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8/26/2015

Where does it all go!
Where does the
water from the
washer go?

Wastewater –
Its Journey to Treatment and
Return to the Environment

By gravity flow, the waste is on its way
to your local wastewater treatment plant!

Levels of Treatment

Why treat wastewater?

Primary

• Causes a demand for dissolved oxygen
(lower DO levels of streams)

– removal by physical separation of grit and large
objects (material to landfill for disposal)

• Adds nutrients (nitrate and phosphate)
to cause excessive growth

Secondary

To tertiary process

From primary process

• Increases suspended solids or sediments
in streams (turbidity increase)

Secondary process

When you flush the
toilet where does
the contents go?

Mostly dead
microbes

– aerobic microbiological process (sludge)
organic matter + O2  CO2 + NH3 + H2O
aquatic nutrient
NH3  NO3- lowers suspended solids content (into sludge)

Levels of Treatment continued
Tertiary (advanced)

– anaerobic microbiological process with a
different microbe where O2 is toxic (more
sludge)
NO3-  N2 (escapes to atmosphere)
– PO4-3 if not removed in sludge in secondary
process
PO4-3 + Al+3  AlPO4 (s) (into sludge)

air
diffuser

Aeration
and rapid
mixing

Settling
collects sludge
on bottom

- aeration to strip N2 and re-oxygenate (add DO)

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many researchers attempted to treat wastewater with physicalchemical processes (i.e. < 0. sometimes attached media (i.. & secondary treatment & with disinfection Adverse Effects from WWTP Effluent • Effluent is high in nitrogen and phosphorous • These are deleterious because of ______? • Strategies to remove N and P – Advanced wastewater treatment • Chemical coagulation to remove P • Nitrification/Denitrification to remove N – Convert N to N2 2 . trickling filter) to biodegrade OM What should we know about wastewater? 1.1% solids 3.. WTP) • Today we combine physical and biological • What are physical processes? • What are biological processes? – Implementation of a system that contains microorganisms. primary.e. 200 mg/L BOD • • Design criterion is _____? Will treat wastewater with preliminary. 240 mg/L suspended solids • Design criterion is _____? 4. Contribution of wastewater per person is approximately 120 gal/day 2.From secondary process 8/26/2015 Tertiary process • Effluent back to stream after Effluent add methanol as food source When the treatment is done… – a final carbon filtration and – chlorination/dechlorination • Sludge – very nutrient rich Slow mixing to keep suspended and O2 out Settling collects sludge on bottom Wastewater Treatment – applied directly to land as fertilizer – incinerated (good fuel after drying) – composted Why don’t we treat wastewater with a WTP? • In the early 1970’s.

. 20-30% > annual avg. and Su. and seasonal) – Summer monthly avg..8/26/2015 Preliminary Treatment • Flow measurement • Screening to remove large solids • Grit removal to protect parts and to prevent deposition • Pumps Secondary Treatment • Biodegrade soluble organic matter by aeration basins (i.e. for industries have lower flows • Must also account for storm-water runoff for combined systems (increase Q By 25%) 3 . activated sludge) or trickling filters Considerations in Plant Design • Effluent quality – – – – BOD < 30 mg/L SS < 30 mg/L Oil and grease < 10 mg/L pH between 6-9 • Who regulates these standards? Primary Treatment • Remove settleable (sp?) organic matter and scum via clarifiers • How does a clarifier remove scum? Disinfection • Reduce pathogens to an acceptable level for in-plant water reuse and irrigation Design Loading • Design must account for variations in flow (hourly. – Sat. daily.

) • WHY? Example Wastewater Flow • If an aeration basin is designed for a max. pump the wastewater. avg. etc. remove solids > 1”. not 10 MG/day Design Parameters • Ultimately the design engineer must use good judgment (especially when design specs are not listed) • Best source of information is often in design manuals – Who writes the design manuals? Preliminary Treatment • Required to measure flow. pipes. and to remove sand and other heavy particulates • WHY? • Chlorine can be added for odor control • FeCl3 can be added to help settling Preliminary Treatment Devices in Waste Water Treatment Flow Measurement Screens and Shredders Grit Chambers Pumps (HSD) Parshall Flume • First unit process – measures flow and is equipped with a data acquisition system • Advantage of flume – Low head loss – why is this good? – Smooth hydraulic flow – benefit? • How do you maintain a constant flow? 4 . What does this mean? • Unit can handle 5 MG in one day and 10 MG at the peak hour. maximum day.8/26/2015 Wastewater Flow • Flows are typically expressed as : – Peak hour. month. max. annual average – Important for designing hydraulically limited equipment (pumps. monthly avg. flow of 5 MGD and a peak flow of 10 MGD.

etc.8/26/2015 Screen and Shredders • Required to remove objects greater than ½-1” (e. glass. valves. you can design an equalization basin to maintain constant flow • Most commonly employed in WWTP – Velocity controlled – Sed.e. (BAR RACKS) • Mechanically cleaned to remove objects from screens (debris landfilled) – Dewatered prior to hauling • For WW flows w/ greater quantities of papers and plastics. varies from hour to hour). rags. twigs.e.. seeds... coffee grounds. can use screens w/ smaller openings (i. plastics) – WHY?. and deposition (30m3-90m3/106m3 of WW) – Grit includes sand.g. paper. Where is there a large source of glass and coffee grounds? Shredders • Shredders or grinders – cut material into smaller ¼” pieces (Communitors) • Requires regular maintenance so must design a bypass channel – In the bypass channel would install a hand cleaned medium screen Equalization Basins • Since WW does not flow at a constant rate (i. Basin – Aerated – air causes a spiral roll “driving” the grit into a hopper Review WWTP Operations • Preliminary Treatment Biological Aeration Secondary Treatment Design of WWTP • Primary Treatment • Secondary Treatment 5 . 1/8-1/4”) • Design to keep flow < 3 ft/s Grit Chambers • Need to remove “grit” to protect pumps.

BOD loading. • Since sludge is recycled. BOD Loading Problem • If the BOD is 200 mg/L and the aeration period is 24 hrs. what is the BOD load in 1bs/1000 ft3/day? 6 . its residence time is in terms of days. sludge age Sludge Age • Also referred to as the mean cell residence time • Liquid retention times (aeration periods) vary from 3-30 hr.8/26/2015 Biological Aeration Activated Sludge Terminology • Biological Processes in Activated Sludge • Mixed Liquor – suspension of microorganisms in an aeration basin • Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) • Activated Sludge Treatment – Aerated biological process – Targeted to metabolize BOD – Why do we call is activated sludge? Food-to-Microorganism Ratio (F/M) • A way to express BOD loading in proportion to the microbial mass in the system • What are some of the variables that we should know to calculate F/M? – Biological growths in activated sludge treatment • Activated Sludge Design Variables – Aeration period. food-tomicroorganism ratio.