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GMAT

HANDBOOK
®

Everything you need to know and agree to
when scheduling your GMAT exam.

Last updated: 19 July 2015

For more information, please visit mba.com

TAKE CONTROL OF

YOUR GMAT
EXPERIENCE

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2
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Get your best GMAT score
with a solid study plan.
As you get started with your studying, download our free GMATPrep®
software and use the Exam Pack 1 supplement. The enhanced
diagnostics in Exam Pack 1 will give you detailed, personalized
information about your performance on your practice exams — giving
you valuable insights on how you handle different question types
and pacing. Take the worry-free approach to preparing for the GMAT
exam so there’s no surprises on test day.

Register and take
the exam.
Select a date, time, and test center that’s convenient for you and
register at mba.com.

Preview your
score.
Now you can preview your score before sending to your designated
schools. The Score Preview feature on the GMAT exam gives you
more control over your score. You decide if you want to accept your
score and send to schools or cancel them to re-take the test at a
later date.

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Evaluate your
performance.

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Get
noticed.

The new GMAT® Enhanced Score Report is the only post-test report
that guides you through your test results, providing an inside look
at how you performed on each section. Now you can know exactly
what questions took you the longest to complete and see where
you stack up next to other test takers. If you have the suspicion that
you can do better, the Enhanced Score Report gives you a detailed
analysis by question type, areas for focus, and pacing — so you can
focus your studies and do even better next time.

Make it easy for schools to find you. Use the free GMASS® search
service and connect with business schools around the world based
on your background, lifestyle, career aspirations, study destination,
and more.

Get more control over your
GMAT experience at mba.com.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTACT US

Find everything you need to know and agree to when scheduling and taking your GMAT exam.
Check each section to be sure you have read all of the necessary information. For the most
updated version of the handbook. Please visit mba.com

The GMAT Exam is owned by Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC). We
develop and deliver the exam with the help of our service providers: Pearson VUE and ACT.
We wrote this handbook for “you,” the test taker. Please contact us if you need assistance.

PAGE
#

CHECK
Z

CONTACT US

1

Z

READ THE GMAT HANDBOOK

TOPIC

Visit us on the web at mba.com
Phone, email or fax us:

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Z

MARKET YOURSELF WITH THE GMAT EXAM

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Z

YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES AS A GMAT TEST TAKER

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Z

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Z

FAX:

SCHEDULE YOUR GMAT EXAM

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Z

EMAIL: GMATCandidateServicesAPAC@pearson.com

PAY FOR THE EXAM

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Z

RESCHEDULE OR CANCEL YOUR EXAM

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Z

WE PROTECT YOUR PRIVACY

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Z

COUNTRY SPECIFIC REGULATIONS

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Z

PREPARE FOR THE GMAT EXAM

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Z

STRUCTURE OF THE EXAM

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Z

KNOW WHAT TO EXPECT

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Z

ON EXAM DAY

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Z

CHECK IN

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Z

PRESENT APPROPRIATE IDENTIFICATION

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Z

VERIFY YOUR IDENTITY

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Z

BEFORE THE EXAM

AGREE TO THE GMAT EXAMINATION TESTING RULES & AGREEMENT

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Z

AGREE TO THE GENERAL TERMS OF USE AND NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT

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Z

ACCEPT YOUR SCORE

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Z

AVOID TESTING VIOLATIONS

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Z

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Z

PICK UP YOUR UNOFFICIAL SCORE REPORT

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Z

REINSTATE YOUR SCORE

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Z

EVALUATE YOUR PERFORMANCE

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Z

VIEW YOUR OFFICIAL SCORE REPORT

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Z

COMPARE YOUR SCORES WITH OTHER TEST TAKERS

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Z

SEND SCORE REPORTS TO SCHOOLS

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Z

BEWARE OF SCORE CANCELLATIONS

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Z

REPORT INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR

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Z

SUBMIT A CONCERN ABOUT YOUR EXPERIENCE

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CONSIDER RETAKING THE EXAM

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Z

AFTER YOUR EXAM

© 2015 Graduate Management Admission Council® (GMAC®). All rights reserved.
The GMAC and GMAT logos, GMAC®, GMAT®, GMATPrep®, Graduate Management Admission Council®, and Graduate Management
Admission Test® are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council in the United States, European Union,
and other countries. American Express® is a registered trademark of American Express Company, JCB® is a registered trademark
of JCB, Co. Ltd. MasterCard® is a registered trademark of MasterCard International Inc. Visa® is a registered trademark of Visa
International Service Association.

REGION
ASIA PACIFIC

(except China and India)

CHINA

CONTACT INFORMATION
PHONE: +852-3077-4926

+60 38319 1092

PHONE:
FAX:

EMAIL:

INDIA

+86 10 82345675

+86 10 61957800
GMATservice@neea.edu.cn

PHONE: +91

120 439 7830

EMAIL: GMATCandidateServicesAPAC@pearson.com

EUROPE,
MIDDLE EAST,
AFRICA

NORTH AND
SOUTH
AMERICA

PHONE:
FAX:

+44 (0) 161 855 7219

+44 (0) 161 855 7301

EMAIL: GMATCandidateServicesEMEA@pearson.com

PHONE:
FAX:

1 800 717 GMAT (4628) (US and Canada)

1 952 681 3680 or 1 952 681-3681

SERVICE TIMES
Telephone services are available
MONDAY-FRIDAY, 9 AM TO 6 PM
Australian Eastern Standard Time.
Email services are available
MONDAY-FRIDAY, 7 AM TO 7 PM
Australian Eastern Standard Time.
Response time for email sent outside
of these times may be up to 48 hours. 
Telephone services are available
MONDAY-FRIDAY, 8:30 AM TO 5 PM
China Standard Time.
Email services are available
MONDAY-FRIDAY, 8:30 AM TO 5 PM
China Standard Time. Response time
for email sent outside of these times
may be up to 48 hours.
MONDAY-FRIDAY, 9 AM TO 6 PM
Indian Standard Time.
Telephone services are available
MONDAY-FRIDAY, 9 AM TO 5 PM
Greenwich Mean Time.
Email services are available
MONDAY-FRIDAY, 8 AM TO 5 PM
Greenwich Mean Time. Response
time for email sent outside of these
times may be up to 3 business days.
MONDAY – FRIDAY, 7 AM TO 7 PM
Central Standard Time

EMAIL: GMATCandidateServicesAmericas@Pearson.com

>> SEND MAIL:
Send all mail inquiries to the address below. Please keep in mind that it can take up to
eight weeks for letters to reach the United States from some countries.
Pearson VUE-GMAT Program
5601 Green Valley Drive
Suite 300
Bloomington, MN 55437 USA

GMAT HANDBOOK

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READ
THE GMAT HANDBOOK
Pursuing a graduate degree is a rewarding experience. The GMAT® exam is part of that
process. We are here to help you understand everything you need to know and do to take
the GMAT exam.
This handbook is designed to help you through this process. Since you must agree to our
policies as a condition for taking the GMAT exam, we describe what you need to know
about the exam, what you need to do, and when you need to do it. Use the convenient
checklist in the Table of Contents to track your progress toward the next step in your
graduate management degree. Be sure to read this handbook carefully as you will
be bound by its content.

MARKET YOURSELF WITH THE GMAT EXAM
TAKING THE GMAT EXAM CAN SET YOU UP FOR SUCCESS:
• More than 6,000 programs worldwide use GMAT scores to help them find,
recruit, and select the students who best fit with their programs. Take the exam
to let them know you are serious about graduate management education.
• Your scores are a way to compare yourself with other graduate applicants.
Figure out what you need to focus on to help your application.
The GMAT exam gives you information about your strengths and weaknesses. Identify the
skills you need to focus on to be successful in your graduate program.

YOUR RIGHTS AND
RESPONSIBILITIES AS A
GMAT TEST TAKER
As a GMAT test taker, you have certain rights and responsibilities. You maintain these
rights only if you comply with all GMAT policies and procedures.

OUR COMMITMENT
TO YOU …

YOUR PROMISE
TO US …

WE WILL:

YOU WILL:

Provide you with free, detailed
information about the exam
(format, content, question types, fees,
and scoring), and information on
accommodations for disabilities

Read all of the information in
this handbook

• GMATPrep® Software:
mba.com/gmatprep
• GMAT Handbook Supplement
for Test Takers with Disabilities
Develop and deliver the exam
according to professional standards
Treat you fairly and with impartiality,
regardless of personal characteristics
protected by law

Familiarize yourself with the testing
format and content
Show up at the testing center with
the proper identification
Follow the rules in this handbook and
report any violations you observe
Know the consequences if you do not
show up, fail to complete the exam,
or violate our policies

Share our privacy policy with you

Read the GMAC Privacy Policy and
know how your information will be
collected and used

Treat your personal information with
respect and confidentiality

Share only your official scores
with institutions

Send you an Official Score Report online
or by mail

Send us any questions you may have
about any of the information presented
in this handbook or other GMAT
publications and communications

Share your official scores with only those
institutions or organizations you specify or
allow (except when issues arise relating to
your scores)

Send us any concerns you may
have about the testing process or
your results

Respond to you in a timely and helpful
manner with information about how we
will address your concerns
This statement of your rights has been adapted with permission from the APA, AERA,
and NCME Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.

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GMAT HANDBOOK

GMAT HANDBOOK

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BEFORE THE EXAM
>> SCHEDULE YOUR GMAT EXAM
We want this process to be easy for you. Follow these four steps to plan and register for
your GMAT exam. Check Z the boxes as you complete each task.

STEP 1: Gather information
Z Understand the minimum requirements for scheduling the exam:
• You must be at least 18 years old. If you are between 13 and 17 years old, you must
get permission from a parent or legal guardian. If you do need permission, you must
provide written proof of your guardian’s consent prior to scheduling the exam.
• You may take the exam no more than five times within a 12 month period.
• You must wait at least 16 days after you take the exam before you can take
it again.
• You must wait at least five years to test again if you have previously achieved a
perfect Total score of 800.
• You must follow all of the registration and testing rules.

Z Research schools and check application deadlines for programs that interest you.
Z Check our “Country Specific Regulations” for any guidelines that may apply to you.

See p.5.

STEP 3: Schedule and pay for your exam
Z You can schedule your exam online, by phone, postal mail, or fax and pay by credit





• ONLINE – Schedule your exam for free on mba.com. Log in and create an
account, and follow the homepage link. It’s easy and fast.

Z Request reasonable testing accommodations if you have a disability. You must be

approved for any accommodations before you schedule your exam, and you
must follow any special registration instructions you receive.

• PHONE – Call GMAT Customer Service in your region. You may be charged
an additional service fee of US$10.

Z Plan for your exam preparation and determine how long you will need.

• POSTAL MAIL – Complete the form on mba.com and mail with your payment
information. If you pay by check or money order, this is your only option.

Z Visit mba.com/testcenterlist to find test centers near you and determine availability.

card or debit card, check, or money order. If you are applying for accommodations for
a disability, you must follow special procedures, which you will find in the
GMAT Handbook Supplement for Test Takers With Disabilities. If approved, you will
receive an accommodations approval letter with instructions on how to schedule your
accommodated exam. Regardless of how you schedule your exam, we will send you
an email confirming your registration.

Include “DoD” and “Military” sites only if you have a US Military ID that allows you to
enter the military site.

• FAX – Complete the form on mba.com and fax to the number shown.

Z Make sure you have entered your name, date of birth, country of citizenship, and gender

EXACTLY as they appear on the identification you will present at the test center.

STEP 2: Build your timeline
Z Build your timeline below using the information you gathered in Step 1 above.

STEP 4: Review your confirmation letter

Z If scheduling by mail, add time for standard shipping times to the US.

Z Ensure that your name listed on the confirmation letter EXACTLY matches your form

Z If paying by personal check or money order, add at least 10 days for processing.

Z Confirm that the GMAT test date and location are correct.

Z If applying for accommodations, add time to gather your documentation and submit

Z If your test center name includes “DoD” or “Military,” make sure you have proper

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your application.

GMAT HANDBOOK

of identification.

identification. If you will not have proper identification by your exam date, reschedule
your exam now.

GMAT HANDBOOK

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>> PAY FOR THE EXAM

>> RESCHEDULE OR CANCEL YOUR EXAM

You will find the current registration fee and tax rates (where applicable) on mba.com
under “Pay for the Test.”

You can reschedule or cancel your exam online or by phone. If you are scheduled with
accommodations, refer back to your approval letter for the number to call.

CREDIT CARDS AND DEBIT CARDS*

If you reschedule or cancel your exam appointment by phone, you will be charged an additional
service fee of US$10. Cancellations, refunds and rescheduling fees will apply, depending on when
you request the change and as applicable by local law. Current fees are available on mba.com.

• Visa
• MasterCard
• American Express

If you miss your appointment, you may schedule a new exam without waiting a full 16 days,
but you must schedule by phone and pay the full registration fee.

• JCB

Changes within 24 hours prior to your appointment cannot be made.

*In India some banks will not allow debit cards to be used on the internet unless the
merchant participates in Verified by Visa or MasterCard Secure Code. This requires that
the customer enter a pin number. We do not participate in this program. Please contact
your bank for assistance. Some banks may be willing to issue their customers a special
onetime use card or lift the pin restriction so you can use it on our website.
Charges on your credit card statement will most likely appear as: “VUE*GRAD MGMT TEST”
If your credit or debit card is declined, your appointment automatically will be canceled.
You are responsible for scheduling another test appointment with a valid payment.
If you use a stolen or fraudulent credit or debit card, your registration will be canceled,
any of your previous GMAT scores may be canceled, and GMAC may notify both schools
and law enforcement authorities.
If you wrongfully challenge or dispute the fee with your credit card company, you may be
blocked from taking further exams or from requesting additional score reports.
CASHIER’S CHECKS, MONEY ORDERS, AND PERSONAL CHECKS MUST:

>> WE PROTECT YOUR PRIVACY
We respect your privacy, and we treat your personal information with respect and confidentiality. We want you to know:
• What data we collect and how we use it

• Be payable to Pearson VUE-GMAT, in US dollars and drawn on a US bank

• What laws are applicable

• Be for the full amount, including taxes, where applicable (see mba.com/gmatfees
for tax information)

• Where to get the full GMAC Privacy Policy

• List the current date (do not postdate)
• Have the appropriate signature(s)
• Have the bank name and its location preprinted on the face of the check
• Be received at least 10 days before the appointment date to allow for processing
If your check is returned for insufficient funds, Pearson VUE may deduct a service fee from
your account electronically (see mba.com/gmatfees), and your appointment will be canceled. You are responsible for scheduling another test appointment with a valid payment.
GMAT EXAM VOUCHERS
If you have received a voucher, you may apply it to the exam fee. However, you may not
use it for rescheduling fees or receive a refund (except as required by law).
For Terms and Conditions governing the use of GMAT Exam Vouchers, go to
mba.com/voucherterms.

The following are highlights from the full GMAC Privacy Policy related to taking the GMAT
exam. You are required to agree to the full GMAC Privacy Policy found on mba.com
when you register for the exam, and again when you arrive at the test center to take the
exam. The Privacy Policy is available at mba.com/legal/privacy-policy.aspx. Please
review the entire Privacy Policy before you register to test.
WHAT DATA DO WE COLLECT?
Required information for all test takers:
• Contact information including your full legal name (given and family/surname),
address, telephone, and email address
• Background data, including gender, ethnicity (United States only), date of birth,
country of citizenship
• Identity data verified or collected at the test center such as government-issued
identification, a digital photograph, signature, palm vein pattern, and audio/video
recording of the test session
• Payment data for GMAT fees

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GMAT HANDBOOK

GMAT HANDBOOK

7

you can go to mba. reschedule or cancel your exam appointment(s) • Graphics Interpretation • Respond to your customer service requests • Two-Part Analysis OPTIONAL 8-MINUTE BREAK • Conduct GMAT exam research and statistical analyses. but the rules about the number and types of questions ensure fairness of the overall test. THE GMAT EXAM IS FAIR • Track your time and the number of questions you have to answer • Receive unofficial scores when you finish the test The two longest sections (Quantitative and Verbal) are “adaptive”: As you progress through the section. taxes. native language and education history TIME LIMIT (in minutes) NUMBER OF QUESTIONS 30 1 • Analysis of an Argument 0-6 HOW DO WE USE IT? ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT Required information is used to: INTEGRATED REASONING 30 12 • Multi-Source Reasoning 1-8 • Opt-in selections for information about our other products and services. and privacy policies as applicable will apply in certain countries and to citizens of certain countries. because you will not see questions that would be too easy or too hard for you. For several reasons. not just the previous questions. Our computer exam allows you to: • Test around the world on almost any day of the year >> COUNTRY SPECIFIC REGULATIONS The GMAT exam is administered worldwide in accordance with US and other local laws. and other research • Score sending preferences SECTION ORDER QUESTION TYPES • Table Analysis • Schedule. identification requirements.OPTIONAL FOR TEST TAKERS: STRUCTURE OF THE GMAT EXAM • Other data about you including: fax number. THE GMAT EXAM USES ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY AND SECURITY The GMAT exam is available only at authorized test centers around the world. all test takers will: For more information on computerized adaptive testing. surveys. and security of the GMAT exam • Share your payment information with our financial partners and vendors to process your payment SCORE RANGE OPTIONAL 8-MINUTE BREAK VERBAL 75 41 • Reading Comprehension  0-60 • Critical Reasoning • Sentence Correction • Protect the security and integrity of the examination process Ultimately. you need to know what is on it and how it works. • Questions are selected for you and other test takers individually. and selects the next question by adapting to your level of skill. which ensures consistency and fairness. • Your scores are updated based on all of your answers. Regardless of the variety of questions.com/GMATformat • Be evaluated on the same number of questions • Answer the same type of questions • Be subject to time limits • Be tested in similar conditions 8 GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK 9 . quality. which may be different than those in your home country.com/countryregulations >> PREPARE FOR THE GMAT EXAM To best prepare for the exam. • The uniqueness of each test enhances the security of the exam. Depending on the schools you select or other products and services you request. to be fair to everyone taking the test around the world. THE GMAT EXAM MEASURES MULTIPLE SKILLS The GMAT exam is made up of different types of questions so that you can demonstrate your ability in several skills required to be successful in graduate school. All US legal proceedings involving our privacy policies must be filed in a court of suitable jurisdiction in the Commonwealth of Virginia. we consider this the best testing method: • The test has fewer questions than others. all data we receive are sent to the US and subject to US law. in aggregate QUANTITATIVE • Cooperate as required by law or in legal proceedings 75 37 • Data Sufficiency 0-60 • Problem Solving • Authenticate and verify your identity to maintain the integrity. your data may leave the US and will be subject to the recipients’ local privacy laws. go to mba. Special registration guidelines. where applicable. the computer evaluates your answers. testing rules. updates your score. You may not skip or return to questions. The exam is given only on computer. For the most up-to-date country-specific policies.

• Sharing answers with others. ON EXAM DAY The information below will help you have a successful testing experience. you will be able to do your best only if you prepare and practice.aspx • Practice with question types so you spend time on the question. • GMATPrep software is FREE and includes adaptive practice tests. birth date. • School notification. • Knowing what to expect will save you time and effort at the test center.com/NDA being canceled)   • Provide your palm vein scan (where permitted by law) • Provide your digital signature stating you understand and agree to the Test Taker Rules & Agreement • Sit for a photograph BEGIN YOUR GMAT EXAM Comply with all applicable policies and procedures while you are testing   HAS SOMEONE BEEN TRYING TO GET YOU TO ACT ILLEGALLY? FILE A REPORT VIA EMAIL: PVTESTSECURITY@PEARSON. • Taking the test for someone else.com/legal/privacy-policy.com/GMATformat and click on the link for “Analytical Writing Assessment. go to mba.” • Miltary ID card Laminated government – issued learner’s permit (US only) • Permanent resident/green card (US only) See: mba.COM 10 GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK 11 . • Planning study time for the GMAT exam will help you develop skills that make it easier to plan study time when you start your graduate management program. • Memorizing test questions. or the computer. • Possible legal prosecution. • Cancellation of your scores. so you know about how difficult the questions selected for you will seem. recognizable photo of you and your signature • To purchase other official GMAT preparation materials.KNOW WHAT TO EXPECT Regardless of your current skills with reading. and country of citizenship you used when you scheduled your exam Contain a recent.com/store • For a list of questions that have been used for the Analytical Writing Assessment. Watch our video about the testing facilities: mba.com/countryregulations CAUTION! THE PENALTIES FOR CHEATING ON THE GMAT® EXAM ARE SEVERE. arithmetic.aspx Avoid policy violations (the consequences of which Non-Disclosure Agreement may result in your score mba. CHECK IN WHAT THIS MEANS PRESENT ID must: APPROPRIATE • Be current (not expired) IDENTIFICATION • Be valid and government-issued NOTES Acceptable forms of ID: • Passport book (mandatory in some countries and required if testing outside your country of citizenship)* • Be the originally issued ID (no photocopies) • Practice with GMAC resources: • To get the free GMATPrep software.com/gmatprep • Government – issued driver’s license • Government – issued national/state/ province identity card (including European ID card) • Exactly match the name. go to mba.com/the-gmat/test-day. READ THE GMAT EXAMINATION TESTING RULES AGREEMENT This will help you: VERIFY YOUR IDENTITY You will: GMAT Examination Testing Rules Agreement mba. not on decoding what is being asked. THE FOLLOWING IS CONSIDERED CHEATING: THE PENALTIES FOR CHEATING ARE: • Hiring someone to take the test. go to mba. writing. • Ban on future testing.

your exam will be terminated. in order to test. You may not sit at the workstation for the remainder of your break. or otherwise attempt to duplicate in any way whatsoever any questions or answers that are on your exam when you take the GMAT exam. or any other issue. 4. If you return from your break early and request to be checked into your exam. 3. • Invalidate your test and cancel your score • Take other action. photograph. transmission. you must agree to comply with and be bound by the rules set forth in this Agreement. on any internet “chat room. please ask the Test Administrator for a copy of the GMAT Handbook. You may leave the testing room or your seat only if you are escorted by a Pearson VUE employee. 6. you must immediately begin your exam.com. 1.” via SMS/text. including Rules that prohibit improper conduct or tampering with the computer.>> AGREE TO THE GMAT TEST TAKER RULES & AGREEMENT DURING A BREAK: You will receive a copy of the following GMAT Test Taker Rules & Agreement at your test center prior to taking the exam. You must return from breaks on time. and the audio/video recording). You may ONLY have • Water • Food GMAT EXAMINATION TESTING RULES AGREEMENT • Tobacco products (at the discretion of the test center) Everything you do after signing this Agreement is part of your exam. GMAT HANDBOOK 13 . and other actions may be taken. which may be outside of the country in which I am testing. palm vein pattern template. or misplaced personal items. For additional information concerning the collection. such as prohibiting you from retesting • Keep your exam fee If you are found accessing prohibited items. in whole or in part. I give GMAC and Pearson VUE my permission to retain and transmit my personal data and test responses to the United States. Notify the administrator immediately if you have a problem with the computer. I understand the information provided above and agree to comply with and be bound by this GMAT Examination Testing Rules Agreement. You must take your break in the test center lobby. photograph and signature. time will be deducted from the next section of your exam. you will be bound by this Agreement. in any form or by any means (orally. See page 15. You may bring ONLY the following items into the test room: You must not • Your ID • Key to the supplied locker • Record • Prescription eyeglasses • Copy • A light sweater or light non-outerwear jacket • Disclose in any fashion • Comfort items ONLY if they were pre-approved as accommodations received in advance any exam question or answer. Whether that is the case or not. WHILE IN THE TEST ROOM: AFTER THE EXAM: 1. You may not access your cell phone/study materials. Many test centers have small lockers where you can store your belongings. record. 4. software. exam results. Pearson VUE may • Report the incident to GMAC • Report the incident to the schools you selected • Comfort items. You may not remain in the testing room at your workstation. If you remain in the test area. If you need additional details about any of the Rules or your expected conduct. 2. Leave the test center immediately if you don’t agree to be bound by this Agreement and these Rules. 5. stolen. If you do not follow the Rules. without limitation. You must raise your hand for assistance or to leave your seat. You may not copy. and processing of your personal data (including. your scores will include a violation code. If you are late. The palm vein pattern template and the digital photograph may be compared against those of other test takers for fraud detection purposes. Exam results are encrypted and transmitted to Pearson VUE and GMAC. Use only standard English characters in your responses. 3. such as tissues or cough drops as pre-approved by GMAC and Pearson VUE 2. 12 GMAT HANDBOOK By providing a digital signature. in writing. locker area and or nearest restroom. You are not allowed to leave the test center during this time. 5. the test center is not responsible for lost. refer to the GMAC Privacy Policy available in the GMAT Handbook and at mba. or otherwise).

14 GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK 15 . we enforce several policies before. If the time expires before you make a selection. use and transmission to the United States of my personally identifiable data (including the digital photograph. read and understand the GMAT Examination Testing Rules Agreement. my scores will be canceled automatically. I will be prompted to decide whether to cancel or report my test scores. and 2) serious policy violations. or any other terms or conditions stated in the GMAT Handbook: • The test administrator may immediately dismiss me from the test session. To provide fair and consistent testing to all of our test takers. You will be given two minutes to decide whether to cancel or accept your score. We like to focus on what you can do (as provided above) rather than on what you cannot do.>> AGREE TO THE GENERAL TERMS OF USE You will need to agree to the following terms at your workstation prior to taking the exam: I understand that. • My scores may be canceled without refund. processing. and audio and video recording collected at the test center). The Agreement will explain what you are allowed to do on the day of your exam. INCLUDING CELLPHONES AND WATCHES. The following tables outline two types of violations. Integrated Reasoning. including without limitation those related to: When you complete your exam. or after I take the GMAT exam (orally. I will not record. I have read and I understand and agree to the procedures and rules I was shown when I checked in with the test administrator. I certify that I am the person whose name and address appear on the application check-in screen. I have read. I understand that if I do not agree to these conditions. its service providers. after finishing the test. I understand and agree that if I provide false information or if I violate any of the GMAT rules and procedures. • GMAT fees. or otherwise). and agree to the terms and conditions set forth in the GMAT Handbook. Quantitative. or disclose any exam questions or answers. and others as necessary to prevent fraud or other unlawful activity or as required by law • The exclusive remedies available to me in the event of an error in scheduling. in writing. and Total (note that the total score does not include Integrated Reasoning and AWA). your score will be automatically canceled. in any form or by any means before. I understand and agree that if I do not select either the “Report Scores” or “Cancel Scores” option within the time allotted. all rights therein. copy. during and after the exam. • I may be subject to other consequences. understand. signature. during. • Privacy policies describing the collection. But there are a few things you need to avoid. protected by civil and criminal laws of the United States and elsewhere. and score cancellations for irregularities and inappropriate examinee conduct >> AVOID TESTING VIOLATIONS • Ownership of the GMAT test. and the consequences of such violations: 1) policy violations. THEY ARE TO REMAIN IN THE SUPPLIED LOCKER. • I may be banned from retaking the GMAT test. and I agree to comply with and be bound by the GMAT Terms of Use. by SMS or text. >> ACCEPT YOUR SCORE I also certify that I am taking the GMAT exam for a valid educational or legal purpose. and describing the disclosure of such data to GMAC. re-test and other testing policies. and all test related records by the Graduate Management Admission Council To avoid testing violations.” message board. you will be shown your unofficial GMAT scores (Verbal. I understand that the GMAT test is a confidential and secure test. and I will forfeit my test fee. in whole or in part. you will not receive a hardcopy of your unofficial scores at the test center and will not be able to access your official score report. ARE NOT PERMITTED TO BE ACCESSED UNTIL THE COMPLETION OF YOUR EXAM. including the confidentiality and non-disclosure requirements. If you choose to cancel you scores. or forum. as GMAC or Pearson VUE deems appropriate. palm vein pattern. I certify that I have not knowingly accessed “live” GMAT questions or answers that might appear on my test and will not discuss the content of the exam with anyone. administration or security of the reporting of my scores. in any Internet “chat room. I will not be permitted to take the test. IN TESTING ROOM DURING BREAK • Your ID • Water • Key to supplied locker • Food • Prescription eyeglasses • Tobacco products (at the discretion of the test center) • A light sweater or jacket (non-outerwear) • Comfort items if they were pre-approved on an accomodation • Comfort items pre-approved by GMAC and Pearson VUE (ask the test administrator) ALL OTHER ITEMS. and a school receiving my scores may be informed of the reason for the cancellation. and score recipients I select.

• Ban from test center for one year to lifetime ban FALSIFYING SCORE REPORTS You may not alter or falsify an unofficial or Official GMAT Score Report • Ban from testing for three years STORING ITEMS IMPROPERLY ANY OTHER UNAUTHORIZED ITEM 16 • Score revoked • Notification to schools • Score revoked • Notification to schools >>Music players ACCESSING STUDY GUIDES ADDITIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF A SERIOUS POLICY VIOLATION You must store all notes. blogs. • Ban from testing from one to three years Using a fraudulent payment method to register for the GMAT exam is prohibited. etc • Possible one year ban from testing You may bring ONLY your identification. interfere or threaten other test takers or administrators. and physical violence) You must act in a manner that does not disturb. drink. • Ban from testing for one year You must store all items in your locker. during. including during your breaks. Personal items including food. This includes. and prescription eyeglasses with you into the test room. Refrain from storing items in any other area. Disclosing or accessing “live” questions from an exam in any format is prohibited before. discuss. the hall. You also must not present tampered or altered identification. as noted in the chart below. and/or forfeiture of test fees. etc. or access questions that come directly from a GMAT exam. You may not access or use them at any time >>Electronic (including breaks) after you check devices into the testing center. study materials or any other written material in your locker until you have completed your exam. or after the exam is administered. • Score revoked • Score revoked • Notification to schools TAKING THE TEST FOR You must take the test for yourself. Some violations may incur additional consequences. but is not limited to: online forums. • Ban from testing for three years • Score revoked • Notification to schools • Notification to schools PROVIDING FRAUDULENT PAYMENT OR CANCELING PAYMENTS GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK • Score revoked • Notification to schools • Score revoked • Notification to schools • Score revoked • Notification to schools 17 . lewd acts. test prep programs. communicative. forfeiture of test fees. Some violations may incur additional consequences. OTHERS You may not test for anyone or have another person test for you. POLICY VIOLATION HOW TO AVOID A POLICY VIOLATION ACCESSING OR USING: You must store all types of electronic. • Ban from testing for five years DISCLOSING TEST CONTENT Do not disclose. notification to schools. as noted in the chart below.>> POLICY VIOLATIONS >> SERIOUS POLICY VIOLATIONS All policy violations may result in canceled scores. or >>Cell phones computer devices. locker key. A serious policy violation may result in canceled scores. >>Computers ADDITIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF A POLICY VIOLATION • Ban from testing for up to three years • Score revoked • Notification to schools >>Communication devices SERIOUS POLICY VIOLATIONS HOW TO AVOID SERIOUS POLICY VIOLATION DISRUPTING OTHERS (includes verbal altercations. and candy are not allowed in the testing room unless expressly pre-authorized for a disability. test center communication books. emergency exits. You many not refer to these materials after check-in. You may not cancel a payment for any product or service received or ordered. including bathrooms. notification to schools. a light sweater. and/or restrictions on future testing. discussion boards.

please pick up a printed copy of your unofficial score report at the front desk. Your score is based on the number of questions you answered correctly.0 1-8 HOW THE SECTION IS SCORED Each essay is scored at least twice. each score is based on three factors: 1. Whether your answers are correct QUANTITATIVE AND VERBAL 0-60 You will earn a higher score if you answer a higher number of questions. Number of questions you answer 2. answer more of them correctly.com/schoolconnection 18 Although this unofficial report can be very helpful to you. To reinstate your score. The unofficial report includes your Quantitative. GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK 19 . Since these sections are computer adaptive. The raw calculation is then converted to a number in the Total score range. Some questions may have multiple parts. See page 1. below 9 and above 44 for Verbal. You may use this report to determine: • If you are a competitive applicant to the schools of your choice • Whether you want to retake the exam mba. reported in intervals of 0. once by a human reader and once by a computer. and qualify for questions of a higher difficulty level. Those scores offer you and the programs receiving your scores insight into your strengths and areas for development. a candidate must answer all parts to a question correctly to receive credit for that question. You may be tempted to pay attention only to your Total score. Difficulty and other qualities of the questions you answered TOTAL 200-800 Total scores are based on your calculated performance before scores are given for the Quantitative and Verbal sections. Integrated Reasoning. and Total scores. but the other scores are also meaningful. Verbal. Your Official Score Report will include several ways to interpret your exam results. Schools are looking for you Schools are looking for the best candidate — YOU.0-6. The scores are all averaged to provide one section score.AFTER YOUR EXAM >> EVALUATE YOUR PERFORMANCE >> PICK UP YOUR UNOFFICIAL SCORE REPORT If you accepted your scores. Scores are reported in intervals of 1. Scores are reported in intervals of 10. The Integrated Reasoning Section is not an adaptive test. you may not use it for your admissions applications. Scores are reported in intervals of 1 and the standard error of measurement is 3 points. SECTION >> REINSTATE YOUR SCORE You may reinstate your score if you decide to cancel at the test center for a fee of $100. ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT INTEGRATED REASONING SCORING 0. The reinstate option will be available for 60 days from the date of the exam. contact customer service in your region. Simply answer a few questions about your background and your career aspirations to get noticed by schools around the world and learn about scholarship and financial aid opportunities.5. Some scores are rare: Below 7 and above 50 for Quantitative. The standard error of measurement is 30-40 points. 3.

We will send them electronically or by mail. Although percentiles help you understand how you compare with other recent test takers. EXAMPLE 1   Please visit mba. To better understand how your scores compare with other test takers’ scores. and Total scores. the percentile rankings for that section are being updated more frequently until we have three full years of scores to report. GMAT HANDBOOK 21 . In addition to your Quantitative. etc. 20 GMAT HANDBOOK • Your Total Score Percentile is now 76%. phone number. GMAT scores that you have canceled will not be shown. you may ask us to send these scores to programs as long as you have not taken the GMAT exam within the past five years. You will not be able to change the selection once made or select your initial five free of cost at a later date. “Standard error of measurement” essentially means nothing is perfect. changes are rare and small over time. you must also know something about the applicants your program of choice typically accepts. ability to benchmark against other test takers from the past three years.95 (USD) and can be purchased at mba. and customized summary report for each section that assesses strengths and weaknesses. GMAT scores that you have canceled will not be shown. • Personal data provided during the registration and test process such as your address. average response time and time management ranking.com to use the Additional Score Reporting service and pay the required fee. To have your scores sent to additional programs. date of birth. percentage of questions answered correctly. • Your score is higher than 76% of all test takers who took the GMAT exam between 2008 and 2010. >> ORDER YOUR GMAT ENHANCED SCORE REPORT ® Want more details of your exam performance? The GMAT® Enhanced Score Report (ESR) can help you identify your strengths and weaknesses on the skills tested in each section. The email will include instructions for online access to your scores. TOTAL SCORE PERCENTILE:76% EXAMPLE 2   Do not be alarmed by changes in your percentile. you will also see percentile rankings on your score report for each exam section and your Total score. you need to know about standard errors of measurement. The ESR provides overall section performance and ranking by question type.com to see a sample score report. The ESR is $24. the precision of the scores may be subject to different effects. we will send you a notice by email that your official scores are available. Integrated Reasoning. the Official Score Report will include your: EXAM DETAILS WHAT THIS MEANS TEST DATE: 01 July 2008 • The day you took the exam • Analytical Writing Assessment score SCORE REPORT DATE: 21 July 2008 • When your score was reported • Scores from other GMAT exams you have taken within the past five years. TOTAL SCORE PERCENTILE: 75% • Your score is higher than 75% of all other test takers who took the GMAT exam from 2005 through 2007. as long as the scores are not more than five years old. TEST DATE: 01 July 2008 • The day you took the exam >> COMPARE YOUR SCORES WITH OTHER TEST TAKERS SCORE REPORT DATE: 01 March 2011 • You report your scores to schools a few years after taking the test. because it tells you the percentage of the test takers who scored lower than you. Here are a few things to remember: • Each score report will include GMAT exam scores you have accepted within the past five years. • Score reporting fees are non-refundable • You may not remove recipients once you have submitted your request. You may ask us to send your official score to as many additional programs as you like (fees apply). The percentile is another way for you to compare yourself with others who took the GMAT exam. Like a scale or a ruler or other measurement instruments.com/percentileranking >> UNDERSTAND YOUR PERCENTILE RANKING In addition to your scores.com/store. If you have scores older than five years but less than 10 years. your percentile is based on all test takers for the previous three full years from the date your score is reported. depending on the programs’ preferences. Verbal. Comparing your exam scores with other test takers’ scores can be misleading. Although the GMAT exam is proven to be very precise. >> SEND SCORE REPORTS TO SCHOOLS We will send your Official Score Report to up to five programs that you select on test day. the score should be considered an estimate of your ability. For more information on standard error and comparing scores go to mba. Generally. Since the Integrated Reasoning section was launched in June 2012. go to mba.>> VIEW YOUR OFFICIAL SCORE REPORT >> PERCENTILE RANKING EXAMPLES Within three weeks of your test date. Since the percentile is calculated based on three full years of tests. not even standardized exams. Scores canceled due to testing issue or policy violation will be shown.

your Official Score Report will have special notations in the place of actual test scores. The free retest can initially be schedule out as far as 6 months. on or after test day. The following are actions we may take at our discretion. we may cancel your scores even if we cannot confirm your direct involvement in the violation. schools notified. Candidate will have 15 days from date of notification to schedule a free retest or request a refund. such as: REASON CODE MEANING GIVEN WHEN • Administrative errors • Registration or payment errors • Inadvertent access to or disclosure of test content T Testing Issue • Disruptions at the test center that were out of the test taker’s control P Policy Violation • Test taker committed a policy violation Scores withheld or canceled. noted on Official Score Reports for five years. falsified score reports. If we cannot correct the error. 2. fax. Include “Attention: GMAT Complaints” in your communication. noted on Official Score Reports for five years • Other testing circumstances leading to the questionable validity of scores • Possible exposure (purposeful or accidental) you may have had to test content • Unusual answer patterns CONSEQUENCES S >> REPORT INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR Fair testing is as important to us as it is to you. We also reserve the right to cancel or withhold any test scores when. We will treat your report confidentially. GMAC and Pearson VUE reserve the right to take all action that they deem appropriate if an individual fails to comply with the test terms and conditions or the test administrator’s directions. you may reschedule your exam at no additional cost or request a refund. in our judgment. knowingly shared access or test content. Note that in some instances. If the candidate decides to reschedule the exam for a different date or for further out. If we confirm a problem with your registration. even without prior notice. 22 GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK 23 . If you notice anyone violating test rules or suspect someone of cheating. report the incident by email. the candidate will be responsible for paying the rescheduling fee. the candidate may be offered the option either to retest at no additional fee or to receive a refund of his or her examination fee (unless the affected examinee is found to have caused or been involved in the conduct that resulted in the corrective action). Testing irregularities refer to events that affect the administration of a test. Report your concerns to the test center administrator on test day or contact GMAT Customer Service after you leave the center. Scores withheld or canceled. there is a good faith basis to question the validity of a score for any reason. you should report it. In the case of a score being cancelled for T. and your name will not be revealed to the person(s) you are reporting. noted on Official Score Reports for five years Serious Policy Violation • Test taker has cheated on the exam. We will research your concern as quickly as possible and provide you with a response. your testing experience. They are the only available remedies: 1. When testing irregularities occur they may affect an individual examinee or multiple test takers. we will make reasonable efforts to correct the problem. Score cancellation.>> BEWARE OF SCORE CANCELLATIONS We can report your scores ONLY if you follow all the test policies and procedures. Scores are withheld or cancelled for reason code “T” (Testing Issue) when a testing irregularity occurs. the examinee must retake the entire exam in order to produce a valid score. If we discover any violations. or within the exam you received. If a retest is offered and an examinee selects that option. >> SUBMIT A CONCERN ABOUT YOUR EXPERIENCE If you experienced a disruption on test day and believe it affected your performance. This includes any incident or pattern that causes us to question the validity of your scores. or mail within 30 days of your exam date. if either is offered. possible ban on future testing and other legal remedies • Unusual score changes • Inconsistent performance on different parts of the exam When scores are canceled by GMAC. or committed fraud. we may withhold or cancel your scores. These are the exclusive remedies available to examinees whose score was cancelled for Testing Issues.

IMPORTANT! Scores are canceled if there is a good-faith reason to question their validity. or fax to GMAT Customer Service. • Did you feel rushed? Your scores are adjusted if you do not finish a section. Requests for rescoring must be made within six (6) months of your test date. If you are eligible to retake the exam. Your appeal must provide information that resolves these issues. >> CONSIDER RETAKING THE EXAM Did something go wrong? You may think that you can do better if you take the test again. Under certain circumstances. • Were you nervous? Once you know what the test center looks like and what taking the test feels like while you are there. you may register for the exam on mba. If you believe you can do better with different pacing. mail.com just as you registered for the first exam. you may appeal to the GMAT Program within 30 days from the date of our decision. it may be worthwhile to take the test again. Available at mba.com/store MAKERS OF THE GMAT® EXAM 24 GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK 25 . Please send your appeal in writing by email. A request received after six (6) months will not be honored.>> APPEAL A DECISION WE HAVE MADE ABOUT A VIOLATION If you believe we should review a decision we made about your exam. >> ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT RESCORING SERVICE GET YOUR ENHANCED SCORE REPORT Pinpoint your strengths and weaknesses and boost your confidence You may request rescoring of your AWA essay by an independent reader for a fee of US$45. • Did you struggle with certain areas? Targeted study may help you learn new skills or refresh old skills to help you on your next test day and even in your future graduate program. you may be able to take the test again with less anxiety. we may shorten or extend the 30 days.

we have products that fit your needs.com/store Whether you have three days or three months until your exam date. 26 GMAT HANDBOOK GMAT HANDBOOK 27 .OFFICIAL GMAT PREP ® More practice questions than ever before mba.

The GMAT exam — the only standardized test designed expressly for graduate business and management programs worldwide — is continuously available at approximately 600 test centers in 113 countries. New Delhi and Hong Kong. and has regional offices in London.com. For more information about GMAC.100 graduate business and management programs worldwide. a nonprofit education organization of leading graduate business schools and owner of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT exam). now celebrating its 60th year and used by more than 6. GMAC is based in Reston. Virginia. More information about the GMAT exam is available at mba.com.The Graduate Management Admission Council. . please visit gmac.

1 .GMAT Test Study Guide Copyright © StudyGuideZone. All rights reserved.com.

.................................................................................................... 13 DATA-SUFFICIENCY QUESTIONS . 34 What Is Measured ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6 TESTING AND ANALYSIS........................................................................................................... 35 CRITICAL REASONING QUESTIONS ......................... 5 GMAT OVERVIEW .................. 21 PRIME NUMBERS ........................................................................................................ 37 READING COMPREHENSION .................................................................... 30 ROOTS ...... 10 THE GMAT SCORING SCALE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 What Is Measured .......................................... 15 ARITHMETIC ................................. 13 QUESTION TYPES ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 ADDITION ................................................ 2 .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 SQUARE OF A NUMBER ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 PROBLEM-SOLVING QUESTIONS ................................................................................. 8 INTRODUCTION TO THE GMAT ................ 17 MULTIPLICATION ................................................................................................... 34 READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 38 Copyright © StudyGuideZone.......................................................................................................................................................................... 19 SUBTRACTION ........................................................................................................ 32 VERBAL TEST ........................................................................................................ 35 What Is Measured ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 DIVISIBILITY ........... 32 AVERAGES ............................................... 28 EXPONENTS .......................................... All rights reserved..............................................com.................. 36 SENTENCE CORRECTION QUESTIONS ..........................................................................Table of Contents GMAT TEST RESOURCES............................ 22 PERCENTS ..................... 11 QUANTITATIVE TEST ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 EVENS AND ODDS ..........................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 44 APPLYING IDEAS FOR GENERALIZATIONS ................ 52 DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 41 EMOTIONAL WORDS ......................... 51 FACTUALLY CORRECT.................................. BUT ACTUALLY WRONG .......................................................................................................................... 64 CRITICAL REASONING ................................................................................ 83 ANALYTICAL WRITING TEST.......................................................................................................................................... 42 FINDING THE KEY WORDS .................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 DIAGRAMMING CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS ................ 54 READ CAREFULLY .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 40 USING KITCHEN LOGIC ............................................................................................................................. 47 FIRST WORD ANALYSIS ......................... 40 EXTRANEOUS INFORMATION ................... 58 PROBLEMS WITH AGREEMENT ...................................................................................................................................................................... 55 Possessive Personal Pronouns vs..... 49 FINDING YOUR OPTIMAL PACE ................................................ 45 BREAKING DOWN PASSAGE ORGANIZATION ............................................................................................... 48 UNDERSTANDING THE INTIMIDATION .................... 74 CLASSIFICATION ....................................................... 39 OPENINGS AND ENDINGS ............................................................................. 54 APOSTROPHES..................................................................................................................................................... 43 MAKING PROPER INFERENCES ..................................................................... 55 Possessive Nouns ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................FLYING OVER THE PASSAGE .......................... 53 SENTENCE CORRECTION .................................................................................................. 63 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS ..................... 38 CREATING A TENTATIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................................................com.............................................................................................. 68 IDENTIFYING PREMISES AND CONCLUSIONS ................................. 54 TRY EVERY CHOICE ...... 60 LACK OF PARALLELISM ...................................................................................... 55 COMMA ERRORS ......................................................... 45 USING CONTEXT CLUES ............................................................................................................... 86 Copyright © StudyGuideZone.............................................................................. 3 ....................................................... All rights reserved.......................................................... 77 SEVEN COMMON FALLACIES ........................................................................................................... Contractions ................................................ 41 GETTING INTO THE AUTHOR’S MIND .......................................................................................................................................... 50 DON’T BE A PERFECTIONIST ....................................... 56 PROBLEMS WITH REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................ All rights reserved..................................................................................ANALYSIS OF AN ISSUE .................................................................................................................. 88 BRAINSTORMING SMART ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 86 ANALYSIS OF AN ARGUMENT ............ 4 ................................................................................. 96 AVOIDING TUNNEL VISION .......... 91 STAYING CONSISTENT ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 BACKING UP YOUR POINTS ................. 88 REVIEWING THE PLAN ... 95 WATCHING YOUR VOCABULARY ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 ANSWERING THE WHY? .................................................... 87 STICKING TO THE PLAN... 101 POST GMAT.............. 100 GETTING READY FOR TEST DAY............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................com... NOT PASSION ........................ 91 ENDING AT THE START ................................................... 94 USING PROPER GRAMMAR .......................... 87 PLANNING STAGE ......... 98 COMMUNICATING REASON............................................................................................................................................................. 96 JUST DO IT ..................................................................... 86 What Is Measured ......................................... 86 What Is Measured ...... 103 Copyright © StudyGuideZone..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 MAINTAINING THE FLOW........................ 97 CONCLUSION IS REVIEW................... 88 MAKING THE CUTS .....................................................................................................................................................

GMAT Test Resources Free GMAT Practice Tests http://www.testprepreview.com/gmat_practice. All rights reserved.org Scholarship Help http://www.scholarshiphelp.studyguidezone. 5 .htm Financial Aid Facts http://www.com/resource_tips.finaidfacts.htm Copyright © StudyGuideZone.org Study Tips and Information http://www.com.

GMAT Overview The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is indeed a difficult examination. As no test can measure all aspects of a person’s intelligence. Then again. the answer to this question is quite simple. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. The higher your GMAT score. competitive graduate program. and writing were the selected media. however. the better your chances of admission will be for a respected. While there is an ongoing. and as such. is inherently inadequate. allowing you to maximize your score potential . so it is naturally much too important for you to take this test unprepared. 6 . The purpose is. Nevertheless. no matter how cleverly assembles. low-profile controversy about whether or not this test truly measure’s your abilities with regards to what you’ll need for graduate school. why perform this type of testing at all? This is a question posed by every student who sees the GMAT looming ahead of him/her. by expanding the basis approval beyond your grades. if any admission test. and quite reasonable.no matter if your actual aptitude has been measured. verbal. that is not the purpose of this book.com. In the case of the GMAT. to make sure that you’re able to achieve the best possible state of preparation. Your GMAT score is one of the most critical elements to your qualification for graduate school. to make graduate school acceptance a more fair experience. All rights reserved. the GMAT measures those skills deemed most critical to a new graduate student. math. it was required that media be chosen by which intellectual ability could be measured.

Your GMAT score is one of the areas in the graduate admission process over which you have a substantial amount of control. Careful preparation. will dramatically enhance your probability of success. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. this opportunity should not be taken lightly. you should never take the test as an “experiment” just to see how well you do. Keep in mind. it is wise to apply this philosophy not only to your graduate school applications. prepared approach to your GMAT test as well as the rest of the admission process will contribute considerably to the likelihood of acceptance. along with hard work. Hence. 7 .com. to raise you above the competition. as described in this expert guide. It is of extreme importance that you always be prepared to do your best when taking the GMAT. In fact. All rights reserved. that although it is possible to take a GMAT test more than once. but to other elements of your life as well. it is safe to assume that your GMAT will be a major determining factor when it comes to the final admission decision made by each graduate school to which you’ve applied.While different graduate programs assign a different weight or importance to your GMAT scores. a rational.

what you probably have not yet become familiar with is the capability to use these abilities for the purpose of maximizing performance within the complex and profound environment of a standardized. However. logical and wise. All rights reserved. you have already gradually obtained these abilities over the length of your academic career. What does this mean to you? It means that you’ll have to prepare yourself in a completely different way! You won’t simply be reciting memorized facts as they were phrased in some textbook. To some extent. however.com. The GMAT requires you to think in a thorough. skills-based examination. and you’ll need to do this in a timely manner. The GMAT. You’ll need to be prepared to use your whole brain as far as thinking and assessment is concerned. is skills-based. quick and strategic manner…and still be accurate.Testing and Analysis It won’t take you long to discover that the GMAT is unlike any test you’ve taken before. This test is designed to judge your writing. verbal and mathematical ability in the ways that graduate schools feel is vital to the success of first year graduate students. and it is probably unlike any test you will ever take again in your academic career. The typical high school or college test is a knowledge-based test. 8 . mindsets and perspectives that you will be required to apply throughout the GMAT. There are different strategies. This is not Copyright © StudyGuideZone.

but it is something you can develop through practice and concentration. This guide provides you with the professional instruction you require for understanding the traditional GMAT test. All rights reserved. Covered are all aspects of the test and preparation procedures that you will require throughout the process. you’ll have the confidence and knowledge you need for maximizing your performance on your GMAT. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 9 . Upon completion of this guide.com.something you can learn from taking a course or reading a book.

Introduction to the GMAT The purpose of the GMAT is to establish a standard method of measurement for the skills that have been acquired by graduate school applicants.com. you will be able to prepare for the test in an effective manner. is that it has become possible for quality practice tests to be produced. the GMAT does not change very dramatically from year to year. What this means to you. Although these tests are similar experiences. in addition to learning the correct strategies. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. These skills are considered critical to graduate schools for a first-year student to be able to succeed. The principle behind the GMAT is similar to the SAT’s that are required for application to American colleges. Fortunately. and if you should take enough of these tests. the GMAT is much more challenging and complex. All rights reserved. 10 .

In fact. so that you’ll have this information. Each graduate school has a different policy for weighing GMAT scores with your GPA. Many schools will make their calculation structure for the combination of GMAT and GPA available to the public. All rights reserved. but you will need to know what the cut off average score is for the graduate schools to which you’re looking to apply. The majority of graduate schools will weigh your GMAT score more heavily than your GPA. 11 . It’s up to you to look into the graduate schools to which you’ll be applying. Knowing this information before you enter the GMAT examination means that you know exactly what you’re facing that day. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. some schools will weigh your GMAT at 70% and your GPA at 30%. and you will have the proper motivation to fully apply yourself to reach your maximum potential. You will have a realistic perception of the worth of the test. There is no “passing” score to the GMAT. For this information. and know the exact value of your GMAT. or call.The GMAT Scoring Scale GMAT scoring is not hard to comprehend when it is properly explained.com. which means that this one examination is worth more than your 4 years of undergraduate work. and they’ll tell you the average score of students who are accepted. check their website.

Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 12 . All rights reserved.You’ll also be able to realistically judge the type of school to which you should be applying.com. and you can better set out your future plans in your mind.

and the ability to reason quantitatively. understanding of elementary concepts. solve quantitative problems. 13 .Quantitative Test The Quantitative section of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) measures basic mathematical skills. All rights reserved. Problem-Solving and Data-Sufficiency questions are intermingled throughout the section.com. Both types of questions require knowledge of: -arithmetic -elementary algebra -commonly known concepts of geometry Problem-Solving Questions Problem-Solving questions are designed to test: -basic mathematical skills -understanding of elementary mathematical concepts -the ability to reason quantitatively and solve quantitative problems Data-Sufficiency Questions Data-Sufficiency questions are designed to measure your ability to: -analyze a quantitative problem -recognize which information is relevant Copyright © StudyGuideZone. and interpret graphic data. Two types of multiple-choice questions are used in the Quantitative section of the GMAT: Problem Solving and Data Sufficiency.

This is the area in which you can maximize your score increase potential. To identify the skills that need extra work. -Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient. but statement (1) is not sufficient. You may answer that: -Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient.com. but statement (2) is not sufficient. To master your critical math skills. but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. 14 . You must decide whether the statements given offer enough data to enable you to answer the question. or. All rights reserved.-determine at what point there is sufficient information to solve a problem Data-Sufficiency questions are accompanied by some initial information and two statements. Your “critical” math skills will be in the areas where you have made the most wrong answers on your practice test. -EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. complete a practice test that gives additional information. -Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. there are certain steps you may take: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Those will be the math skills that will best help your score in the shortest period of time. complete a practice test and look for yourself at the areas where you excelled. -BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient. labeled (1) and (2). and the areas where struggle was apparent. if you manage to practice and better these skills.

practicing the new skills that you have learned in through your review.com. year after year. All rights reserved. practice! The best way to get to learn your math skills is to rehearse them with as many new sample questions as you can get your hands on. practice. 15 . very carefully y Find some practice tests and work specifically on the questions that test your critical math skills. The questions you do. y Use textbooks for increased detail. and question examples for the areas in which you are struggling the most. the more you will become familiar and comfortable with that type of question. assistance. y Practice. Question Types The test is very consistent with the type of mathematics questions that it uses.y Read over the skill lesson in this book. so that you can move on and concentrate on other areas for perfection. The following are the types of mathematical questions that you are likely to encounter: y Arithmetic y Divisibility y Multiplication y Addition y Subtraction y Evens and Odds y Prime Numbers y Percents y Square of a Number Copyright © StudyGuideZone.

y Exponents y Roots y Averages Arithmetic Arithmetic skills refer to the questions that can be solved by using addition. For example: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 16 . subtraction. A good trick to recall your order of operations is “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally”…before you say “huh?” recognize the first letters in this phrase: y Work within Parenthesis y Simplify Exponents y Multiplication and Division y Addition and Subtraction The majority of arithmetic questions will require you to take multiple steps. instead of being purely arithmetic.com. subtract. multiply and divide. All rights reserved. and will likely test other skills as well. the questions will obviously not be purely arithmetic . So in this style of question. multiplication and/or division. Since calculators are permitted in the test. where you will need to decide when to add. Often. you’ll need to recall your order of operations. the questions will be presented in the form of word problems.they’re not out to measure your ability with a calculator.

How many egg cartons are needed to hold 300 eggs, if each carton
can hold one dozen (1 dozen = 12)
A. 15
B. 18
C. 22
D. 25
E. 28
Note: the answer is 25

Divisibility
The factors of integer X are the integers by which X can be divided
without leaving a remainder. Thus, X is divisible by its factors.
For example:
The number 10 is divisible by both 5 and 2. 10 can be divided by both
of these integers without leaving a remainder.
To review the rules of divisibility, have a look at the following:
1. Numbers divisible by 2 end in even numbers.
2. Numbers divisible by 3 can be determined by adding the sum of
their digits and checking if that number is divisible by 3 (for example
the number 123: 1+2+3=6, 6 is divisible by 3 with no remainder).

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17

3. Numbers divisible by 4 can be identified if their last two digits will
divide by 4 without a remainder (for example, the number 624: the
last two digits are 24, which are divisible by 4 with no remainder).
4. Numbers divisible by 5 end only in 5 or 0.
5. Numbers divisible by 9 occur when the sum of its their digits are
divisible by 9 (for example, the number 639: 6+3+9 = 18, which is
divisible by 9).
6. A number is only divisible by 10 if it ends in 0
The following is an example of a divisibility question:
Which of the following integers divides into both 200 and 150?
A. 3
B. 7
C. 30
D. 50
E. 300
Note: The correct answer is (D)

Multiplication
The following are a few simple rules to keep your multiplications on
track:
Positive x Positive = Positive
Negative x Negative = Positive
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Negative x Positive = Negative

Addition
Here are some rules to be certain that there are no slips while doing
addition:
Positive + Positive = Positive
Negative + Negative = Negative
Negative + Positive = either positive or negative (you must use the
absolute value of both: subtract the smaller from the larger and keep
the sign of whichever absolute value was larger)

Subtraction
The definition of subtraction is: A - B = A + (-B)
A minus B is the same as A plus (the opposite of B)
X > 0, means that X is a positive number
X < 0, means that X is a negative number
-(A - B) = -A + B = B - A
(-X)2 = X2
If X - 0, X2 > 0

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Y = -2. -2 .(-7) = -2 + 7 = 5 Copyright © StudyGuideZone. For example. In this situation. 20 . and Z = 3. Be certain to utilize some negative numbers while substituting. the number on the left is the smallest number. Therefore. you will have an easier time if you implement specific numbers to fit the problem. when studying the line above.com. let X = -7. All rights reserved. For example: Use the number line to make conclusions with regards to whether each number is positive or negative. The following is an example of a subtraction question: Y-X Solution: Positive Y is greater than X. one number occurs to the left of another number. on the number line.If. you will know that X < Y and Y < Z.

you can simply substitute the appropriate numbers. 3.com. 1. 2. Properties of odd and even numbers with Addition Property Example Even + Even = Even 2 + 8 = 10 Odd + Odd = Even 3 + 9 = 12 Odd + Even = Odd 3 + 8 = 11 Properties of odd and even numbers with Addition Property Example Even x Even = Even 4 x 6 = 24 Even x Odd = Even 4 x 5 = 20 Copyright © StudyGuideZone. that an even number is divisible by 2 and not have any remainder. 4. -3. -2. then the next consecutive even number would be represented as X + 2. For example. if x is an even number. are numbers within the set {…-5. on the other hand. 0. All rights reserved. 5. To check the property of a number. Remember. 21 . though. Consecutive even numbers are all located 2 units apart. -1.…}. The following charts demonstrate the properties of odd and even numbers.Evens and Odds An even number is any word that is divisible by 2: numbers that are within the set {…-6.…}. 6. Odd numbers. -4. Keep in mind also that 0 is an even number.

(C) is even. what are the next two consecutive odd integers? A) T and V B) R and R+1 C) R+1 and R+2 D) R+2 and R+4 E) R+1 and R+3 Note: the correct answer is (D) Here’s another example: If x is an odd integer and y is an even integer.Odd x Odd = Odd 3 x 9 = 27 Consider the following example: If R is an odd integer. tell whether each expression is odd or even. A. x + y E.com. and has only two positive factors. 2x + y Note (A) is odd. 22 . (B) is even. (D) is odd. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. All rights reserved. 1 and itself. x2 B. xy C. Prime Numbers A prime number is defined as an integer that is greater than 1. and (E) is even. y2 D.

3. 6 The first ten prime numbers are: 2. 19. you’d represent it as: 5x3 An example of a factor question is: If xy = 13 and both x and y are positive integers. All rights reserved. as its only factors are 1 and 7. For example: To create the prime factorization of 24. 7. 13 B. 17. 11. 13. then what is the sum of x + y? A. 29 Note. However. 6 is not a prime number. 20 Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 7 is a prime number. 3.For example. 23. 23 . 14 C. because its factors are 1. you’d represent it as: 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 or 23 × 3 To create the prime factorization of 15. 5. though that 1 is not a prime number. 16 D. Prime factorization is the process by which you express a number as a result of only prime numbers. and both the smallest and the only even prime number is 2.com. 2.

18 B. All rights reserved. 7. 11 and their sum is 28. 38 Note: The first five prime numbers are 2. 28 C. Converting a number into a percentage involves multiplying the number by 100. 30 D. 3. 26 Note: the answer is B Here is another example: What is the sum of the first 5 prime numbers? A. 5. A percent can be determined by performing the division of the part by the total and multiplying it by 100: Percent = Part x 100 Total Copyright © StudyGuideZone.com.E. 34 E. The answer is B. 24 . Percents The word percent means “hundredths” or a number which is divided by 100.

20 x 25 To change the fraction into the percent. what is the percent of questions she missed? Percent = missed questions x 100 = 12/80 x 100 = 0. you must first change the fraction into a decimal. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. and then multiply by 100 (or move the decimal point by 2 places to the right) For example: Change the fraction 1/5 into a percent. you must change a percent into a decimal or fractional format.com. means 5 = 0. if Wendy missed 12 out of 80 examination questions. For example: 5 is 20% of 25.15 x 100 = 15% Total The phrase “X is N percent of Y” can also be written mathematically as X=N xY 100 The word “is” means equal (=). before multiplying. 25 . All rights reserved.For example. while the word “of” means “multiply” However.

First, change the fraction 1/5 into the decimal 0.2, and multiply by 100
(move the decimal 2 places to the right). Therefore:
1/5 x 100 = 20%
The following table provides the common percentages that you will use
on a regular basis, and may wish to memorize.

Fraction

Decimal

Percent

1/100

0.01

1%

1/10

0.1

10%

1/7

0.1428571

14.3%

1/6

0.16666...

16.6% or 16.7%

1/5

0.2

20%

1/4

0.25

25%

1/3

0.33

33.3%

1/2

0.5

50%

3/5

0.6

60%

1

1.0

100%

3/2

1.5

150%

Please note that numbers over 1 achieve percentages that are greater
than 100%

Consider the following example:

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26

What is 20% of 50?
A. 5
B. 8
C. 10
D. 12
E. 15
Note: the answer is C
To solve this question, you must rewrite it as an algebraic question.
Therefore, let x represent the unknown number.
X = 0.20 x 50
Keep in mind that to change the percent to a decimal, and that the
word “of” means that you should multiply.
X = 10
Here is another example:
5 is what percent of 2?
A. 2.5%
B. 25%
C. 100%
D. 250%
E. 500%

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27

Rewrite this as an algebraic equation. 5 = n × 2
Solve for n and remember to change the answer to a percent.
n = 5/2 = 2.5 = 250%
Therefore, the answer is (D)

Square of a Number
Squaring a number means to multiply that number by itself.
The notation for squaring a number (x) is as follows: x2
When squaring an integer, the result obtained is called a perfect
square.
When preparing for the test, make sure that you are fully capable of
understanding and reproducing the following table, as well as
recognizing the numbers that are perfect squares and perfect cubes.

n

n2

n3(n > 0)

n3(n < 0)

1

1

1

-1

2

4

8

-8

3

9

27

-27

4

16

64

-64

5

25

125

-125

6

36

216

-216

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28

except for x = 0 y x2 > x for x > 1 y x2 < x for 0 < x < 1 *important y x2 = x for x = 1 or 0 y The square root of x2 equals the absolute value of x. All rights reserved. or y = -x. 29 . then either x = y. which is a both a perfect square and a perfect cube? A. or x = -y.com.7 49 8 64 9 81 10 100 11 121 12 144 You will not You will not need to know need to know any higher any higher Squared numbers and special properties y x2 > 0 always. The following is an example: Of the following numbers. y If x2 = y2. 4 Copyright © StudyGuideZone.

8 C. When it comes to the power of 10. All rights reserved. x2 is read as x-squared. by writing it as 1. Math questions will usually only utilize integral exponents.B. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. quick rule that simplifies the powers of 10. All others are read as a power of x. The x is the base.com. and x3 is read as xcubed. x4 is read as the 4th power of x. 30 . followed by the number of zeros as specified by the power. Examples: x3 = x × x × x x5 = x × x × x × x × x The expression of xn is also called the nth power of x. while the n is the exponent. 9 D. 64 Note: the answer is (E) Exponents The mathematical notations for numbers which are the result of a number that is multiplied by itself a number of times is called exponents. there is a simple. 16 E.

Examples: 105 = 1 followed by 5 zeros. The solution would be as follows: 32. the integers 10 and -4 work.456 to the power of 10.456 = 3 × 104 + 2 × 103 + 4 × 102 + 5 × 101 + 6 × 100 Consider the following example: Solve for x: (x . 100000 = 100.com. if you train Copyright © StudyGuideZone. An example you may find is: Represent 32. You could use algebra and take the square root of both sides or since 49 is a perfect square you could guess integers for x.3)2 = 49. do the following: (x . Just remember x -3 must be positive or negative.3 = -7 x = 10 or x = -4 It is your goal to get problems correct quickly.) is faster than solving an equation.000. 31 . To get an algebra solution. All rights reserved.3 = 7 or x .3)2 = 49 x . Sometimes guessing (Guessing in this case means substituting in numbers to see which satisfy the equation. If you try guessing.

All rights reserved. simply divide the total by the # of numbers. No radical can be within the denominator. Of course. 3. Average (also known as a mean) 3. 2. For example: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Roots The test will require you to manipulate both square roots and cube roots.yourself to use the technique. Total 2.com. No perfect square can be left underneath a radical (square root) sign. You should remember that none of the following should ever occur: 1. # of numbers The average is the total of elements that are within the set. Some of the questions will measure whether or not you understand these expressions. use other approaches to answer the problem. To discover the average. No fractions may occur within the radical sign. if you cannot "see" the answers fast enough. 32 . Averages There are three basic components that comprise an average problem: 1.

If a number that is the same as the average is added. add the first and the last terms and divide them by 2. If a number is added and it is greater than the average. the average will increase. 33 . 54 E. 48.Jenna’s last four test scores were 35. 52. and 28. 35 + 56 + 75 + 28 = 194 194 / 4 = 48. 47 Note: the answer is (B). the arithmetic mean is the middle value. the average will decrease.5 Five things to remember when solving averages: 1. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 2. 43 B. If a number is added and it is less than the average. If a pair of numbers are added. 75.5 D. 56. All rights reserved.com. 4.5 C. and they are “balanced” on both sides of the average. To discover the average between two evenly spaced numbers. What is the average of Jenna’s test scores? A. the new average will not change. 5. 3.

and business-related areas (marketing.Verbal Test The Verbal section of the Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) measures your ability to: -read and comprehend written material -reason and evaluate arguments -correct written material to conform to standard written English Three types of multiple-choice questions are used in the Verbal section of the GMAT: Reading Comprehension. Because the Reading Comprehension section of the GMAT® includes passages from several different content areas. economics. All questions are to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the reading material.). Reading Comprehension passages are accompanied by interpretive. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Critical Reasoning. and inferential questions. physical or biological sciences. etc. human resource management. All rights reserved. and Sentence Correction. applied. you may be generally familiar with some of the material. no specific knowledge of the material is required. 34 . Topics contain material from the social sciences.com. however. Reading Comprehension Questions Reading Comprehension passages are up to 350 words long.

Critical Reasoning Questions Critical Reasoning questions are designed to test the reasoning skills involved in making arguments. -Understand the logical relationships between significant points and concepts in the reading passages. evaluating arguments. and apply information and concepts presented in written form. Questions of this type test your understanding of and ability to comprehend terms used in the passage and your understanding of the English language. analyze. Questions of this type ask you to determine the strong and weak points of an argument or to evaluate the importance of arguments and ideas in a passage.What Is Measured Reading Comprehension questions measure your ability to understand. Questions of this type involve the interpretation of numerical data or the use of simple arithmetic to reach conclusions about material in a passage. All rights reserved. This section evaluates your ability to: -Understand words and statements in reading passages. -Draw inferences from facts and statements in the reading passages. and formulating or evaluating a plan of action. Questions of this type ask you to consider factual statements or information and. -Understand and follow the development of quantitative concepts as they are presented in verbal material. on the basis of that information. Questions are based on materials from Copyright © StudyGuideZone. reach a general conclusion.com. 35 .

properly drawn conclusions. What Is Measured This section measures your ability to reason effectively in the areas of: -Argument construction. or parallels between structurally similar arguments. effectiveness. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. or assumptions underlying a proposed plan of action. -Argument evaluation. underlying assumptions. or aspects of the methods by which an argument proceeds. No familiarity with the specific subject matter is needed. reasoning errors committed in making an argument. Sentence Correction Questions Sentence Correction questions ask you which of the five choices best expresses an idea or relationship. Questions of this type may ask you to recognize the relative appropriateness. All rights reserved. well-supported explanatory hypotheses. recognize factors that would strengthen or weaken an argument. -Formulating and evaluating a plan of action.com. Questions of this type may ask you to analyze a given argument. factors that would strengthen or weaken a proposed plan of action. Questions of this type may ask you to recognize the basic structure of an argument. You must also demonstrate your ability to improve incorrect or ineffective expressions. The questions will require you to be familiar with the stylistic conventions and grammatical rules of standard written English. or efficiency of different plans of action.a variety of sources. 36 .

noun-verb agreement. and verb tense sequence. In evaluating the diction of a sentence. as well as grammatically.g. an effective sentence uses proper diction—the standard dictionary meanings of words and the appropriateness of words in context. 37 . you must be able to recognize whether the words are well chosen. A correct sentence will not have dangling. Effective expression. All rights reserved. The passages will contain material that will be from a variety of sources and on a number of different topics. or improperly formed modifiers.. It means that there are no superfluous words or needlessly complicated expressions in the best choice. or faults in parallel construction. An effective sentence expresses an idea or relationship clearly and concisely. e.What Is Measured This section tests two broad aspects of language proficiency: -Correct expression.com. accurate. A correct sentence is grammatically and structurally sound. In addition. pronoun consistency. The reading comprehension section of the GMAT Verbal test measures a test taker’s ability to understand. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. analyze and evaluate written passages. It conforms to all the rules of standard written English. This does not mean that the choice with the fewest and simplest words is necessarily the best answer. misplaced. pronoun case. unidiomatic or inconsistent expressions. and suitable for the context.

Reading Comprehension Flying Over the Passage A topic that is hotly debated among test taking circles is whether or not you should read the reading passages before you read the question. One theory is that you can save time if you read the questions first and then go back and read over the passage. You should read it very quickly for a high-level overview (hence the flyover) understanding of what is contained in the passage. one method may work better than another for you. Therefore. because much of the detail will be forgotten by the time you get to the questions anyway. However. at a bare minimum so that you have a general idea about what the questions are going to ask and get your mind into the proper mindset for the series of questions. Another theory is that you should read the passage first and then go into the questions. Our recommended theory is the flyover. you don’t want to waste too much time on reading the passage. you should fly over the passage. Copyright © StudyGuideZone.Each of the passages in the section will be followed by a series of questions covering the content of the passage or statement. in which you will have to answer questions. Both theories have their own individual merit and due to the differences in ability and preferences among test takers. 38 . which will demonstrate how well you understand the passages and are able to draw conclusions about the material.com. All rights reserved. You want to spend some time on the passage.

You want there to be some purpose behind the flyover and having the definite goal of being able to put together a brief mental summary will allow you to maintain some focus and gain benefit from the flyover – as opposed to just skimming it for the sake of skimming it without actually picking up on anything. you should be able to eliminate a number of answer choices that are immediately contrary to your summary. All rights reserved. Don’t hesitate to reopen an answer choice that you’ve already “eliminated” from consideration and reconsider it as a possibility.In part. however that if you find yourself without any good answer choices remaining (because you’ve eliminated them all) you obviously had to have eliminated the right answer choice. this is a compromise between the theories that gains most of the benefits of each. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Creating a Tentative Summary After you’ve finished your flyover of the passage.com. Note. If you think an answer choice contradicts your initial summary. As you begin going through the questions and answer choices. take a few seconds and compose a tentative mental summary of what you’ve just read. you’re probably right. if you get good enough at putting together your mental summaries from practice. but are not infallible. You won’t waste time on the details and yet will have a general idea of what the passage is about and what to expect. 39 . Try to sort out the details you picked up on and arrange them into a loose organizational pattern that describes the passage. Remember that your goal in the flyover is not to check it off of a test-taking list of things to do.

because this will save you time when answering questions later. Always try to go back and confirm the answer. Just because an answer choice seems right. Always try to go back and find the support for the answer choice in the passage. Everything seems to check out. These are likely to contain the main ideas of the paragraphs and should be mentally tagged for future reference. as your memory will play tricks on you and the writers of the test questions may deliberately have planted a trap for you – remember that they don’t exactly have your best interests at heart. All rights reserved. 40 . or is it based on extraneous information not even contained in the passage. For the most part.com. Extraneous Information Some answer choices will seem to fit in and answer the question being asked. so what could possibly be wrong? Does the answer choice actually match the passage. don’t assume that you overlooked information while reading the passage. Your mind can easily play tricks on you and make you think that you read something or that you overlooked a phrase. make sure you never try to just answer the questions from this first flyover.Openings and Endings A main focus of this flyover will be the opening and ending sentences in each paragraph. They might even be factually correct. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Try to remember a vague idea of what the different paragraphs are about.

while sitting at your kitchen table. Getting into the Author’s Mind A number of questions become much easier when you place yourself into the mind of the author of the passage. always go back to the passage and make sure that the answer choice “checks out. If you can’t find the main idea from these key sentences. when faced with identifying the main idea of a difficult passage. make it easier on yourself by backing away from the passage and thinking about it in terms of using easy “kitchen logic”. you should first focus on the opening and ending sentences of the passage and each individual paragraph. then ask yourself how you would describe the passage to someone who had never read it.com.Unless you are behind on time. Which words and phrases would you use to explain the principle ideas of the passage? This is called “Kitchen Logic” . All rights reserved. So.when you explain something the way you would if you were talking to your friends and family. 41 . Ask yourself a few different questions: “Why did the author write this passage?” “What was the author trying to say?” What angle is the author taking?” Copyright © StudyGuideZone.” Using Kitchen Logic When a question asks the test taker to identify a main idea.

Emotional Words Each question will be about a different angle of the passage. For questions asking about the author’s emotions. gloomy. or are words such as depressive. most questions about attitude or emotion could be answered correctly. excited. So.“What is the single most important point the author is trying to make?” Put yourself in the shoes of the author and imagine that you wrote the passage and try to identify what you were trying to describe and how you were trying to describe it. find words in the passage that are adjectives describing emotions. 42 . All rights reserved. then it becomes easier to answer questions that would be easy for the author to answer. if a question asks what sort of attitude an author had towards the passage or subject. Another way of handling these situations is to arrange all of the answer choices in a list going from most negative to most positive. Without looking at anything else except for the adjectives in a passage. Are words such as brilliant. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. disappointing used? A lot of questions could be answered correctly simply by going through and circling all the adjectives in a passage.com. then look throughout the passage for attitude words that might convey a positive or negative attitude. If you take on the opinions and ideas expressed by the author as your own. delightful used.

To gain that support. Many questions about specific details will have key words that hold the “key” to finding the right part of the passage to look in for the answer. Finding the Key Words The strategy of finding certain “give-away” words does not only apply to adjectives in questions about emotions or attitude. impartiality D. consent Now arrange these in order from negative to positive: ( .) indignation. eagerness (+) This will help sort out the different choices and keep you from overlooking an answer choice and making an easy mistake. While reading back over the entire passage may be the most foolproof method of finding that important part of the passage. it follows that you have to identify which part of the passage to look in.com.Example: Question: The author’s attitude on this topic is best described as: A. indignation B. Rather than answering based on your memory of the passage. it definitely is not the most time economical method of finding that part of the passage. eagerness C. 43 . Copyright © StudyGuideZone. fear. you always want to have support for your answer choice rooted in a specific part of the passage. impartiality. fear E. All rights reserved. consent.

44 . to ensure that you are not misled by a cheap trick. Be sure that you reread the answer choice and consider the context that it is in. These key words will be nouns or verbs in the question or answer choices.A better route is to find key words in the question or answer choices that are likely to stand out in the passage and will enable you to quickly narrow your search down. simply because a particular word or phrase appears in an answer choice and also appears exactly the same in a passage does not make that answer choice correct. Once you find a particular part of the passage that either has the exact key word repeated or a synonym of the key word. Making Proper Inferences Copyright © StudyGuideZone. or their synonyms to appear in the passage. In conclusion. you have probably identified the particular part of the passage that will contain the support or justification that you need to correctly answer the question and will allow you to be confident in your answer choice selection. All rights reserved. then you should scan through the passage quickly looking for either those key words to be repeated in the passage. So. always try to connect the question to the right words in the passage that will allow you to save time in finding the right part of the passage to look in for the answer and will give you the key to the correct answer choice.com. but have done so in such a way as to mislead you. One warning that should be made here is that often question writers may use the exact same word or wording in their answer choices that are used in the passage. Once you’ve identified possible key words.

You are looking for what can be inferred by the passage. If you were the author and believed in what you had just written.com. how would you feel about another similar situation? What would either strengthen or weaken your argument. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. It helps to put yourself again in the author’s shoes. A number of questions will ask you about the meaning of words as they are used in a given passage.Questions that ask you to make an inference from the passage will require you to use your own personal judgment. The obvious will not be enough to answer an inference question. You will need to understand the main idea of the passage in order to make a proper inference about the author’s intent and mindset. Applying Ideas for Generalizations Generalization questions are similar to inference questions in that you have to go beyond what is directly stated in the passage by the author. 45 . not what is directly stated in the passage. All rights reserved. How would you apply the information you have just expressed to a completely different situation? Using Context Clues Context clues are a valuable aide in helping you understand difficult phrases or words in the passage. You must logically deduce what follows from what the author has stated in the passage. Anything directly stated by the author is not an inference.

return to the passage and find where the word is used and make sure that you understand how it is being used in the passage. disturbed C. the reason the test writers may have chosen that particular vocabulary word is because it is used in an unusual context.” Copyright © StudyGuideZone. powerful If you knew that the most common definition for “notorious” meant being known in an unfavorable sense. a common mistake is to go with your first impulse and choose the answer that you immediately recognize. but mentally replace the answer choice you’ve chosen for the word being asked about.If you already know the definition of the word. famous D. if substituted for the word “notorious” would introduce the LEAST change in the meaning of the sentence? A. Therefore.com. However. Once you’ve made your choice of a good definition go back again to the passage and reread that particular section. then you might be tempted to choose choice A. 46 . All rights reserved. evil B. despised E. or have some familiarity with it. “evil. Example: A passage states: “He was notorious for making decisions on the spur of the moment…” Question: Which of the following words.

Make sure you can go back and actually find the example in the passage. you will sometimes be asked about how the passage is organized.com. All rights reserved. How does the author’s main idea get developed and broken down into supporting ideas and statements? As you go through the answer choices for these organization problems. the simplest way to find the answer is to note how the opening sentence in a passage or paragraph relates to the rest of the passage. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Read the sentence again and substitute your chosen answer choice for the word it replaces. Example: Question: Which of the following best describes the organization of the author’s discussion of this topic? A. “famous” fits in better into the context of the sentence of passage.” which makes sense and is correct. Many times. Breaking Down Passage Organization In trying to understand the author’s perspective. He provides an example – Ask yourself. is there an example in the question? Don’t work exclusively from your memory. choice C. This gives you: ““He was famous for making decisions on the spur of the moment…. quiz yourself on each answer choice.But once you review back over the passage. 47 .

Simply because the author provided an example. He praises the research – Ask yourself. where is the acknowledgement made and to whom? D. see if you could make a decision based on those first words alone. He discusses a theory – Ask yourself.B. All rights reserved. which in this case would make answer choice B correct. C. He makes a comparison – Ask yourself. Example: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. which theory is being discussed? E. So always read all the answer choices and only choose the one that is the best. doesn’t make choice A correct.com. not just the first one you read that is factually correct. He makes an acknowledgement – Ask yourself. go back to the passage and actually find the comparison being made and verify that it exists. they have to answer the question. where is the praise mentioned? After each of these initial questions. The example provided may have been to support a comparison that he was making and the comparison may be the main method of organization. First Word Analysis When asked for main ideas that best summarize the passage. remember that it is not enough for them simply to be true. 48 . an easy strategy is to look at the first words in each answer choice and without looking at the rest of the answer choice. is there a comparison in the question? Again.

convince… E.Question: Which of the following best explains the author’s primary purpose? A. condemn… D. the passage that you will face on the test may almost seem out of context and as though it begins in the middle of a thought process. The passages will also frequently be drawn from longer passages in books. D and E. leaving you with “describe” or answer choice B as being correct. Understanding the Intimidation The test writers will generally choose passages that will be completely foreign to most test takers. but don’t plan on that happening. 49 . All rights reserved. journals. articles. If you do happen to come across a passage that you are familiar with. Therefore. you can probably eliminate the stronger verbs used in answer choices A. C. You won’t have a nice title overhead explaining the general topic being covered but will immediately be thrown into the middle of a strange format that you don’t recognize. describe… C. You can’t expect the passages to be on a topic with which you have any familiarity. then even if you know nothing else. dispute… B. consider yourself lucky. etc. criticize… If you know that the passage is fairly neutral about the subject. Copyright © StudyGuideZone.com.

However. All rights reserved. It will take practice to determine what is the optimal rate at which you can read fast and yet absorb and comprehend the information. You can practice with any form of reading material. 50 . you are looking for only a surface level knowledge and are not trying to comprehend the minutia of details that will be contained in the passages.com. Just remember that the passages themselves will contain all the information necessary to answer the questions and you don’t need any prior knowledge of the topic in order to succeed and do well on the test. Finding your Optimal Pace Everyone reads at a different rate.Also. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. on the flyover. Read an article at your normal pace and then after you’re finished. Train your brain to remember the details and absorb the facts. and that are dry and boring can be a bit intimidating if you’re not adequately prepared. Getting hit by strange reading topics that you don’t recognize. after a particular section is pulled and used for the test passage. Experiment with reading articles faster and slower and always gauge how well you comprehended what you read at the end. This is true for both the flyover that you should initially conduct and then the subsequent reading you will have to do as you go through and begin answering the questions. while the topics chosen may have originally been interesting reading in their original state. of which you may only have a small part of the original selection. it will likely be dry and boring. ask yourself some questions about what you just read and see how well you can comprehend.

All rights reserved. If you have a good pace. you want to optimize how much you comprehend with how much time you spend reading. You must find your own pace that is relaxed and focused. in which you are lip reading every word individually and mouthing each word as though in a stupor. and don’t spend too much time on any question. This is not a speed reading exercise. That isn’t the goal though. Don’t be a Perfectionist If you’re a perfectionist. If you spent hours on each word and memorized the passage. this may be one of the hardest strategies. where you are panicked and are buzzing back and forth through the passage in a frenzy and not comprehending anything. allowing you to have time for every question and give you optimal comprehension. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 51 . and the overwhelmed mode. Note that you are looking for optimal comprehension. The two extremes you want to avoid are the dumbfounded mode. and you cannot afford to spend too much time on any one question.com. The test you are taking is timed. you will find the pace that you should maintain on the test while going back through passages. and yet one of the most important.With practice. not maximum comprehension. Practice will allow you to determine that optimal rate. It should be a comfortable rate. you should have a sufficient amount of time to read the different sections of the passages at a comfortable rate. you would have maximum comprehension.

When you are going through the answer choices and one jumps out for being factually correct. watch out. and you’re going back through the passage and reading it over and over again in order to decide between the two. Therefore. but fail to answer the question.com. get off track and end up spending the rest of the test playing catch up because of all the wasted time. Factually Correct. unless you will only be satisfied with a perfect score and your abilities are in the top . 52 . but Actually Wrong A favorite ploy of question writers is to write answer choices that are factually correct on their own. you can be in one of the most frustrating situations possible. You feel that if you just spent one more minute on the problem. All rights reserved. It is far better to accept that you will have to guess on some questions and possibly get them wrong and still have time for every question. which may leave you rattled and cause you to miss even more questions that you would have otherwise. than to work on every problem until you’re absolutely confident in your answer and then run out of time on the last few problems. and so are actually wrong. you should not go into the test with the mindset that you’ve got to get every question right. Watch out! You can easily get so absorbed in that problem that you loose track of time. that you would be able to figure the right answer out and decide between the two.If you are working on a problem and you’ve got your answer split between two possible answer choices.1% strata of test takers. Before you mark it as your answer Copyright © StudyGuideZone.

that would be fine. Make sure that if multiple individuals are giving their viewpoint on a topic. For most passages. along with the viewpoint of other experts or other individuals. you might go back to the passage. that you sort them out for any questions and associate the right viewpoint with the right individual.com. All rights reserved. 53 . first make sure that you go back to the question and confirm that the answer choice answers the question being asked. you have to discern who is expressing their opinion in the passage. If asked for the viewpoint of the author.choice. This can lead to trouble in answering questions though. Different Viewpoints Some passages will express the author’s viewpoint on a topic. find where a certain viewpoint is expressed. answer the question based on what you read and move on. but when other viewpoints besides the author’s are expressed. Copyright © StudyGuideZone.

therefore.com. as a word such as “not” can make an answer choice directly opposite of the correct answer choice sound correct. The test writers will be sure to put in additional choices that may sound “close enough. 54 .” but you want to make sure that you pick the one that is the absolute best possible answer choice. go ahead and try all of them by plugging each of them into the blank(s) and seeing which one sounds the best. but will require a test taker to identify errors in phrases and sentences and choose the best way to rewrite the phrase or sentence without the error. not. and always. Read Carefully Don’t make the mistake of reading through the sentences carelessly. sometimes. A prepositional phrase or a tiny word can alter the entire meaning of the sentence.Sentence Correction The multiple choice problems will not require knowledge of formal grammar terms. Try Every Choice Just because you think that one of the answer choices sounds best. These words are particularly critical to watch for. This is particularly true for transition/hedge words like if. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. never. All rights reserved. then. also.

Use 's to show that a singular noun is possessive [the defendant's motion]. The bracketed parenthetical demonstrates the correct use. Plural possessive nouns not ending in "s. 2." Use 's to show that a plural noun not ending in "s" is possessive [the children's toy]. All rights reserved. Plural possessive nouns ending in "s. the Joneses (not Jones' or Jones's) did not attend]. Possessive Nouns 1. Do not add an apostrophe to a noun that is not possessive [the teachers (not teacher's or teachers') have claimed." Add only an apostrophe to make plural nouns possessive [the boys' game]. Singular possessive nouns. Check for the following common apostrophe errors. 55 . 4. 3. Nouns that are not possessive.Apostrophes An apostrophe is used to form a possessive or a contraction. Contractions Apostrophe errors with possessive personal pronouns are common because possessive personal pronouns indicate possession and we are Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Possessive Personal Pronouns vs.com. You can apply this rule even when the singular noun already ends in "s" (Charles's costume) though many writers add only the apostrophe [Charles' shoes].

used to using apostrophes to indicate possession. [The child agreed. Use a semicolon or a period. 2. All rights reserved. Contractions. Watch for these situations: 1. * Watch especially for errors in using "it's" or "its. for). you're the one). The following transitional words and phrases are conjunctive adverbs. Here are the basic rules: 5. 56 . but the parent objected]. but. Confusing these two words is the most common apostrophe error. Do use an apostrophe in a contraction (it's time to go. Do not add an apostrophe to a possessive pronoun [the problem is hers (not her's). however. to separate two independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction [The child agreed." Remember that "it's" means "it is" and "its" indicates ownership. the corporation must disclose its (not it's) assets. Possessive personal pronouns. Use a comma to separate two independent clauses joined with a coordinating conjunction (and. so. Comma Errors Commas are also major troublemakers.]. Also possessive personal pronouns are easily confused with contractions.com. nor. or. the parent objected. not conjunctions: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. not a comma.] 6.

however. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Incorrect: The city must increase its tax base. 57 . When you begin an independent clause with a conjunctive adverb or when you use it in the middle of a sentence. has not yet turned in an acceptable project to meet his assignment’s requirements. set it off with a comma. moreover. All rights reserved. Conjunctive adverbs signal the relationship between the point(s) made in the material before their sentence and the material of that sentence. The words and phrases in the list above are examples. the citizens must be able to accept the additional tax burden.com. however. The student. the defendant has not yet established a proper foundation for this testimony.accordingly however consequently also on the other hand moreover for example otherwise for instance similarly furthermore therefore hence thus Therefore. do not use a comma to separate two independent clauses on either side of one of these words. Moreover. 3. the citizens must be able to accept the additional tax burden. Correct: The city must increase its tax base.

4. . More than one possible antecedent Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Use commas to separate three or more simple items in a list. . Correct: Yours is timely and mine is late. or (2) when the antecedent is only implied. All rights reserved. brought the . Problems with referents can cause confusion and. 6. use semicolons to separate them. Problems with references occur primarily (1) when sentences have more than one possible antecedent (often caused by placing the referent too far from the intended antecedent). . Use commas to set off the year if you also identify the day [The birth of Norma Kelly on June 2.]. Use a comma to separate two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction unless the two independent clauses are short and simple: Correct: The sunlight helped the flowers to grow. unintended humor. . but they require frequent watering in order to stay alive. 58 . but omit the commas otherwise [The birth of Norma Kelly in June 1974 brought . 1974.com. .]. 5. Here are examples problems with references. . Problems With References A referent is a word or phrase that refers to something else (an antecedent). sometimes. If the descriptions of the items are long or complex.

the failure to disclose. the conflict. All rights reserved. The possibility of a bankruptcy was a disaster for them. [Do the parents soak the children or the thumbs?] The corporate officers had failed to disclose the serious conflicts of interest caused by their ownership of several of T&J's suppliers. [Who had problems?] To prevent children from sucking their thumbs. This was a disaster for the officers. Here. 59 . [Was the possibility a disaster for the officers. [What was a disaster -. the confusion could be resolved easily by adding the clarifying noun after "this": Copyright © StudyGuideZone.The doctors told their patients that they had serious problems. or the possible bankruptcy?] Notice that the confusing reference in this last example is caused by using "this" alone. the conflicts.com. some parents soak them in tabasco sauce. for instance. Using the pronoun "this" or "that" without a noun following immediately is usually inadvisable. or the suppliers?] Referring to an antecedent that is only implied: The corporate officers had failed to disclose the serious conflict of interest raised by the possible bankruptcy of T&J's primary supplier.

or (3) rearranging the material to eliminate the need for the referent. This failure was a disaster for the officers. The following indefinite pronouns are singular and take a singular verb: anyone Anyone is welcome. either Either supports the argument. All rights reserved.com. The singular verb is correct even when the indefinite pronoun is followed by a prepositional phrase with a plural noun: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. neither Neither sings in tune. The three primary strategies for solving reference problems are: (1) repeating the antecedent (as in the prior example). here is another possible solution to the reference problem above: The possibility of a bankruptcy was a disaster for the corporate officers.The corporate officers had failed to disclose the serious conflict of interest raised by the possible bankruptcy of T&J's primary supplier. each Each is an expert. Problems With Agreement Here are the most common errors in agreement: 1. 60 . (2) re-arranging the material to place the referent close to the antecedent. They had failed to disclose the serious conflicts of interest caused by their ownership of several of T&J's suppliers. everyone Everyone has problems. For instance.

However. All of the money is counted . It [not "They"] held that . "The court" is a singular term. . 3. . .com. . .Each of these peaceful alternatives was [not "were"] ignored. . 61 . Either of the twins is [not "are"] available. . . . . . 2. . the following indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. This same kind of error can slip in when referring to any institution or business: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. None of the royalty was present . None of them are satisfied . . depending on the nouns or pronouns they refer to: all any none some For example: All [singers] are permitted . . . All rights reserved. taking a singular pronoun: The court overruled the traditional rule originally announced in December.

Catherine's example. All rights reserved. Each of the groups agrees [not agree] to resolve the problem peacefully. A gerund is an "ing" verb that serves as a noun. 5.He said that he is very grateful to St. Watch for both verb agreement and pronoun agreement when a singular subject is modified by a phrase or clause containing a plural noun: The confidence of several families was [not were] attained. in the St. the word or phrase functions as a noun: Copyright © StudyGuideZone.com. the writer is probably avoiding "It treated him with respect. 4. They treated him with respect. Every student who had already taken both courses is [not are] excused from this requirement. 62 . Use a possessive pronoun before a gerund phrase." That problem can usually be solved by changing the antecedent to the humans who actually performed the action: He said that he is very grateful to the staff at St. The gerund can stand alone or can begin a gerund phrase." For instance. The problem sometimes occurs because the writer is avoiding the awkwardness of attributing a human action to an "it. Catherine's Hospital. but either way. Catherine's Hospital. They treated him with respect.

A parallel structure would be: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. the two situations are phrased in non-parallel structure. Since a gerund or gerund phrase functions as a noun. In the non-parallel example. Coming to work late can result in disciplinary action. 63 . It also improves sentence rhythm and cuts down on verbiage. "easier reading" and "clearer meanings" are parallel. it takes a possessive pronoun: We'll go to their house for the party instead of their [not them] coming to ours. however. All rights reserved. similar ideas should be expressed in a similar (parallel) structure and grammatical form.Running is good for you. the writer identifies two situations in which problems occur.com. Parallelism makes for easier reading and clearer meanings. Lack of Parallelism Where possible. Parallel structure: Parallelism makes for easier reading and clearer meanings. Non-parallel structure: Problems occur when the business conceals relevant documents or by deluging the auditors with irrelevant documents.

" "we. 64 ." "they"). For example. Now that the structure is parallel.com. the sentence is actually a shortened version of "The corporation's president worked harder than I worked. All rights reserved." In other words. he immediately posted a new list of orders: no leaves were to be granted. When the new commander arrived at the post. and no leniency was to be given. Use the subjective case for a pronoun that functions as the subject of an understood verb. Parallel structure is especially important in a list. The subjective case is the form the pronoun takes when used as the subject of the sentence ("I. extra words can go: Problems occur when the business conceals relevant documents or deluge the auditors with irrelevant documents. The corporation's president worked harder than I. because "I" is the subject of an understood verb "worked.Problems occur when the business conceals relevant documents or when they deluge the auditors with irrelevant documents. consider these two sentences: The corporation's president worked harder than me." Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Miscellaneous Problems 1. Which is correct? The second version is correct.

this is an easy mistake to make because the correct case may sound wrong." In other words.This is an easy mistake to make because the correct case may sound wrong. consider these two sentences: The person least anxious after the test was her." or "It's me. Use the subjective case for a pronoun that functions as the complement of a subject. the best solution may be to reverse the sentence or to re-phrase the sentence completely to avoid the awkwardness. the sentence is like an algebra equation: The person least anxious after the test = she. In a sentence like this one. The sentence should read the same as if you turned it around: She was the person least anxious after the test. All rights reserved. 65 ." Again." actually equals the subject. the best solution is to add the understood verb or to rephrase the sentence completely to avoid the awkwardness. 2. 3. A pronoun is a subjective complement when it actually equals the subject of the sentence. the noun or pronoun in the predicate functions like the subject of the sentence. Which is correct? The second version is correct. Once again. "she. In spoken English we often hear "It's him. If so.com. The person least anxious after the test was she." Copyright © StudyGuideZone. because the pronoun in the predicate. "the person least anxious after the test. For example. Use "try to" and "sure to" rather than "try and" or "sure and.

" In the first Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 4. The reader is only to do one thing – pick up the baby. Thompson wanted to try to finish the project by Friday. The same is true for the third sentence. Correct: Ms. Correct: Be sure to pick up the baby from daycare. Thompson wanted to do two different things.com. Watch out for one more common error with adverbs: the difference between "I feel bad" and "I feel badly. The writer actually means "I hope that the storm will pass. she only wanted to do one thing – finish the project.Incorrect: Ms. but she didn't." This use actually asserts that the storm’s passing will be full of hope. but it isn't. All rights reserved." Often "hopefully" is misused in this or a similar fashion: "Hopefully the storm will pass. The "and" seems to tell the reader that the sentence is an instruction to do two different things. Thus. Thompson wanted to try and finish the project by Friday. "Hopefully" is an adverb that explains how someone does something. This rule makes sense if you think about it. as in "She asked hopefully. 66 . Incorrect: Be sure and pick up the baby from daycare. the "and" in the first sentence should mean that Ms." 5. The proper function of the word "and" is to connect two different things.

" perhaps believing that "badly" sounds more elevated. Jones or myself. test the use by asking whether "I" or "me" could substitute for "myself. Watch for errors in using "myself" instead of using "I" or "me. Sometimes writers use the adverbial form "badly" when they mean "bad. either physically (perhaps she has the flu) or emotionally (perhaps she is sad). Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Correct: I injured myself. contact Mr. Incorrect: Ms. used as a reflective pronoun Correct: I will draft the interrogatory answers myself. used for emphasis Each time "myself" is used. perhaps her fingers are numb. The writer is commenting on her ability to feel. However. 6. using "myself" is incorrect. the second sentence uses "bad" in its form as an adverb." If so. the writer is commenting on how she feels.sentence. Incorrect: If you have any questions about this demonstration. The first sentence is the proper use of "bad" as an adjective. All rights reserved." "Myself" is used as a reflective pronoun or as a device for emphasis. 67 . Alpha and myself will meet you for lunch.com.

and again sometimes.the attack of an opponent as opposed to the argument itself). It’s your job to dissect these arguments to find the assumptions that have been made. Next you will need to locate and identify the different ways in which the questions have been phrased. the questions will involve flawed arguments. Most questions contain some sort of error. All rights reserved. but it is extremely dense and will require very careful reading. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 68 . Most commonly. The majority of the Critical Reasoning passages are between 3 and 4 sentences and will apply to a single question. and then properly understand the question that is being posed regarding this error in logic.com.Critical Reasoning The questions of the Critical Reasoning section typically present an entire argument within the span of a few sentences. such as the ad hominem fallacy . The text may be substantially shorter than the Reading Comprehension section. Practice GMAT tests will give you an extremely substantial advantage when it comes to this portion of the test. you’ll experience deductive arguments that are closer to logic games. where you must identify the flaw. Other times. as they will train you to identify the logical error in the question. you will need to locate the conclusion of the valid argument. It is the flaws within the arguments that are the logical fallacies. which will fall into one of ten error types (including ad hominem or fallacy of equivocation).

you should be able to eliminate the 3 fluff choices. Therefore. if you over-concern yourself by trying to find the truth. What the GMAT wants to prove. according to the GMAT.” What it means to you. The theory behind the GMAT Critical Reasoning section questions is designed to be answered without any reference to actual formal logic. 69 . All rights reserved. only one attractive wrong answer choice will normally be presented to you. though inaccurate answer-choice is much more challenging than producing the correct answer. a process that allows you to work on each question by: . Hence. but can also locate any fallacies that may occur within the argument.” this little trick is called the “Two Out of Five Rule. which dramatically increases your odds of selecting the correct answer. Finding out what the question is asking. Identifying the logical error. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. So even if you don’t completely understand the argument. is that only two of the five choices presented to you will have any real merit. . To those “in the know.com. As far as the GMATs are concerned. and not the truth of the statements themselves. When you create a good.Next you’ll need to work on your plan of attack. an argument is defined as a presentation of facts and opinions with the purpose of supporting a position. it can be detrimental to your GMAT score. therefore testing your ability to think logically. Logic. is the study of the relationship that occurs among statements. . is that you can not only comprehend the arguments. Choosing the correct answer from the list of choices.

Therefore Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Often. you can look for certain words that writers utilize for indication that the conclusion is about to occur. this is not to say that some fundamentals of logic will not give you an advantage. though rarely will you find it in the middle. Hence . However. So .com. If you’re uncertain as to where the argument is specifically located. As a result .on establishing the conclusion of the argument itself.therefore it is a true test of logic and not an understanding of logic as a study. Conclude that . Identifying Premises and Conclusions The majority of argument questions are centered . 70 . These conclusion indicators include: .either directly or indirectly . however. Occasionally. because an understanding of logic basics will provide you with definite benefits. The conclusion is what the writer of the argument is attempting to persuade the reader into believing. the conclusion will be located closer to the beginning. the conclusions of an argument are located at the very end. this is because writers aim to organize facts and opinions so they build-up to a climax for the arguments ending. All rights reserved. Thus . The conclusion is defined by the GMAT as the main purpose and idea of the argument. Follows that .

Consequently . Shows that . these are called quantifiers and should be carefully watched for. Could . Always . Never . Except . Must . take care not to read further into the conclusion than the author has stated and intended. Everywhere Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Likely . Several words are employed to limit the scope of a statement. Many . No . Implies . 71 . All . Most . Means As you determine the scope of the conclusion. Some . Frequently GMAT authors will create wrong answer choices by forming a slight overstatement or understatement of the passage author’s conclusion. All rights reserved. Only . The following is a list of the most common and important quantifiers: .com. Probably . Accordingly ..

More often. The premise is the foundation upon which the conclusion is built. Suppose . Assume Most commonly. you must simply ask yourself if it supports the conclusion. some premises are left unstated because there are too many of them. Is evident that . As . 72 . There are many words used by writers that should be considered to be flags of premises. Because . May be derived from . If . almost everything else in the argument will comprise either of premises or “noise. To discover whether or not a particular statement within an argument is a premise. Since .. an argument is dependent upon either one or more than one premise which is unstated. and the writer is assuming that the reader is aware of these assumptions. All rights reserved. as it may be an oversight made by the writer. Owing to . In as much as .” The premise is the portion that offers evidence for the conclusion of the argument. In that . though. This will frequently indicate the weakness of an argument. These premise indicators are: . or that the writer wishes for the Copyright © StudyGuideZone.com. Alone Once the conclusion has been determined.

then it is likely to be the underlying premise. and that the writer’s ideas have been well considered. as you will know that the implicit premise is listed for you as one of the five choices of answer. 73 . Of course. simply ask yourself whether or not the answer-choice makes the argument more believable. This functions to demonstrate the open-mindedness of the writer. To test whether or not a possible answer-choice is the correct one. If it does. while presenting a position within an argument. This type of statement is called a counter-premise.com. it is often an accepted technique for efficacy to concede certain negligible points that weaken the argument. however. Even though . It also works to disarm potential arguments that might be made against the argument’s position. These words include: . Nevertheless . Despite Copyright © StudyGuideZone. and it. the writer will not wish to present a counter-argument to their own conclusion. so that they will be more likely to believe and/or agree with the conclusion. However . These suppressed premises within an argument are often sought out within questions on the GMAT. The location of these tacit premises and assumptions can be quite challenging. But .audience to include their own premise. like premises also have word indicators which will help you in their location. All rights reserved. Admittedly . though you will have an advantage with the GMAT.

However. Almost every argument is based on one variation or another of an ifthen statement. In spite of the fact Of course. the writers of the GMAT passages and questions will frequently use counter-premises for the purpose of baiting wrong answer choices for selection. Nonetheless . as it may be embedded within other similar structures. the term “diagramming” itself. as they refer directly to a passage within the text. and they are partially true. or is it merely a slight matter? Diagramming Conditional Statements In reality. you will represent the arguments symbolically. the if-then is not always obvious. defining Copyright © StudyGuideZone. you should ask yourself whether or not it is the main point that the author is trying to make. 74 . The following is an explanation of the principles of an if-then statement: The premise of an if-then statement is that if the statement is true. when selecting your answer. Although . This is the typical.. it is extremely rare that you will ever be required to actually draw a diagram. Except . Instead. All rights reserved. as you have likely guessed. is rather a misnomer. However. then the conclusion must also be true.com. After all. These wily answer-choices are frequently quite tempting.

75 . and therefore a poor score will be achieved. the clause “Ashley will not study for the GMAT” can be represented with “C. When symbolizing an argument.” can be symbolized with a “D.feature of a conditional statement. All rights reserved. you may illustrate it in the form of a “diagram” like this: AÆB A Therefore. Ashley will not study for the GMAT. then a good score will not be achieved. but simply laying it out in this fashion can be extremely helpful in demonstrating the logical structure within a given argument. the following diagram will occur: CÆD C Copyright © StudyGuideZone. The if-then statement itself is contained in “AÆB. This could be an entire sentence. Please consider this example: If Ashley doesn’t study for the GMAT examination.” and “a poor score will be achieved.” By substituting these symbols for the statement of argument. or simply a phrase or a clause.” and the obligatory conclusion is “B.com.” This may seem very simple. B To explain this diagram. For the preceding example. a letter represents one element of the argument.” where the affirmed premise is “A. it works as follows.

is that the argument includes a valid ifthen structure. as the if-then thought is frequently embedded within other structures of the argument. This statement does not mean that “if Amy does well on her GMAT. It only says that if she does not do well on the GMAT. then she must have done well on her GMAT. All rights reserved. Here is an example of an embedded if-then statement: Amy will be accepted to business school only if she does well on her GMAT. D What this demonstrates. and the obligatory conclusion D then stated. take your re-written argument. it says that if Amy is accepted to business school then she must have done well on her GMAT. then she will not be accepted to a business school. with its premise affirmed as C. this statement does not appear to contain a standard if-then statement. This is an extremely common mistake among students. Be very careful with this type of embedded statement. but essentially. The conditional statement is illustrated with “CÆD”. which demonstrates the if-then statement.Therefore. At first glance. This will require you to learn to spot these structures.” The clause “if Copyright © StudyGuideZone. “if Amy is accepted to business school. 76 . However.com.” The original statement does not make such a guarantee. she will be accepted to business school. the if-then statement is not always obvious. To create the diagram.

com. The validity of an Copyright © StudyGuideZone. if we know that the premise is false. the understanding of inductive statements is a natural part of your preparation process. it is an inductive argument. If A is true. If B is false. then B is also true 2. Moreover.” can be replaced with the term “E.” Therefore: EÆF E Therefore. the if-then says nothing with regards to the premise. An argument can only be deductive if its conclusion follows from its premises . Here you will learn to classify and understand the major types of inductive arguments. Within an inductive argument.in any other case. 77 . Classification The bulk of the arguments that you will see on the GMAT will be inductive. however. the if-then statement says nothing with regards to the conclusion. F Keep in mind that an if-then statement will tell you only two things: 1.” and the clause “then she must have done well on her GMAT” can be substituted with “F. Therefore. we know that the conclusion is true. its writer presents the premises as evidence or reasons for the accuracy of the conclusion.Amy is accepted to business school. then A is also false (contra-positive) If. All rights reserved.

In fact. Generalization and analogy are the primary tools with which we amass knowledge and analyze this knowledge within our world. though they also have associated fallacies. However. In fact. unfortunately. where the conclusion is relatively easy to locate. there are 3 major types of inductive reasoning: 1.” as it associated with the term “to generalize. it is beneficial to you to be able to classify the type of reasoning within an inductive argument. generalization itself is often referred to as “inductive reasoning. All rights reserved. the conclusion is bound to be improbable. Naturally. the conclusion is likely.com. Analogy 3. To begin. Generalization 2. carries a negative connotation in terms of effective Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Hence. within a reasonable argument. Casual Each of these types of inductive reasoning has their own strengths. To be prepared for the GMAT. you will need to be able to recognize both reasonable and fallacious arguments. to more easily allow you to recognize the type of fallacy you may find within. 78 . the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument can range from being highly likely to highly unlikely.inductive argument’s conclusion depends wholly on how convincing the premises are. an inductive argument’s conclusion is never quite certain.” This. within fallacious arguments. Unlike deductive arguments.

GM surveyed owners of GM cars and asked them whether they would be more willing to buy a large. On the basis of this survey. and the less comprehensive a conclusion is. GM decided to continue building large cars. the more likely it is to be a valid conclusion. GM lost even more of the market to the Japanese. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Which one of the following. D) GM determined that it would be more profitable to make big cars. All rights reserved. The validity of a generalization is dependent upon the context of its argument. though in reality. B) Ford which conducted a similar survey with similar results continued to build large cars and also lost more of their market to the Japanese. economical car. and the likelihood of the accuracy of the conclusion. Please consider the following example: During the late seventies when Japan was rapidly expanding its share of the American auto market. 79 . powerful car or a small. would best explain this discrepancy? A) Only 10 percent of those who were polled replied. C) The surveyed owners who preferred big cars also preferred big homes. Seventy percent of those who responded said that they would prefer a large car. if it were determined to be true.argument. Yet during the '80s.com. argument by generalization is neither inherently good nor is it bad.

Choice (C) is entirely irrelevant.com. hence. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. the correct answer is (E). the reliability of the prediction is dependent upon the representativeness of the sample. Option (D) doesn’t explain the discrepancy. Even more important is the fact that we don’t know what percentage of GM vehicle owners actually received the survey. The argument makes a generalization from the survey with regards to the general car-buying population. on average. the choice (A) seems like the obvious answer. political opinion polls are. At first. 80 .E) Eighty percent of the owners who wanted big cars and only 40 percent of the owners who wanted small cars replied to the survey. based only upon 0. Therefore. but rather provides even more of a reason for GM to continue its production of large cars Selection (E) demonstrates that part of the survey did not represent the entire public. as 10% does seem like a large enough amount. All rights reserved. Option (B) states simply that Ford has erred in the same way as GM.001% of the population. However.

Copyright © StudyGuideZone.The next classification of inductive reasoning is analogy. D) Just as the engine may race too quickly.com. so too can drinking too much water lead to lethargy. Consider the following example: Just as the fishing line becomes too taut. where a claim is made. so too may dwelling on the negative cause depression. C) Just as a plant can be killed by over watering it. The nature of this classification makes it so that the greater the similarity between the two factors of comparison. The argument will be weakened. they will also be similar in other respects. so too the trials and tribulations of life in the city can become so stressful that one's mind can snap. the stronger the argument. so too do one's career opportunities come unexpectedly. so too may life in the fast lane lead to an early death. the stronger the argument. stating that as two things are similar in some respects. E) Just as an actor may become stressed before a performance. B) Just as a gambler's fortunes change unpredictably. Additionally. 81 . so too may one's life be wasted pursuing self-gratification. the less ambitions the conclusion is. All rights reserved. however. Which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the argument above? A) Just as the bow may be drawn too taut. if dissimilarities are illustrated.

In fact. the mind snaps. 82 .” similar to “The line snaps. Answer-choice (C) proffers both a good analogy and a good conclusion. The choice (A) utilizes the same-language. The same scope as the original is also utilized as: “The engine blows. Selection (D) gives a strong analogy and a strong conclusion. while drawing a conclusion based on their similarity.com. the person dies. though not necessarily concepts that are similar. however it hasn’t a conclusion. Copyright © StudyGuideZone.” is an understatement of the scope of the analogy’s implication. as they will likely be baited same-language traps. the analogy between the taut bow and self-gratification is a weak one. you are seeking an answer-choice that makes a comparison between these two things. The conclusion states that the mind can snap in a similar way to a fishing line. All rights reserved. You will look for an argument that utilizes similar reasoning. Thus. though you should still examine every answer choice to see if a better option presents itself. if even existent at all. baited trap “too taut. you should probably be suspicious of any answer-choice that utilizes the words tautness or stress. Option (B) presents a good analogy.The argument is making a comparison of the tautness of fishing lines with the stress in city life.” Additionally.” This is a very probable selection for the best answer. although the conclusion “leads to lethargy.

com. “stressful. causal reasoning is the most prone to fallacy and is the weakest overall. These common fallacies are: Copyright © StudyGuideZone. There are two primary fallacies that are associated with causal reasoning. Seven Common Fallacies There are seven fallacies that are common to all three classifications of inductive argument. y The confusing of correlation with causation . Of all three classifications of inductive reasoning. Thus. In fact. Arguments of causation make claims that one thing causes another. This trap has been used to make the weak analogy more tempting. All rights reserved. B can still occur without A.” making it an obvious candidate as a same-language.This fallacy can be represented by stating that A caused B. while A does cause B to occur. baited trap. y The confusing of necessary conditions with sufficient conditions This fallacy can be demonstrated with the belief that as A is sufficient for B. but it all depends on the context.Option (E) uses language from the original text. because A occurred immediately before B. it is still a common method of thought. as the fact that A and B occurred together could have been simple coincidence. the best answer is (D). 83 . then B cannot occur without A. A causal argument does have the potential to be a strong one. Nevertheless. This is clearly a questionable line of reasoning.

Copyright © StudyGuideZone. the arguer is simply able to change the claim to the other meaning that is not under question. Equivocation takes place when the writer of the argument utilizes a single word in more than one sense within the same argument. it appears as though no one would fall for an argument of this nature. However. the conclusions within circular reasoning will frequently make an additional statement. Circular reasoning means that the arguer utilizes assumption as a premise for the conclusion that is being made. This is a common technique among public speakers and politicians who are seeking to maintain an “out” for themselves. 84 . or an argument may be so entirely long and drawn out that the reader of the argument can forget that the conclusion was stated as premise. This means that should someone object to a particular statement.y Contradiction y Equivocation y Circular reasoning y Shifting the burden of proof y Unwarranted assumptions y Appeal to authority y Personal attack A contradiction occurs when two opposing statements have been asserted simultaneously. Intuitively. however. All rights reserved.com. the arguer will typically attempt to obscure the point of contradictions to make the argument more compelling.

An appeal to authority occurs when an expert’s opinion has been cited as support for the arguer’s opinion.com. Unwarranted assumptions are the fallacy committed when an argument’s conclusion is based on either an implicit or explicit premise that is false or unwarranted.Shifting the burden of proof is a natural instinct for a writer who struggles with proof. the responsibility of the arguer to provide the evidence in support of the position of the argument. Assumptions are also unwarranted when they are true and yet do not apply within the context of the argument. It is. Obviously. also know as ad hominem is simply a challenge of the person’s character instead of the opinions being stated. These are usually explicit premises. the reasonableness of the argument that cites an authority is dependent upon the expertise of that particular authority. This makes the implication that a particular position is true simply because it has not been disproved by anyone else. 85 . All rights reserved. Though this method may not necessarily be fallacious. A personal attack. and whether this person is an expert in the relevant field of the argument. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. An assumption is unwarranted when it is a false assumption – these premises are usually suppressed or written in a vague way so that they do not receive as much notice or weight. however. it does risk being so for a number of reasons.

Analysis of an Issue For the Analysis of an Issue section. you will need to analyze the issue presented and explain your point of view on the subject. to take a position that is informed by your understanding. There is no correct answer. if appropriate. Instead. The issue and argument that you will find on the test concern topics of general interest related to business or a variety of other subjects. It consists of two 30-minute writing tasks: Analysis of an Issue and Analysis of an Argument. Analysis of an Argument Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Use relevant reasons and/or examples drawn from your experience.com. All rights reserved. observations. Only your capacity to write analytically is assessed. A specific knowledge of the essay topic is not necessary. 86 . you should consider various perspectives. What Is Measured The Analysis of an Issue tests your ability to explore the complexities of an issue or opinion and. or reading to develop your own position on the issue.Analytical Writing Test The Analytical Writing Assessment of the GMAT is designed as a direct measure of your ability to think critically and to communicate your ideas.

readers are looking for your essay to be well organized and properly developed. determine a few good reasons for making your choice. Consider the position you are taking. Consider the following when developing your essay: -what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking behind the argument -what alternative explanations or counter-examples might weaken the conclusion -what sort of evidence could help strengthen or refute the argument What Is Measured The Analysis of an Argument tests your ability to formulate an appropriate and constructive critique of a specific conclusion based on a specific line of thinking. 87 . You are not being asked to present your own views on the subject.For the Analysis of an Argument section.com. some evidence or explanation that Copyright © StudyGuideZone. All rights reserved. All of the main ideas should be clearly outlined and explained. They should be error free and contain a variety of examples and reasoning to explain your ideas. You need to know that in evaluating your essays. Planning Stage You should spend a few minutes planning and jotting down a few quick notes. you will need to analyze the reasoning behind a given argument and write a critique of that argument.

offering a few good reasons for your choice and explaining your reasoning in some detail. or observations. you should develop explanations for each. examples. Sticking to the Plan You should spend the bulk of your time writing your essay.com. 88 . Refer back to your plan. including such things as evidence. You should make clear the answer and angle you will choose for your essay. adding or removing as necessary and making any changes needed to enhance clarity. All rights reserved. and what order you should use to effectively present your points. Brainstorming Smart Brainstorming is a process of directing your mind toward idea generation. some effective details you might include. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Reviewing the Plan You should spend a few minutes reviewing your writing. As you explain the reasons for your choice.support the choice. remembering that the topic requires you to make a choice or take a position. Make sure that the language you choose communicates your ideas clearly and appropriately. You should also consider the criterion specified so that your essay is convincing to the addressed audience. and explain your reasoning in some detail.

If you choose an answer that while truthful. such as to become more beautiful and better looking. but for essays that are the best written. personality.com. looks. then you probably won’t win any points with the reader. wealth. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. more intelligent. fame. Example: Sample topic: “If you could change one thing about yourself. The scorer is not giving points for essays that are the most honest.” Example Brainstorming Level 1: What should I write about? Intelligence.Every book on essays will advise you to brainstorm. But remember that you want to be able to write at length about this topic. might be to respond with something such as making yourself more beautiful. This is the point at which different writers will begin to disagree about how to brainstorm. All rights reserved. A well-written essay needs substantial support to explain the reasoning behind your choice. friends. what would it be? Discuss why. etc. family. You want to determine what is going to be the focus of your essay. and honest reaction. It’s a method proven to be successful for several reasons. Your first impulse. First you have to brainstorm about what you are going to write about. Don’t automatically go with your first impulse. 89 . The method of brainstorming that is recommended here is two-tier. or more popular. may sound shallow to an essay reader. time.

If you choose “more popularity” as your topic. you can turn this into an excellent essay. All rights reserved. which will be about what you want to discuss about your chosen topic. then you should begin the second wave of brainstorming. use deeper reasoning.A choice such as more intelligence could sound shallow. etc. work at a local homeless shelter. but with a little creativity. Example Brainstorming Level 2: You’ve chosen to write about having more free time. enjoy your hobbies.com. Give examples of how your side research into molecular biology and genetics would be greatly improved with added intelligence and enable you to have a greater chance at your goal of contributing to finding a cure for cancer or diabetes. You have to have a proper balance at each level. open a new business. adopt some children. spend more time with friends and family. 90 . If you spent too much time at brainstorming level 1. Now you brainstorm about what you should say to support that choice. Instead of stating that you want to be more intelligent in order to get better grades. After you’ve decided which topic you are going to write about. which examples you want to use and which observations you hope to present. write a novel. Explain what you would do with that added intelligence. then you won’t have time to Copyright © StudyGuideZone. you could discuss how you would use your popularity in order to persuade more people to support your humanitarian causes and to be a positive role model for others.

you should look over the supporting ideas you hope to use and the examples you’ve written down from the brainstorming process. 91 . because those will be the ones that will comprise your successive body paragraphs. along with the main ideas and supporting ideas that will be Copyright © StudyGuideZone. But if you spend too little time at brainstorming level 1.com.decide on what you want to use as examples in level 2. then you may not come up with a really good topic to use for your essay. Your goal is to hit the high notes. You only need 3-5 good ideas to write about and may have a loss of focus if you try to write about more than a few important supporting topics. A good strategy is to practice using this two level brainstorming process until you get comfortable with using it and quickly generating lots of ideas. Pick the best ideas you’ve developed and write about those. All rights reserved. Ending at the Start Many essay writers will start off by writing their introductory paragraph. Which ones could you write the most about and would give you the most sound reasoning and logic to back up your initial decision of what to write about? Make mental notes about which supporting ideas from brainstorming level 2 you hope to use. Making the Cuts Once you’ve finished the brainstorming level 2 process. Look back over the ideas and see which ones look the best.

com.used. When you’re finished writing your body paragraphs. As you write your body paragraphs. and only use the introductory paragraph in order to briefly outline what you are going to discuss. Brevity is better than wordiness in an introduction. by expanding on each of the supporting ideas that you’ve chosen and writing your body paragraphs first. since you haven’t written it yet. you can just adopt the new ideas as you write and incorporate them into your body paragraphs. don’t make the mistake of writing too much in your introductory paragraph. The problem with this is that many of the best ideas will occur to a writer while writing the essay. and then force fit the essay into the guidelines that they have predetermined for their essay. 92 . Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Rather than having to go back and make changes to your introductory paragraph. take the brainstorming ideas that you’ve developed and begin writing your essay. Rather than immediately jumping into writing your introductory paragraph. Additionally. then you can go back and write your introductory paragraph and make sure that it matches up with each of your body paragraphs and covers the overall topic you are discussing. which should each include at least one primary supporting idea. Save your logic for the body paragraphs. All rights reserved. The introduction is not where you explain your reasoning. new ideas may occur to you that you would prefer to use.

additionally. and furthermore all give the reader an understanding of how the paragraphs flow together. It is vitally important that the introductory and concluding paragraphs are consistent with each other and that the body paragraphs match the introduction and conclusion. after you’ve written your body paragraphs.com. Writing your introduction at the end. also. second. All rights reserved. and then following it with your conclusion will be a huge help in maintaining the consistency. then their body paragraphs. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Maintaining the Flow Part of maintaining consistency in your essay is the proper use of transition words while you’re writing. Transition words such as first. finally. in summary. The problem with this is that often the whole focus of the essay may have morphed as the writer wrote the essay and the conclusion seems to have a completely different focus than the introduction and the body paragraphs seem to lead take the reader through a tortuous path that changes course with every sentence. in conclusion. and then their conclusion at the end. You want your paper to be consistent throughout.Staying Consistent A lot of writers write their introductory paragraph. Use transition words to maintain the essay’s flow. but always look back over your essay when you’re finished and make sure that the essay keeps the same focus all the way through. 93 . third.

Example: You make the statement. which now fill much of the downtown. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 94 .Example: Paragraph 1: Introduction Paragraph 2: First of all. … Backing up Your Points If you make a point or statement in your essay. but is definitely a worthwhile endeavor. A higher sales tax was passed in order to pay for the renovation. … Paragraph 3: Secondly. the sales tax was removed and the antique shops.” While many readers may agree with this statement. which ultimately cost $1 million dollars. it shouldn’t be made without backup support: Consider the following as backup for that example statement: My own hometown created a ten year plan to renovate their downtown area. but ensure that they are provided with some back up substance. “Renovating older downtowns can be expensive.com. The downtown is now completely self-supporting and is a constant source of both pride and new tax revenue to the town’s residents. … Paragraph 4: Finally. All rights reserved. attract tourists and collectors from hundreds of miles away. Don’t let your points remain unsupported. But once it was finished. make sure that you back it up with clear examples from your personal experience or observation. … Paragraph 5: In summary.

” At this point you know you are using the colon properly. You don’t have to demonstrate knowledge of every nuance of grammar. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. and so you can feel free to move on in your essay without fear of having made a grammar mistake. whether to strive for improvement. Example: You write. or settle into surroundings. or to settle in to their surroundings. if you find yourself wondering whether a given phrase should have commas around it or not. Change it to something such as: “There are two paths: strive for improvement. All rights reserved. rewrite the phrase such that you’re confident it doesn’t need commas or does need commas.com. Therefore.” You aren’t sure whether you need a comma or a colon after the phrase “to take in life” in the preceding sentence. 95 .Using Proper Grammar Remember that this essay is your chance to write and make yourself look good and well educated. “Each of us must choose which path to take in life. There is no need to have any punctuation in your essay that you are only 50% confident of being correct and conforming to the rules of grammar. It is not a test of your knowledge of grammar rules. Simply rewrite the sentence until you are confident in how it is phrased.

Discussing the same angle of a topic at length is considered essay depth. Avoiding Tunnel Vision Remember that the goal of your essay is to properly cover a topic and write an essay that is somewhat exhaustive in showing every angle and perspective. Often a big vocabulary word will be used out of context and it will have the reverse effect. Discussing different angles of the same topic is considered essay breadth. a vocabulary word used improperly will detract from the essay. obscure topic. One particular angle occurs to them as the most important and they hammer away at that angle of the topic throughout the entire essay. they should only be used with caution. Most of the time.com. This isn’t a 20-page thesis written on a specific. you will be safer by sticking with words you are familiar with and accustomed to using. Your topics will be fairly generic and broad-based and should have lots of different Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Rather than looking impressive. 96 . if you think of a word that you don’t commonly use. Your goal is to have greater breadth than depth. only use it if you are absolutely positive of its meaning and are sure that you are using it at the right place.Watching Your Vocabulary Many essay writers feel that they have to impress the reader with the vocabulary that they have at their disposal. All rights reserved. While a good vocabulary can be impressive. A lot of writers get tunnel vision. and the right word used at the right time can make an essay appear much more professional. So.

97 . Don’t get stuck in a rut with tunnel vision. Example: The topic is whether or not athletics represents too much a part of today’s academic institutions. Be sure you are spending proper amounts of time on each angle you intend to discuss and not spend the entire essay writing about the same angle. Always try to consider multiple angles and avoid getting tunnel vision.com. and you intend to take the side that athletics is not too much of a part. Just Do It Some writers will begin their essay by rephrasing the question and talking about the different possibilities. as well as athletics. However. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. more diverse education. The introduction should be concise and to the point. Your main angle is that an education is far more than simply academics and that athletics programs foster a richer. You want to touch on as many different angles as you can. All rights reserved. Consider writing about how athletic programs create ties to the community that academics does not. Don’t use the introduction as a chance to expose your mental ramblings.angles to consider and write about. Rather than stating what you’re going to do: just do it. Discuss how athletic programs also encourage donations that benefit academics. while still providing supporting backup for each statement you make. don’t get stuck talking about that one angle.

one stands alone: character. and personality run much deeper. and does not ramble on about the decision or ideas that are occurring to the writer. Character is the most important because it defines a person. I think the one that is most important is character. You want to make sure that you are quickly and concisely reviewing what you’ve written and have a solid ending in which you come across as having proved your point. This is not the time to begin introducing new arguments and new reasoning. character provides the strength to overcome them. Good looks is only skin deep. Conclusion is Review A conclusion is just that: a conclusion. All rights reserved. Character defines individuals. character.com. When obstacles arise.Example – Bad introduction: In this essay. So. and exposes their true nature. concise. Notice how this second example is clear. and made your case effectively. It was a difficult decision to make. It wraps everything that you’ve written thus far up into a neat summary paragraph. I am going to discuss the thing that I consider to be the most important quality in an individual. Example – Good introduction: While every characteristic in an individual is important. when you’re ready to begin your conclusion. but intelligence. 98 . make sure that you’ve flushed out all the new angles you want to cover. because there were so many qualities to choose from. and provides strength to overcome any obstacle. Then go back Copyright © StudyGuideZone. exposes their true nature.

” try writing. and will never work.com. “School uniforms is a stupid idea. while the second statement contains solid facts as examples. Example: The topic is about school uniforms. Communicating Reason. hitting briefly on all the angles that you’ve discussed. All rights reserved. Rather than writing.over what you’re written and tie it all together at the end. End your essay with purpose and definitively summarize what you have stated. Additionally. and you are passionately opposed. but clearly lacks reason. “School uniforms have been an admitted failure by their original sponsors in all three implementation efforts during the last decade. backed up by sound examples and observations. You should never apologize for not knowing more or writing more. They are interested in well thought out essays that communicate reasonable arguments and logic. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 99 . make sure that you present more than just heated emotion. but also cool logic. If the topic you choose is one that you are passionate about.” The first statement may be full of passion. not Passion The readers that read and score your essay are not looking for passionate essays that are full of hot air and lacking in reason. a conclusion is not an apology.

those facts do not help answer why a quest for knowledge is the most important thing you have ever learned in school. Your answer is a quest for knowledge. misguided reason is ineffective. Make sure that the facts and reasons you are stating directly help you in your goal of answering the topic question. take a few seconds and confirm that they will adequately answer the topic and veer off down a tangent that is not directly related. Copyright © StudyGuideZone. Example: The topic is about what was the most important thing you have ever learned in school and asks you to discuss why. A tangent that you would not want to pursue might be to provide statistics on how many hours you worked on a research paper in elementary school. which expanded your mind. As you think of main ideas and supporting ideas to use. Your supporting ideas include having been forced to work on large projects and do exhaustive research into topics that you normally wouldn’t read about. Always make sure that the examples you are providing and the reasoning you are using is being directed at answering the topic question. All rights reserved.Answering the Why? While it’s important that you communicate reason. 100 . Flawless logic that doesn’t answer the question and doesn’t contribute to the point you’re trying to make is completely useless.com. While factual.

Although there are time restrictions. keep in mind that incorrect answers don’t count against you. you only want to perform in a timely manner. Your body and mind will need the energy. Remember. Know exactly where the test will be held and how you will get yourself there. it won’t be worth all the time you save. and you’ve had a good night’s sleep. And most importantly. Stay on track. accidentally fill in the wrong answer-choice. feed them! You’ve already done all the practice tests you can do. Leaving early will mean that you’ll be more relaxed. Place your hand over your heart while taking a very slow. If you’ve got butterflies in your stomach.Getting Ready For Test Day You’re all set to take your GMAT! Now here are a few things to remember for test day: Get there early. plus it’s distracting to listen to your stomach growl. Now it’s time to get a good. red traffic lights won’t raise your stress level. you’ll have time to use the rest room. All rights reserved. so you can always guess at any answers that you are unsure of. or think illogically due to rushing. haste makes waste! Also.com. Remember. an educated guess is Copyright © StudyGuideZone. deep breath. if you misread direction. Give yourself a massage! Rub your head. you don’t want to rush. healthy breakfast . Pay attention to traffic reports so that you can compensate for any unexpected issues on the road. 101 . neck and shoulders. Remember.though it is wise not to overeat. and you won’t be pulled over by the first officer who has to fill his speeding ticket quota.

Most importantly (at least to your sanity).better than no guess at all! Moving through a test methodically and efficiently will likely mean that you’ll have more time at the end than if you were to rush and stumble. Clear your mind of it.com. Go treat yourself to a hot chocolate or an ice cream cone. All rights reserved. or dawdle over questions that you’re struggling with. it’s over. because you did your best. catch a movie with some friends and relax! Copyright © StudyGuideZone. 102 . remember that once it’s over.

what sort of score you should be expecting (and therefore what schools will be within your scope for application) and the sort of mindset you’ll be expected to utilize when you’re actually in graduate school. this is neither an opportunity to over-inflate your ego. you’ll receive your score. open minded and optimistic. 103 . successful graduate career in your future! Copyright © StudyGuideZone. This doesn’t mean that you should begin a session of “if only I’d…” or “I shouldn’t have…” This will only depress you. keeping as prepared and informed as you were with your GMAT. The main idea is to make your self-evaluation objective and critical. take the time to critically evaluate your test performance. All rights reserved. and this will only lead to a bright. Remember. so that you will achieve an accurate view of how things will pan out. This will help you gain valuable insight into how you performed.Post GMAT After the GMAT. when you’ve had the time to rest and relax from the stress you put your brain through. Soon enough. and the applications will start rolling out. nor to put yourself down. Make it an organized procedure.com. The point of this exercise is to keep you grounded.