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8/5/2015

Environmental Science: Water
Pollution and Control
The Story of bottled water

EV20001 – Autumn 2015
Brajesh K Dubey
Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Kharagpur

Oxygen Demand

Substances that diminish D.O. in water
Definitions

Biochemical Oxygen Demand [BOD]

C H O N
a

b

c

 4 a + b − 2c − 3d 
+
O 
2
4

d

The amount of oxygen required by bacteria while
stabilizing decomposable organic matter under aerobic
conditions

Chemical Oxygen Demand [COD]

Aerobic Decomposition

The conversion of organic matter to CO2 and H2O by
strong oxidizing agents under acidic conditions

(a )CO

2

 b − 3d 
+
 H O + dNH
2
 2 

3

Biochemical Oxygen Demand


Application to wastewater and receiving waters; not appropriate
for drinking water
Estimated by a laboratory method to simulate conditions in
wastes and receiving waters; controlled conditions
BOD test is a bioassay test

Conditions include
 Temperature = 20oC in an incubator under dark conditions
 Seed = insure bacteria populations are present
 Oxygen = saturated at 20oC at start of test
 Add nutrients [optimize growth] and salts [pH and osmotic
pressure] in dilution water
 Dilute the sample to insure correct results of BOD test [Table 23.1]
 Control, remove, or mask effect of toxics on seed organisms [serial
dilution]

Microbial process follows first order kinetics
- dC/dt = k’ C
k’ = first order rate constant

1

8/5/2015 BOD Kinetics        BOD5 = y = L (1 . t L is needed for wasteload allocation modeling L can be calculated or estimated in the lab Effect of change in variables on BOD 2 .e-k’t) k’ is lne base BOD5 = y = L (1 – 10-kt) k is log10 base y = 5 day BOD or BOD5 L = “ultimate” or “maximum” BOD k’ depends on microbial community and the type of waste involved BOD5 may or may not approximate L Different values of k’ result in different values of L at time.

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oxygen consumption: Increases. therefore BOD test indirectly measures [OM] 4 . releasing CO2 & producing a substantial increase in bacterial pop. pronounced bee-oh-dee)     Most commonly used parameter to define the strength of a polluted water Used to determine the relative oxygen requirements for polluted waters What threat dose BOD present to a receiving water body? Reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO) < 30 mg/L is the standard BOD Laboratory Definition   Quantity of oxygen utilized by a mixed population of microorganisms in the aerobic oxidation (of the organic matter (OM) in a sample of wastewater) at a temperature of 20°C ± 1 °C in an air incubator or water bath Assumes all biodegradable OM will be oxidized to H2O and CO2 Reaction Mechanism  Metabolism of OM & uptake of DO by bacteria. cells  CO2 + prot. Cells DO + bacteria   DO + protozoans If [OM] increases. OM  CO2 + bact.8/5/2015 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD.

prep time) D2 = final DO (after 5 day incubation)   BOD(t)=Ultimate BOD(1-10-Kt)   K = 0.61(B/A) Formula derived from Thomas’ Graphical Method K = rate constant/day A = y-intercept B = slope  Determine solution volume from Table or BOD dilution equation For a valid test DO consumed > 2 mg/L.150/day.e-k’t) k’ is lne base    BOD5 = y = L (1 – 10-kt) k is log10 base y = 5 day BOD or BOD5 L = “ultimate” or “maximum” BOD Determination of BOD-K  K = 2.1/day (common value for domestic waste) Nitrifying lags behind (5 days) Replication should be  15%  D1 and D2 both have units of mg/L P = decimal fraction of wastewater   = mL of wastewater/mL of BOD bottle    Standardized BOD test using glucose & glutamic acid Why is BOD test a 1st order reaction? Rate of O2 consumed is directly proportional to the concentration of degradable OM (Figure) Testing BOD of Municipal Wastewater Example Problem   If the BOD3 of a waste is 75 mg/L and the K is 0. what is volume of WW added? What is the relationship b/w COD and BOD?   What is COD? Chemical oxygen demand     Oxidation or uptake of oxygen to decompose nonbiodegradable OM OM + O2  CO2 + H2O + others So the relationship is? None 5 . what is the ultimate BOD? Answer is 115 mg/L BOD5 = y = L (1 . but DOf > 1 mg/L Example. if BOD = 350 mg/L.8/5/2015 BOD Curves (1st order kinetics) Calculation of BOD    BOD (mg/L) = (D1-D2)/P D1 = initial DO (after 15min.  DO of 5 mg/L.

Lead. Cyanide. Styrene. What is BOD5?   BOD measured after 5 days and used as the standard procedure Should you always use BOD5?   If comparing 2 wastes. Methylene Chloride. • Dissolved: volatile and synthetic organic chemicals. What is Potable Water? Potable Water can be costumed in any desired amount without concern for adverse health effects but does not necessarily taste good Palatable Water is pleasing to drink but not necessarily safe We need Potable Water that is also Palatable. TPC There are various standards against which a sample is compared to obtain the turbidity. sand. BOD is the quantity of O2 used by bugs in the aerobic stabilization of polluted H2O! What prevents water from being potable? Inorganic compounds such as Antimony. fungi. etc. Ethyl Benzene. Carbon tetrachloride. etc.1 µm such as algae. Mercury. Xylene. Organic Compounds Volatile Organic Chemicals: Benzene. • Colloidal : Turbidity. A turbidity higher than 5 TU (turbidity unit) is physically unaesthetic. bacteria. Arsenic.1 µm such as viruses. virus No sharp divisions between the various categories Radioactive contaminants Measurement of the amount of Impurities in Water Turbidity • Suspended : Total Particle Count (TPC)(Visible under a microscope) Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which a colloidal suspension reflects light at a 90o angle to the entrance beam. Chlorobenzene. Color. complex molecules. • Colloidal: Particles smaller than 0.8/5/2015 Conclusions. etc. Color The colloidal particles that cause turbidity also give color to the water. In what form/state are these impurities present in water ? • Suspended: Particles above the size of 0. Alkalinity. Microbial contaminants such as bacteria. 6 . Asbestos. Synthetic Organic Chemicals: Acrylamide. • Dissolved : Hardness. organic material. pH. ions. only if K is the same for both Again.

Fe. River) Varying composition Low mineralization High turbidity Color Microorganisms present Dissolved oxygen Low hardness Tastes. Flocculation: Entrapping the coagulated colloidal particles in settling flocs of alumina.1 TU Color < 3 color units Taste None objectionable Odor None Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) < 200 mg/l (1 mg/l ~ 1ppm) Hardness 80 mg/l of CaCO3 Toxic Inorganic Substances Hard water does not form lather with soap and is bad for cleaning. Ca and Mg in hard water reacts with soap to form insoluble calcium and magnesium carboxylates (the “ring” in the bath tub) Synthetic Organic Chemicals Volatile Organic Chemicals Microorganisms (Coliforms and E. High Speed Centrifugation: Very high speed rotation leading to accumulation of the particles towards the periphery of the centrifuge. Filtration through membranes with very small pores Adsorption: Removal of organic liquids utilizing their affinity for activated carbon. Centrifugation: Removal of the particles by centrifugal forces.8/5/2015 Water Quality Goals Hardness Hardness is the sum of all polyvalent cations such as Ca2+. Mn Surface (Reservoir. Mg2+ (in units of mg/l as CaCO3) Turbidity < 0. 7 . Extraction: Removal of liquids by exposing water to other mediums in which the liquids have a higher solubility. coli. Filtration: Removal of large particles by passing water through a porous membrane or a packed bed. odors Removal of Suspended Matter Sedimentation: Settling of the large suspended particles due to gravity. Distillation: Removal of non-volatile liquids by evaporating water followed by condensation. How to purify water from these sources? Removal of Dissolved Matter Removal of Colloidal Particles Processes that cause a phase changes such as Precipitation: Formation of a product that doesn’t dissolve in water leading to its separation into suspended form.) 0 in at least 80% of tests Sources of Water More than 50% of world population relies on groundwater as a source of drinking water Ground Constant composition High mineralization Little turbidity Low or no color Bacteriologically safe No dissolved oxygen High hardness H2S. Lake.

17x10-11 pH=10.344 N H+ + ClH+ + CH3COO- pKa=4.5 – 2(1. [H+]= 2 x 100/98 x 10-3 m/l pH=-log[2 x 100/98 x 10-3]=2. [OH-]=0.aGA .5 Example: What is the pH of 0.46x10-3 [H+]=10-14/[OH-]=2.699 Example: Add 100 mg of 100% pure sulfuric acid and 100 mg of Sodium hydroxide to a liter of water.02) = 0.bGb At equilibrium: Example: Acid/Base Reactions a  H W   H2O H+ + OH- K w Cc Dd Aa Bb    H  OH    10  14 Normality and Molarity and pH Acids are H+ donors and bases are H+ receptors HW H+ + WK ΔG r   RT ln K   RT ln Molarity is equal to the number of moles/liter and Normality is the number of equivalents/liter  HW  Example: If we dissolve 10 g of NaCl in 500 ml of water what is the molarity and normality of the solution? Examples: HCl CH3COOH NaOH Solution: 10g = 10/58 moles 10g/500 ml = 20/58 mol/l =0.02 m/l pH=-log[. what is the final pH? Solution: 100 mg = 100/98 mM = 100/98 x 10-3 m/l Assuming complete dissociation.002]=2. we need to understand water chemistry ∆Gr=cGc + dGd .46/liter Assuming complete dissociation and neglecting hydroxyl ions from water.75 Na+ + OH- pH=-log[H+] where [ ] denotes concentration in mol/l Alkalinity is the sum of all titrable bases down to pH 4. [H+]= 0.8/5/2015 Reaction Equilibrium aA + bB k1 cC + dD k-1 In order to understand purification processes such as precipitation.7 If 100 mg of H2SO4 are added to a liter of water.5 Net mili-moles of Sodium hydoxide = 2. What is the final pH? Mol wt of sulfuric acid = 98 Mol wt of Sodium hydroxide = 40 Solution: mMoles of Sulfuric acid = 100/98 = 1.02 mMoles of Sodium hydroxide = 100/40 = 2.6 8 .01 M concentrated H2SO4 solution? Solution: Assuming complete dissociation.344 M = 0. flocculation.

Alum (Al2(SO4)3.9 8. 9 .14H2O) when added to water releases Al ion that destabilizes colloids and also reacts with water to form a large complex such as [Al(OH)20. Most colloids are negatively charged so coagulants such as Al 3+ or Fe3+ need to be added to neutralize the charge resulting in aggregation of colloids.45  If the product of the ionic concentrations exceed the corresponding Ks. 45 [ OCl [ OCl  ] 1  [ OCl  ]  [ HOCl ] 4 . keep alum dosage constant and vary pH by adding dilute sulfuric acid from 5 to 7. Disinfection Killing the microorganisms by UV Light.5. •In another set.28H2O]4+ that enmeshes colloids as it settles.04 Coagulation is the process by which small colloidal particles approach each other and adhere to form larger flocs so that they could be subsequently separated in a settler. ]  22.9 10.8/5/2015 Example: If 15mg/l of HOCl is added to potable water for disinfection and the final pH is 7. Ozone (O3) or Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2). Measure the change in turbidity in both sets to determine the optimal pH and alum dosage. precipitation occurs. what % of HOCl is dissociated? Ka=2.32 2 Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 Ca2+ 3 Ferric Hydroxide Fe(OH)3 Fe3+ + 3 OH- 4 Ferric Phosphate FePO4 5 Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH)2 + CO3 2- Fe3+ + PO43Mg2+ + 2 OH- 38. Jar Tests Determine the optimum alum dosage and pH for turbidity removal •In one set of Jars keep constant pH and vary alum dosage from 10-60 mg/l.Chlorination.5% Coagulation and Flocculation 1 Substance Equilibrium Equation pKs Aluminum Hydroxide Al(OH)3 Al3+ + 3 OH- 32.74 Adsorption Use of activated carbon or silica to adsorb taste and odor causing substances and to remove synthetic and volatile organic chemicals. 45 % not dissociate d  100/4. 21.9x10-8 Solution: Ka  Precipitation aA+ + bB- AaBb(s) K  A  B  a s b pKs=-log Ks Example Ca3(PO4)2 (s) H OCl   10 OCl     7  HOCl  [ HOCl ]  10 7  HOCl  / K a [ OCl 3Ca2+ + 2PO43-   ]  3 .0.

Steady State • Second order: -rA = kcA2 Steady state implies no change in state variables with time. dissolved.8/5/2015 Reaction Rates Thermodynamics vs. and suspended material Pathogens. carcinogens. Kinetics Each physical process progresses at rates that depend on a number of variables and eventually achieves thermodynamic equilibrium. lakes. Combination of chemical and physical treatment. tastes. reservoirs.. Steady state in a closed system implies equilibrium What do we need to remove? Potable Water Treatment SDWA (1974) – federal mandate to protect public health ~ 40% of the world’s population does not have adequate access to safe water   All impurities that could cause death. 10 . rivers). • Zeroth order: -rA = k • First order: -rA = kcA Equilibrium vs. odors. or adverse health effects? Examples   Colloidal. although including biology is becoming more popular. color (atrazine standard)! How are we going to purify H2O? Typical unit process train for purifying surface water (e. disease.g.

PAC. G Type of Impeller and Power Baffle design Design of a Rapid Mix Basin Full-scale vs. velocity gradient of 600 .5 . V=t0 Q where Q is the given flowrate Liquid depth: 0.1 times basin diameter or width G(t0).1.8/5/2015 Purpose for Rapid Mix Basins Mix the chemicals such as Alum (Al2(SO4)3) or FeCl3 for coagulation. KMnO4. Blender – thoroughly and instantaneously mix the chemicals Rapid Mix Basin Alum Dose as a function of Water Source Source Reservoir Lake River Dose (mg/L) 16 22 29 Design Variables Residence time Volume (shape. t0 . dimensions) Velocity gradient. between 10 and 30 seconds V < 8 m3. Di  0.0.3 .5 times the tank diameter or width Baffles extend 10% of tank diameter or width T = V/Q 11 . can also add Cl2. P=µVG2 Impeller diameter.1000 s-1 Turbine or Axial Flow Impeller. Pilot Scale    The design equations we will discuss are intended for full-scale You must address their applicability for pilot-scale! Basic equation:  Choose Detention time.

Create big settling flocs such as [Al(OH)20. floc) settles enmeshing colloids with it Optimum pH range is b/w 5.e.g.000 900 800 700 How do Coagulation and Flocculation work Add a coagulant such as Al2(OH)3 – alum or FeCl3 – ferric chloride that provides positively charged ions to neutralize the negative charge of colloidal particles resulting in aggregation Desired properties of a coagulant Trivalent cation Non-toxic Insoluble in the neutral pH range (i. stick and grow to a size that readily settles. clay.5 – 6. it dissociates releasing an aluminum ion that develops water clusters around it This large particle precipitate (e.5 Coagulant aids: pH adjusters.5 (in-line blending) 10 – 20 20 – 30 30 – 40 > 40 3.8/5/2015 Purpose for Coagulation and Flocculation G values for Rapid Mixing to G 0. How Does Alum Work? When added to water. coagulation Softening. and polymers Goal is to create larger.500 1.28H2O]4+ that enmesh colloids as it settles. G (large enough for mixing but avoid shearing Tapered Flocculation  3 G zones G decreases from beginning to end Average G is the design value Baffle design Impeller design Bring small precipitates and colloidal particles into contact so that they collide. activated silica.. Al-OHH2O. denser floc G and t0 Values for Flocculation Type G (s-1) Gt0 (unitless) Low turbidity. 39% solids 150 – 300 390000-400000 50 – 150 90000-180000 12 . coagulation High turbidity. dimensions) Velocity gradient. coagulant must precipitate out) Flocculation Design Variables Residence time Volume (shape. 10% solids 20 – 70 60000-200000 130 – 200 200000-250000 Softening.. color removal. solids removal.

chemical floc.0. P=µVG2 Impeller diameter. what kind of H2O?) Get t0(G) Get V=t0 Q where Q is the given flowrate Liquid depth: 0.1.1 times basin diameter or width Turbine or Axial Flow Impeller..5 – 1. Height (h) and Width (W) Perforated Baffle Design to distribute the incoming fluid Effluent Weir Design to remove the effluent Slope of the Sludge zone: 1 to 10% slope 1% for mechanically cleaned 5 to 10% for manually cleaned Settling – gravity settling Outlet – remove effluent 13 . Di  0.e.5 . and precipitates from suspension through gravity settling Types of Settlers/Clarifiers Upflow Clarifier Horizontal flow Clarifier Horizontal Flow Clarifier Sedimentation Basin Zones Inlet – evenly distribute the flow across x-sectional area ~ 25% of tank in theory Design Variables: Length (L).2 .8/5/2015 Design of Flocculator Choose Velocity gradient. G (i.5 times the tank diameter or width (Max impeller diameter = 3 m) Rules of thumb: minimum v = Length/ t 0 0.5 ft/min t = 30 min Purpose of Sedimentation Upflow Clarifier Removal of particulate matter.

1 vs h vl  l Ql  t0 V l Condition for Settling: h l h V Qh Q     vs    v0 vs vl vs Q V As vs  v0 vs Percentage Removal.5 ft/min Obtain Detention time.e.particles settle discretely @ a constant settling velocity (i. kg/m3  = density of fluid. As = l W. m/s2 s = density of particles.22. P = 100 v 0 Design of Horizontal Flow Clarifier Purpose of Filtration Q is the given flowrate Calculate vs (d) Choose v0 = 0. lime softening) Weight Typical Sedimentation Tank vo Problems in using Stokes Equation Particles are not spherical (Use equivalent diameter) Particle diameter changes with settling (Use the minimum diameter : Conservative Design) Obtain vs experimentally Design of Horizontal Flow Clarifier vl Treatment vo (m3/d•m2) Alum or iron floc Lime softening floc 14.8/5/2015 Why do particles Settle? Stoke’s Law for spherical particles vs = g (s . t0 = l/vl Obtain V using t0 = V/Q Most common design  Granular-media gravity filter Obtain h using V = l W h 14 . vl  0. kg/m3 d = diameter of sphere µ = dynamic viscosity...particles settle as a mass (i.82.) d2 18 µ Buoyancy Drag g = acceleration due to gravity.e. no flocculation) Type II .particles flocculate during sedimentation (since they flocculate their size is constantly changing (i.e.W Choose horizontal velocity.8 vs Obtain As using v0 = Q/As Removal of flocs that do not settle in the Clarifier due to small size.3 TU.3 22. Pa•s Settling properties of particles are often categorized into one of three classes: Type I .5 . Choose L/W~5..3 . Use these to obtain l. Reduce settled water turbidity of ~ 5 TU to below 0. vs is ) Type III .

which means that 10% of the filter grains by weight are smaller than the diameter Suggested range – Definition: ratio of the 60-percentile diameter to the 10-percentile diameter Typically < 1. Granular media ~ 2 feet Sand ~ 6 feet Course gravel ~ 1 foot Underdrain Head loss Filter Media Head loss will increase overtime as filter collects impurities Filter is back-washed (reverse flow) to remove impurities ~ 15 gpm/ft2 for ~ 10 – 15 min Choose media to promote straining. rapid. ft2 Design rates are between 2 – 10 Filter Depth gpm/ft2 5 gpm/ft2 is most common (slow. flocculation.7 for sand and anthracite 0. gpm/ft2 Q = flow rate onto filter. but prevent passing of small particles Dual-media filter Anthracite Sand Typically.8/5/2015 Filter Design Filter Design Loading Rate The flow rate of water applied per unit area of filter va = Q / As Typical depth ~ 9 feet Filter Bed Breakdown va = loading rate. and sedimentation Grain size – desired to retain large quantities of floc.35 – 0. gal/day As = filter surface area. filters backwash every 24 hours or when headloss is between 6 – 9 feet Media specified by effective size and uniformity coefficient Effective Size (E) Uniformity Coefficient (U) Definition: the 10 percent diameter.55 mm for sand 15 . and high-rate filters) Choose va and calculate As for a given Q.

” United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220) (Source: Heath. 1984.61% Surfacewater: 0..001% Model Specifications Physical Dimensions..2% Heads and Gradients.” United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220) Groundwater: Underground water in formations where void space is completely filled with water Underground Formations Definitions Unconsolidated Rocks Consolidated Rocks (Source: Heath. 1984. Boundary Conditions Distribution of World’s Water Supply (Source: Heath. Finite-Difference Solutions  Groundwater: 0. Hydraulic Conductivity.8/5/2015 How does one determine E and U? Determine the size distribution of a sample via a sieve analysis Plot the sieve size versus the percentage of material retained on each sieve (log-probability paper) Overview:    Hydrologic Cycle Definitions Groundwater Flow Processes Modelling Contaminant Transport Hydrologic Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Saline water in oceans: 97. Flow Nets. Hydraulic Properties.C. 1984.C.009% Soil moisture: 0.14% Governing Equations. R. “Basic Ground-Water Hydrology.. Darcy’s Law.C. Aquifer Properties. Initial Conditions.” United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220) 16 . More Definitions  Solving Groundwater Flow Equations Ice caps and glaciers: 2. R. “Basic Ground-Water Hydrology.005% Atmosphere: 0. Grid Size. R. “Basic Ground-Water Hydrology.

. pumpage from wells.8/5/2015 Definitions Definitions Aquifer: A geologic formation that contains water and permits significant amounts of water to move through it under ordinary field conditions. R. Does not yield water freely to wells. “Basic Ground-Water Hydrology. discharge.0 m 3 Confined Aquifers  groundwater confined under pressure greater than atmospheric by overlying relatively impermeable strata Leaky Aquifer   neither completely confined nor completely unconfined permeable stratum is overlain by a semipervious aquitard (Source: Heath.C... Aquitard: A saturated but poorly permeable stratum that impedes groundwater movement. “Basic Ground-Water Hydrology. R.C. 1980) Definitions Definitions i) Porosity (n) Unconfined Aquifers   water table is at atmospheric pressure water table takes on form depending on recharge. but may transmit appreciable water between adjacent aquifers. 1984. 1984.C.” United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220) Groundwater Flow Processes Head & Gradient Definitions ii) Specific Yield & Specific Retention Sy  Vd Vt Sr  Vr Vt n  Sy  Sr ht  z  elevation head  p g   z  hp (Source: Heath.” United States Geological Survey WaterSupply Paper 2220) pressure head (Source: Heath.3 m 3  0. “Basic Ground-Water Hydrology. (Source: Todd. 1984. R. and permeability  Volume of voids  Vv  Total volume  Vt  n 0.30 1.” United States Geological Survey WaterSupply Paper 2220) -Slide 101- 100 m  15 m    98 m  18 m   85 m  80 m  5 m h i L  L 780 m 780 m 780 m 17 .

K = hydraulic conductivity (L/T).Homogeneity Aquifers Soils Homogeneous Q  KA h L Hydraulic Conductivity. is the volume of water produced from a confined aquifer per unit aquifer area per unit decline in the potentiometric surface. Q  KA h h h  K  bw     Kb w L L L Transmissivity.Transmissivity Aquifer Properties -. S [dimensionless]. Heterogeneity  K = f(Location) -Slide 106- Aquifer Properties – Isotropy Isotropic Anisotropic Aquifer Properties – Storage Coefficient Storage coefficient (or storativity). dh/dl = hydraulic conductivity (L/L) Not applicable for: High velocity flow (Reynolds number > 1) in some gravels and in secondary pores (eg. Karst). T = Kb Heterogeneous (m2d-1) T represents flow per unit width of the aquifer under unit gradient. Aquifer Properties . K (md-1) K represents flow per unit area of the sample under unit gradient. vp = average pore velocity (L/T).8/5/2015 Darcy’s Law: 1) Q  A Aquifer 2) Q   ha  hb  Properties– Hydraulic Conductivity 1 3) Q  L Q  KA dh qK dl A vp  K dh n dl ha  h b h  KA  KAi L L q nA h h Q  K a b A L K   3 1 Qdl md m m  2  Adh m m d   Where. S volume of water  unit area  unit head change   m3 m3  3 m2  m  m   Anisotropy  K = f(Direction) 18 . n = soil porosity. q = Darcy velocity or Darcy flux (L/T).

2 .3  Same as specific yield Lowering of potentiometric surface results in:  Decrease in fluid pressure and expansion of fluid slightly  A part of the weight of the overlying material is transferred from the fluid to the solid .8/5/2015 Storativity/Specific Yield – Unconfined Aquifer Storativity/Storage Coefficient – Confined Aquifer Unconfined Lowering of water table results in:  Draining of water from the pores  Lowering of the unsaturated water distribution in soils above the water table  Water drained equals the volume of water corresponding to the shaded area in the above figure  Typical values of 0.compressing the aquifer material (similar to squeezing a sponge) In a confined aquifer with a porosity of 0. The difference in the values is attributed to compression of the aquifer. the storage coefficient of a 100 m thick aquifer is 3 x 10 -5. Governing Equations  h   h      y h  x K     K     S y x y t For Homogeneous and Isotropic Conditions:  2 h  2 h Sy h   x 2 y 2 K t Diffusion Equation  used for unsteady (or transient) flows  2 h  2 h Sy b h S h    x 2 y 2 Kb t T t Valid for Unconfined + Confined Aquifers (S = Storage Coefficient or Storativity) 2h 2h  0 x 2 y 2 Laplace Equation  used for steady (or constant) flows 19 . Thus. expansion of water alone releases 3x10-7 m3 of water per m3 of aquifer per meter of decline in head. if only the expansion of water is considered.1 – 0. The storage coefficient of most confined aquifers is 10-5 to 10-3.