You are on page 1of 6


Where does it all go!
Where does the
water from the
washer go?

Wastewater –
Its Journey to Treatment and
Return to the Environment

By gravity flow, the waste is on its way
to your local wastewater treatment plant!

Levels of Treatment

Why treat wastewater?


• Causes a demand for dissolved oxygen
(lower DO levels of streams)

– removal by physical separation of grit and large
objects (material to landfill for disposal)

• Adds nutrients (nitrate and phosphate)
to cause excessive growth


To tertiary process

From primary process

• Increases suspended solids or sediments
in streams (turbidity increase)

Secondary process

When you flush the
toilet where does
the contents go?

Mostly dead

– aerobic microbiological process (sludge)
organic matter + O2  CO2 + NH3 + H2O
aquatic nutrient
NH3  NO3- lowers suspended solids content (into sludge)

Levels of Treatment continued
Tertiary (advanced)

– anaerobic microbiological process with a
different microbe where O2 is toxic (more
NO3-  N2 (escapes to atmosphere)
– PO4-3 if not removed in sludge in secondary
PO4-3 + Al+3  AlPO4 (s) (into sludge)


and rapid

collects sludge
on bottom

- aeration to strip N2 and re-oxygenate (add DO)


many researchers attempted to treat wastewater with physicalchemical processes (i.e. < 0. sometimes attached media (i.. & secondary treatment & with disinfection Adverse Effects from WWTP Effluent • Effluent is high in nitrogen and phosphorous • These are deleterious because of ______? • Strategies to remove N and P – Advanced wastewater treatment • Chemical coagulation to remove P • Nitrification/Denitrification to remove N – Convert N to N2 2 . trickling filter) to biodegrade OM What should we know about wastewater? 1.1% solids 3.. WTP) • Today we combine physical and biological • What are physical processes? • What are biological processes? – Implementation of a system that contains microorganisms. primary.e. 200 mg/L BOD • • Design criterion is _____? Will treat wastewater with preliminary. 240 mg/L suspended solids • Design criterion is _____? 4. Contribution of wastewater per person is approximately 120 gal/day 2.From secondary process 8/26/2015 Tertiary process • Effluent back to stream after Effluent add methanol as food source When the treatment is done… – a final carbon filtration and – chlorination/dechlorination • Sludge – very nutrient rich Slow mixing to keep suspended and O2 out Settling collects sludge on bottom Wastewater Treatment – applied directly to land as fertilizer – incinerated (good fuel after drying) – composted Why don’t we treat wastewater with a WTP? • In the early 1970’s.

. 20-30% > annual avg. and Su. and seasonal) – Summer monthly avg..8/26/2015 Preliminary Treatment • Flow measurement • Screening to remove large solids • Grit removal to protect parts and to prevent deposition • Pumps Secondary Treatment • Biodegrade soluble organic matter by aeration basins (i.e. for industries have lower flows • Must also account for storm-water runoff for combined systems (increase Q By 25%) 3 . activated sludge) or trickling filters Considerations in Plant Design • Effluent quality – – – – BOD < 30 mg/L SS < 30 mg/L Oil and grease < 10 mg/L pH between 6-9 • Who regulates these standards? Primary Treatment • Remove settleable (sp?) organic matter and scum via clarifiers • How does a clarifier remove scum? Disinfection • Reduce pathogens to an acceptable level for in-plant water reuse and irrigation Design Loading • Design must account for variations in flow (hourly. – Sat. daily.

) • WHY? Example Wastewater Flow • If an aeration basin is designed for a max. pump the wastewater. avg. etc. remove solids > 1”. not 10 MG/day Design Parameters • Ultimately the design engineer must use good judgment (especially when design specs are not listed) • Best source of information is often in design manuals – Who writes the design manuals? Preliminary Treatment • Required to measure flow. pipes. and to remove sand and other heavy particulates • WHY? • Chlorine can be added for odor control • FeCl3 can be added to help settling Preliminary Treatment Devices in Waste Water Treatment Flow Measurement Screens and Shredders Grit Chambers Pumps (HSD) Parshall Flume • First unit process – measures flow and is equipped with a data acquisition system • Advantage of flume – Low head loss – why is this good? – Smooth hydraulic flow – benefit? • How do you maintain a constant flow? 4 . What does this mean? • Unit can handle 5 MG in one day and 10 MG at the peak hour. maximum day.8/26/2015 Wastewater Flow • Flows are typically expressed as : – Peak hour. month. max. annual average – Important for designing hydraulically limited equipment (pumps. monthly avg. flow of 5 MGD and a peak flow of 10 MGD.

etc.8/26/2015 Screen and Shredders • Required to remove objects greater than ½-1” (e. glass. valves. you can design an equalization basin to maintain constant flow • Most commonly employed in WWTP – Velocity controlled – Sed.e. (BAR RACKS) • Mechanically cleaned to remove objects from screens (debris landfilled) – Dewatered prior to hauling • For WW flows w/ greater quantities of papers and plastics. varies from hour to hour). rags. twigs.e.. seeds... coffee grounds. can use screens w/ smaller openings (i. plastics) – WHY?. and deposition (30m3-90m3/106m3 of WW) – Grit includes sand.g. paper. Where is there a large source of glass and coffee grounds? Shredders • Shredders or grinders – cut material into smaller ¼” pieces (Communitors) • Requires regular maintenance so must design a bypass channel – In the bypass channel would install a hand cleaned medium screen Equalization Basins • Since WW does not flow at a constant rate (i. Basin – Aerated – air causes a spiral roll “driving” the grit into a hopper Review WWTP Operations • Preliminary Treatment Biological Aeration Secondary Treatment Design of WWTP • Primary Treatment • Secondary Treatment 5 . 1/8-1/4”) • Design to keep flow < 3 ft/s Grit Chambers • Need to remove “grit” to protect pumps.

BOD loading. • Since sludge is recycled. BOD Loading Problem • If the BOD is 200 mg/L and the aeration period is 24 hrs. what is the BOD load in 1bs/1000 ft3/day? 6 . its residence time is in terms of days. sludge age Sludge Age • Also referred to as the mean cell residence time • Liquid retention times (aeration periods) vary from 3-30 hr.8/26/2015 Biological Aeration Activated Sludge Terminology • Biological Processes in Activated Sludge • Mixed Liquor – suspension of microorganisms in an aeration basin • Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) • Activated Sludge Treatment – Aerated biological process – Targeted to metabolize BOD – Why do we call is activated sludge? Food-to-Microorganism Ratio (F/M) • A way to express BOD loading in proportion to the microbial mass in the system • What are some of the variables that we should know to calculate F/M? – Biological growths in activated sludge treatment • Activated Sludge Design Variables – Aeration period. food-tomicroorganism ratio.