the teacher can teach key vocabulary from the text which they think the learners do not already know and which is necessary to understand the main points of a text. Main aim: see aim. Lead-in noun. learners will be able to understand the gist of the text. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 29 © UCLES 2009 . to highlight something. To communicate to a speaker that you understand (or not) what they are saying. they think about interaction patterns and write them on their plan.Feedback noun + verb. 2. This is what the teacher hopes will be the result in terms of learning at the end of the lesson. e.g. on the board or on a computer screen using a colour or underlining so that they are easier to notice. Raise awareness To help learners to start to understand something that they may not already know by drawing attention to it.g. conduct. Logical Based on reason. Peer feedback Feedback given to a learner by another learner in the class. To draw attention to or focus on something so that learners realise it is important. When teachers plan lessons. To mark words on paper. topic or main task. e. Objective Lesson objectives are specific learning targets that help achieve a lesson’s aims. Flexible Something or someone that can change easily to suit new situations. This could be at a certain point in the course. Highlight 1.

test To give learners a question to answer or a task or test to do. aims. Report back When a learner tells the whole class what was discussed in group or pairwork. for revision and more practice. Specification noun. and helps learners with. which follow each other in a logical order. Set the scene. talk or write about. the context To explain or present the context of something learners will read. Its aim is to try to ensure that lessons fit logically together. Subsidiary aim: see aim. e. controlled practice etc. compared with the total time the learners speak. to give the teacher clear goals and to try to ensure a balance of language. the following lesson. e. i. they think about a rationale for activities and procedures. Set a question. Teacher talking time The total time in a lesson that a teacher speaks.g. topics and activities over a number of weeks or months. skills. Stimulate (discussion) To encourage learners to talk about something. Recycle To focus on words or structures that have been taught before. Sequence noun + verb A sequence is a series of things.e.g. task. to specify (aims) verb. learning To think about a lesson after teaching it or to think about learning in order to decide what worked. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 30 © UCLES 2009 . controlling the lesson often from the front of the classroom. Lessons work through different stages or steps such as lead-in. When teachers plan a lesson. Teacher-centred When the teacher is at the centre of most stages of the lesson. See teacher-centred. e. Learner-centred When the learners are at the centre of the activities and have the chance to work together. Timetable fit How a lesson fits logically into a sequence of lessons. Stage. Syllabus This describes the language and skills to be covered on a course. the rationale for pre-teaching vocabulary before learners read a text is to help learners read the text more easily. how what goes before a particular lesson links to. put them in order. what did not work and how to improve teaching/learning in the future. This can be done in different ways such as through a text or a picture.Rationale The reason for doing something. specific adjective A clear and exact description of something. before playing a recording a teacher might tell learners who the people are on the recording and where they are. step A section of a lesson. Learners can sequence pictures in a story.g. Reinforce: see consolidate. Scheme of work A basic plan of what a teacher will teach for a number of lessons. and the order in which they will be taught. Aims are specified at the beginning of a lesson plan and for individual stages in the lesson. make choices and think for themselves in a lesson. Reflect on teaching. See learner-centred. presentation. hear. to make the situation clear for them.

radio etc. Audio script: see tapescript. interaction patterns. dictionaries or CD-ROMS. and not needing much physical and mental effort: an easy job. Cross reference A note that tells the reader of a book to go to another place in the book to get more information.g. e. when a learner lands on a square. Consult To get advice or information from someone or something. OPP LATE. Headword A word whose meaning is explained in a dictionary. This is a cross reference showing the reader that there is information about late in another entry. examples etc. teachers and learners might consult a dictionary or grammar book. By writing different instructions in the squares.g. Phonemic chart A poster or large diagram of the phonemic symbols arranged in a particular order. easy / i…zˆ / adj. Authentic material Written or spoken texts which a first language speaker might read or listen to. so that it is suitable to use with a particular class. Teachers try to include variety in their lesson. going faster than you can walk. Reference materials.g. Reference resources Bilingual dictionary This uses translation from one language into another language for definitions and examples. run is the headword. The language in the texts is not adapted or made easier for learners or the language learning process.g. e. Monolingual dictionary This uses only the target language for headwords. language skills. See monolingual dictionary. 1. definitions. they say a daily routine using the present simple. e. When teachers plan lessons. so that learners stay interested. They may be taken from newspapers. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 31 © UCLES 2009 . in a dictionary entry for early it might say: early arriving before the planned time. not difficult. run to move using your legs. Adapt (material) To change a text or other material. e. they think about how long each activity will take and they usually write this on their plan. Entry An item. See bilingual dictionary. Thesaurus A type of dictionary in which words with similar meanings are grouped together. Variety noun. pacing or timing into a lesson.g. e. grammar books.g. vary verb To introduce different things such as different types of activities or tasks. resources The materials which teachers and learners can use to find or check information. Board game A game played by two or more players on a board using dice. e. teachers can use board games for controlled language practice or oral fluency. Players throw the dice and move around squares on the board. Teaching materials and aids Activity book: see book. for example a piece of information that is written or printed in a dictionary about a word. adv. It usually appears in bold at the top of a dictionary entry.Timing The likely time different activities or stages in a lesson plan should take.

It is often used to revise vocabulary. Coursebook unit: see book. e. Cue card. reading etc). A coursebook or textbook is used regularly by learners in the class. and contains teaching ideas. A coursebook unit is a chapter of a coursebook. vocabulary and skills work and follows a syllabus. often during a controlled practice activity or drill. Learners write the answers to clues in the squares on the grid. Crossword puzzle A word game in which learners complete a grid. Grid A pattern of straight lines that cross each other to make squares. Dialogue A conversation between two or more people.Book An activity book or workbook has extra practice and is often used for homework. It usually accompanies a coursebook. tell a story. Exploit (material) To use material for a particular purpose. They are used in board games. audio scripts and answers to coursebook activities. Learners have to respond to the cue card using I like + ing or I don’t like + ing.g. Graded reader A book which has language that has been made easier for learners.g. sentences or pictures on it. e. Graph A drawing that uses a line or lines to show how two or more set of numbers are related to each other. teach vocabulary etc. a teacher presenting I like + ing / I don’t like + ing could have a number of picture cue cards with different activities (swimming. Coursebook: see book. which teachers use for presenting information to the class. Dice Small blocks of plastic or wood with six sides and a different number of spots on each side. A teacher can use these to explain a situation. It generally contains grammar. Chart Information in the form of diagrams. prompt card A card on which there is/are (a) word(s) or picture(s) to prompt or encourage learners to produce particular language. Flashcard A card with words. Flipchart A pad of large sheets of paper fixed to a stand. A teacher’s book accompanies the coursebook. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 32 © UCLES 2009 .g. Brochure: see leaflet. e. lists or drawings often placed on the classroom wall for learners to refer to such as irregular verb forms or prepositions.

menus. learning centre A place with learning resources such as books. audio script. Tapescript. Rubric Written instructions for an exercise or activity. resources. brochure A piece of printed paper that gives information or advertises something. Puppets are often used when teaching young learners. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 33 © UCLES 2009 . a diagram or anything else the learners can look at which can help teachers illustrate form or meaning. transcript The written version of the words learners hear when doing a listening activity. a leaflet with information about local places of interest. supplement verb The books and other materials which teachers can use in addition to a coursebook. Puppet A model of a person or animal often made of paper or cloth. e. pronunciation practice materials. This is one example of realia. Teachers may use stickers to keep things on the classroom wall or on the board. activities or tasks on it that a teacher gives to learners for a range of reasons during a class or for reference or homework. Supplementary material noun. Textbook: see book. Overhead projector (OHP) A piece of equipment that makes images appear on a wall or screen. worksheet A piece of paper with exercises. Realia Real objects such as clothes. Resources: see teaching aids. Teacher’s book: see book. charts.g. Sticker A label with a picture or message on it that has ‘glue’ on the back of it.Handout.g. These can often be found in a teacher’s book or at the back of the learner’s book. learning resources. Learning centre: see self-access centre. OHP. reference materials. Language laboratory A room in a school where learners can practise language by listening to tapes or CDs and by recording themselves speaking. e. e. computers and cassettes where learners can study by themselves. Leaflet. Overhead transparency (OHT) The plastic sheet a teacher can write on and use with an overhead projector (OHP). (Video) clip Part of a video or DVD that can be used in class. It can be used in a classroom instead of a whiteboard or blackboard. Teaching aids Any materials or resources a teacher uses in the classroom. which a teacher or learners can move by putting their hand inside it. timetables and leaflets that can be brought into the classroom for a range of purposes. See realia and learning resources. Self-access centre. Transcript: see tapescript. Visual (aid) A picture.g.

Wordsearch A grid in which each square has a letter of the alphabet. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 34 © UCLES 2009 . Worksheet: see handout. Workbook: see book. Words are hidden in the grid and learners have to find them.

Contribute To give or add something. e. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 35 © UCLES 2009 . Learners often hesitate if they are trying to find the correct words to say. which he/she writes on the board. e. To tell a story or talk about something that has happened. by saying it clearly before drilling the learners. because they need more time to think. When a teacher suggests a word that the learner hasn’t remembered. Exchange verb + noun 1. Well done! Prompt verb + noun To help learners think of ideas or to remember a word or phrase by giving them a part of it or by giving another kind of clue. Filler A word or sound used between words or sentences in spoken English when someone is thinking of what to say. he/she usually chooses a model sentence. hesitate verb A pause before or while doing or saying something.g. Praise To tell someone they have done well. When I went to London … um … I think it was about … er … 4 years ago. Model noun + verb A clear example of the target language for learners to repeat or write down or save as a record.MODULE 3 Teachers’ and learners’ language in the classroom Candidates should be familiar with common terms such as ask. e. Narrative noun + adjective. e. Ask for clarification To ask for an explanation of what a speaker means. If a teacher is focusing on the target language of a lesson. Learner: I want to …… in an office. What do you mean? Clarify To make clear what you mean. narrate verb 1. Facial expression A person can show how they feel through their face. e. Teacher: Work? Learner: Yes. I want to work in an office. To give something to another person and receive something in return. learners can contribute to a discussion by taking part and giving their ideas. Er and um are conversational fillers. e. e.g. That ’s excellent. in the classroom. tell. An exchange can also be used to refer to the part of spoken interaction in which one person speaks and another responds to what they said. 2. smiling.g. the teacher acknowledged the learner’s answer with a gesture. 2. Acknowledge To show that you have seen or understood something.g.g. showing surprise. Teachers often narrate stories to young learners. Hesitation noun. A narrative is another word for a story.g. The teacher often models the language as well. Teachers focus on conveying meaning when they present new language.g. Convey meaning To express or communicate meaning. reply.

but uses it in situations when it is not needed or appropriate. Learner: I find myself unable to accept your statement. Indicate To show. Finger correction This is a way of drawing attention to where a learner has made a mistake. over generalisation When a learner uses a grammatical rule he/she has learned. e. grammar. Teacher: Grammar. make known. Learner: Sorry – he doesn’t like that. refer to verb To mention something or someone. (incorrect plural form – not appropriate for man). Utterance A complete unit of speech in spoken language. Over-application of the rule. Reference noun.g. saying something. speech or in the form of a facial expression. An utterance can be shorter than a sentence. e. A: When’s he coming? B: Tomorrow. Terminology The technical words used in a particular subject. e.g. point out. similar in meaning to comment. word order. Simplification noun. ‘Tomorrow’ is an utterance here. a teacher can indicate that a learner has made a mistake by repeating the mistake with rising intonation. Response noun. the teacher repeats the mistake with rising intonation encouraging learners to correct themselves. e. The fingers represent words and the teacher can show clearly in which word (finger) the mistake was made. There were three girls (correct plural form used for most nouns) and two mans.g. P = punctuation mistake. e. Echo correct When learners make a mistake. The teacher counts out the words a learner has said on her fingers. Why not? Teachers recast language which may not contain errors but which is inappropriate for the context it is being used in. Teachers and learners may respond to each other in writing. Compare with Reformulate. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 36 © UCLES 2009 .g. respond verb A reply or reaction to communication such as a laugh. Word prompt: see prompt.. Recast To reword a sentence or phrase to improve it. Teacher: Oh. A teacher may use her fingers to show that a mistake has been made with word or sentence stress. e. Teacher: Don’t? Learner: He doesn’t like it. pronunciation of sounds etc. a smile. Learners can refer to someone or to a dictionary to get advice or information.A teacher can also use a word prompt to correct a learner.g. T = tense mistake.g. Learner: He don’t like it.g. a learner says. Learners’ mistakes and correction strategies Correction code A series of symbols a teacher may use to mark learners’ writing so that they can correct mistakes by themselves. Also. e. Learner: He don’t like that. you don’t agree. simplify verb To make something easier.

e. this can have a special meaning relating to dealing with mixed ability learners in one class.g. Discipline noun + verb The system of rules used to maintain control of learners in the classroom. Closed pairs When learners in the class do pairwork with the person sitting next to them but not in front of the class. reformulate verb When a teacher corrects what a learner has said by repeating the sentence correctly. Co-operation noun. dominant adjective To have a very strong influence over what happens. Classroom management Active role. This is often done in drills. if learners are bored or tired then the energy levels are low. Using a correction code on learners’ writing enables learners to improve their work. differentiate verb To make or see a difference between people and things. Classroom management The strategies used by a teacher to organise the classroom. Self-correction When learners correct language mistakes they have made. then the energy levels are high. co-operative adjective Working together and helping each other. the learning and the learners. This is usually the way parents ‘correct’ their young children’s language mistakes. but without drawing the learners’ attention to their mistake. perhaps with some help from the teacher. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 37 © UCLES 2009 .Reformulation noun. co-operate verb. Differentiation noun. Past Now Future --------------------------------------Present perfect tense See tense. teacher roles and interaction patterns. different types of activities. In some group work activities learners co-operate to find the answer or solve a problem. then other learners get less chance to participate actively. often for practice. such as seating arrangements. Enable. See open pairs. the teacher can provide different tasks.g. A passive role is the opposite of an active role when learners want to be taught and to acquire language without making their own decisions about their needs and learning. Dominate verb. It is often used in language teaching to present the use of a new tense or to correct learners when they use tenses wrongly. Class dynamics: see group dynamics. If a particular learner is dominant in class. If a teacher dominates. e. they are taking an active role. activities. verb To make something possible. Repetition To say something again. texts or materials for different learners in the class according to their ability. Time line A diagram that shows learners the relationship between tense and time. In teaching. Energy levels If learners are interested and working hard. passive role When learners think about their own learning and what their own needs are and try to help themselves learn more. the lesson is teacher-centred.

Routine Something which is done regularly such as a teacher setting writing homework every Friday. When learners respond. noun facilitate. whole class When the teacher leads the class and each learner is focusing on the teacher. One-to-one A teaching situation which involves only one teacher and one learner. Grade (language) To use language that is at the correct level for the learners and is not too easy or difficult. one pair does a pairwork activity in front of the class. build rapport The relationship between the teacher and learners. Facilitator. Learning contract An agreement between the teacher and the learners about their roles and responsibilities (i. See closed pairs. rather than working alone or in groups. what the teacher will do and what the learners will do to help the learners to learn). See graded reader. class dynamics The relationship between learners in the group or class. Open class. To watch over learners in order to make sure that they are doing what they have been asked to do. self-monitor 1. Open pairs In open pairs. such as open class. group work and individual work. Monitor. and help them if they are having problems. Passive role: see active role. always asking learners to record new words with their meaning and an example sentence. Mixed ability. Teachers try to build or create a good rapport or relationship with their learners. pairwork. Get learners’ attention To make learners listen to the teacher after they have been doing group or pairwork or at the start of the lesson. Teachers try to develop some routine habits in the classroom. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 38 © UCLES 2009 . mixed level The different levels of language or ability of learners studying in the same class.e.Establish. e. This technique is useful for showing how to do an activity and/or for focusing on accuracy. Teachers facilitate learning by planning and delivering lessons and maintaining discipline in the classroom.g. To listen to/read your own language to see if it is accurate and effective. being involved in it. Mingle noun + verb A mingle is an activity which involves learners having to walk round the classroom talking to other learners to complete a task. verb To discover or get proof of something. Nominate To choose and name one learner to speak or do a particular task. Involvement Taking part in an activity actively. Interaction patterns The ways in which learners work together in class. they do so in front of everyone in the class. Group. Assessing learners can establish the progress they have made. Rapport. Observed lesson A lesson that is watched by a teacher trainer or a colleague. See enable. verb To make something possible. 2.

Evaluating learners’ performance. behaviour. giving directions or instructions at the front of the class or to take a less controlling role. Keeping a written record of learners’ work. the lessons and procedures in the classroom. and contribution. Explaining language. Deciding on interaction patterns. A plan of where the learners should sit in the classroom. Responding to classroom problems as they happen. seating plan The way the learners sit in the classroom. Contributor Contributing ideas or information other than language. the board. Supportive Providing help or encouragement. Selecting materials and texts for lessons. behaviour and contribution. Whole class: see open class. Giving instructions. in rows. Preparing texts and tasks for learners. See supportive. Demonstrating tasks and activities. behaviour. Deciding on a methodology for lessons. Teaching space The areas in the classroom that can be used for teaching. Enabling learners to fulfil their potential.g. Eliciting language. Developing rapport. behaviour. a teacher can choose to take a controlling role. observing and collecting information about learner performance. Providing language input. participating in discussions. progress. Modelling language. in groups around different tables. Controlling the group dynamic. the open floor. Teachers create a supportive atmosphere in their classes. Testing learner progress and level. Facilitator Developing learner autonomy. Manager Managing the learners.g.g. Counsellor Giving learners advice on difficulties they may have outside of their language class. in a circle around the teacher. Providing feedback on work. Language resource Clarifying language. the walls. e. Narrator Narrating stories and things that have happened. e. e. Teacher role The way a teacher chooses to manage the classroom. e. Encouraging learners. Monitor/Observer Monitoring. Personalising language. Planner Anticipating problems.Seating arrangement. the desks. The opposite of supportive is unsupportive. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 39 © UCLES 2009 . monitoring learners as they work. Checking understanding. Reflector Thinking about his/her own performance. Consolidating learner language. Showing understanding of issues learners bring to the classroom from outside. Diagnostician Diagnosing. Unsupportive Not being helpful or encouraging.g. e. Motivating learners. Designing and adapting texts and materials for lessons.g. Contextualising language. Maintaining discipline. Correcting learner language. Helping learners to access resources. evaluating learners’ needs and difficulties. contribution and effort and progress. Praising learners. effort and contribution. Reflecting on learners’ progress. Providing opportunities for individual learning. Teacher roles Assessor Assessing learners’ performance.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 40 © UCLES 2009 .