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Assignment on

(A group assignment that partially fulfill the course Victimology)

Department of Criminology & Police Science
MAWLANA BHASHANI SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY
SANTOSH, TANGAIL, 1902.

Afjal Hossain Najmul Hossain Khan CP05003 CP05010 CP05013 CP05015 CP05030 CP05031 CP05034 Submitted To: Md. Sohel Md. Omr Faruk Lecturer Department of Criminology and Police Science Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University Submission Date: 02 October 2007 Department of Criminology & Police Science MAWLANA BHASHANI SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY . Shahena Yasmin Md. Ibrahim Khalil Mst. Al Shahriar Mst. Sadia Sultana Abu Bashar Md.The Chronological Development of Criminology Submitted By: Md.

1902. TANGAIL. .SANTOSH.

1845 Friedrich Engels The Condition of the Working Class in England Criminal. Espoused a biological approach to crime causation. Search for evidence that brain tissue and cells regulate human behavior. Related body types to illegal behavior. changed explanation of human behavior. Continued studies of phrenology.ated criminality to hereditary inferiority. 1979 Larry Cohen and Routine activities theory (crimes to occur a likely offender. the study of facial features and their relation to human behaviours. Espoused a biological approach to crime causation. Related criminal behavior to inherited traits. Re. Produce first penal code based on positivist principles.The Chronological Development of Criminology Primitive Thinking Time/ Year 1154 Thinker Work The Pilgrim's Progress (Part One) in which Christian follows the straight and narrow path to heaven 1500 a common law for England 1612 Edward Wightman was executed by being burnt alive in the Market Place 1678 John Bunyan The Pilgrim's Progress (Part One) in which Christian follows the straight and narrow path to heaven 1756 William Blackstone An Analysis of the Laws of England Classical Thinking 1764 Cesare Beccaria Free-will individuals commit crime –crime is more pleasure then pain 1789 Jeremy Bentham Concern with legal & penal reform rather then crime. In analysing the mechanisms by which genetic . Traced roots of criminal behavior to “ moral-anomalies” rather than physical characteristics. Introduced the somatotype school of criminology. further developed phrenology. developed phrenology. Formulated theory of evolution. Marcus Felson a suitable target. Theory of born criminal. the absence of a capable guardian against crime) 1986 Cornish and Clarke Rational Choice Theory (Maximum profit & minimum cost) Biological Positivism 1535-1615 Giambattista Della 1741-1801 Johann Kaspar 1758-1828 Franz Joseph Gall 1772-1853 Charles Caldwell 1776-1832 Johann Kaspar Spurzheim Charles Darwin 1809-1882 1835-1909 1841-1883 1852-1934 Cesare Lombroso (1876) Richard Dugdale Raffaele Garofalo 1856-1929 1887-1954 1888-1964 1898-1977 1964 Enrico Ferri Ernest Hooten Ernst Cretschmer William Sheldon Hans Jürgen Founder the school of physiognomy.

Pioneered criteria for legal responsibility. Differential association is related to differential social organization. also psychological and biological explanations. Sociological Thinking 1796-1874 1798-1857 Adolphe Quetelet Auguste Comte 1802-1866 Andre Michel Guerry Gabriel Tarde Herbert Spencer Durkheim Charles Buckman Goring Sheldon Glueck Eleanor Glueck Talcott Parson 1843-1904 1876 1893 1870-1919 1896-1980 1898-1972 1951 Social Learning 1912 Tared 1939 Sutherland 1960 Cressey 1960 1966b Richard Cloward Lloyd Ohlin Akers & Burgess Social Control 1951 Reiss 1956 Reckless Social determination of behavior.1977 Eysenck Mednick 1984 Taylor potentialities are translated into criminal behaviour. Crime is a social problem & it is functional for the society. Espoused primary social causes of delinquency. Description of the sick role as. Goddard Freud Maslow 1976 1987 Murray Gordon Moral insanity responsible for illegal acts. Delinquency is the failure of personal & social control. related crime statistics to social factor. Theory of Delinquent Gangs Criminal behavior is learnt from differential association & differential reinforcement. . Used criminal research to refute Lombroso’s theory of criminal types. Crime is a symptom of more deep-seated problem. Brought modern scientific methods from physical to social science. Psychological Thinking 1807-1881 1835-1918 1866-1957 1940 ------ Isaac Ray Henry Maudsley Henry H. Containment theory (Crime is the cause of unfavorable self-concept& lack of strong inner & reinforcing outer control). High IQ adolescent has lower probability to commit crime. Explained crime as learned behavior. "deviant" Criminal behavior involved into direct imitation. Related criminal behavior to intelligence. in important respects. Delinquency from learning disability. First repudiate free-will doctrine. The utilitarian tradition in industrial society. Crime is a means by which individuals can satisfy there basic needs. Criminal behavior is learnt from differential association. Inherent criminal tendencies (Criminality arise not only genetic fact but also criminogenic environment) XYY – Super male criminal (The XYY is in extreme risk of committing more violent crime).

Social Theory and Social Structure. Women’s liberation theory. Park & Ernest W. Park's Anomie or Strain Delinquency is caused by detachment from the conventional group which is caused by social disorganization Compared human life with plant ecology. ii. Merton 1955 Abert Cohen Labeling Thinking 1951 1967 Lemert Howard Becker 1989 Braithwaite Conflict Thinking 1958 Vold 1964 Turk Labeling as a cause of continuing deviance. & Integration (Theory of reintegrative shaming) Crime as the behavior of individuals caught up in cultural & group conflict. How are ruling and subordinate groups and classes in society actually deploying criminal law and criminalization? Feminist Theory of Crime 1987 1988 1988 Jhon Hagan Daly & Chesneylind Adler & Simon Power control theory of gender & delinquency. iii. . i. Burgess Shaw & Mckay 1936 Robert E. Chicago School 1921 Robert E. Status deprivation & the Delinquent subculture. Shame. Crime is caused by relative powerlessness Marxist Theory of crime 1969 1980 Bonger Quinney 1993 John Lea Crime is produced by capitalistic organization of society. Direct control. Patriarchy is the cause of crime.1957 1958 Toby Nyel 1969 Hirschi 1990 Gottfredson Hirschi Crime is the cause of improper socialization Three main categories of social control prevent delinquency. Crime is caused by anomie which is the contradiction of cultural goals & social means. Crime is an inevitable response to the material conditions of capitalism. Crime. Crime is the consequence of application by others of rules & sanctions to an offender. Herbert Blumer R. Merton 1949 Robert K. Delinquent act result when an individual’s bond to society is weak or broken. Indirect control. Low self-control as the cause of criminal behavior. Internal control. 1937 1938 Symbolic interactionist for theories developed from Mead.

1977 Gibbons Embraces etiology of criminals’ behavior. It is a normal aspect of society. Delinquent Network analysis. Crime and the collapse of Civil Liberties. Crime is a result of improper socialization. Reaction and Social Control is giving rise to deviance. 1938 Merton Social structure theory 1939 Sutherland Offered a “social process” view of criminology. and Radical.1989 Chesney-lind Integrating Criminology Mother’s liberation is the cause of daughter’s crime. 1958 Vold 1960 Cloward and Ohlin 1963 Wolfgang 1964 Durkhim 1965 Principles of criminology ( 6th edn) 1967 Sutherland & Cressay Reckless 1969 Hirchis Crime is a result of improper socialization 1970 Bloch & Geiss Entire body of knowledge regarding the cause & prevention of crime. 1940 -------- 1940-1950 ------- Teaching of Criminology started at Jail officer school at Lucknow in India Liberal criminology 1955 Walter reckless Criminology is a science which studies violation of criminal codes Crime is caused by relative powerless. Bonding & Learning theory of crime. Intellectual Development Time/ Year Thinker Work 1920 Maurice Parmalee First American text book of criminology was written. Conservative. Integrative model of Strain. Liberal. social response of crime. 1975 1985 Kaplan Elliott 1986 2005 Krohn John Lea Self-derogation theory of adolescent theory. study & analysis of the phenomena of crime & criminal behavior. 1970 ------- 1974 1976 Gibbons & Garabediaan Hunt Identify three major perospective in the growth of criminology. Criminologist is a concern towards a scientific approach. . Terrorism. control of crimes & correction of criminals. Crime is a social fact. punishment & correction of criminals Radical criminology Drew attention to the functioning of social structures in the caution of crime.

Patriarchy over women’s labour and sexuality is the cause of crime. Bonger Zimiring and Hawkings Gibbs Howard G. Young Akers 1988 Chesney-lind Social theory of deviance ( abolition of inequalities in wealth and powers). Walton. 1981 1985 Taylor.1978 Hugh Barlow Faith in efficient police and criminal justice machinery. Theoretical Criminology Figure:3 1957 1958 1961 1964 1967 1969 1969 1973 1975 1975 Merton Vold Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin Emile Durkeim Reckless Travis Hirchi. Crime is committed because it is positively reinforced.Kaplan 1985 . negative reinforced or imitated.

Akers 1957 1958 1961 1964 1967 1969 1969 The Chronological Development of Theory Theoretical Criminology Figure:4 1987 1988 1990 1992 Terence P. Thornberry Kathleen Daly and Meda Chesney Gottfredson and Hirchi Ritzer 1987 1988 1990 1992 1973 1975 1975 1985 .

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Published a book: La victim-Is the victim blame.Development of Victimology 1937 Meldensohn Interviewed victims to obtain information. 1977 ------1979 1980 1985 Von Henting Meldensohn Elias The study of victimization as a separate discipline. The interpersonal level. 1947 Mendelsohn Presented a paper in frence at a congress in Bucharest. The role of the victim as co-precipator of the crime. crime and victimization is a context of character. 1974 Drapkin. 1941 Hans Von Henting An article about the victim-criminal interaction. Cohen & Felson’s Routine Activities Theory.. ------ Von Henting 1958 Wolfgang He drew attention to the part played by victims in precipating crimes of violence. Viano Luckenbill’s situated transaction model Benjamin & Masters Threefold model.1963 Nagel Victimological notion. Gender equality perspective have made mainstream victimologists more sensitive to gender issue & to power to . i)Suitable targets ii)Motivated offenders iii)absence of guardians. Victim precipitation was vigoriously attacked by feminists. Crime occurs when three conditions come together. that is victim offender relationship. A study into functional responsibility. 1948 Von Henting Studied victims of homicide. 1968 Sachfer 1971 Fattah The victim and his criminal. The idea is that support crime can be classified into three general categories. 1940 Mendelsohn Began to explore the field of victimology. 1959.

. 1) people have free will to choose how to act.inequalities. Gillin Geographical School 1830-1880 D. 1986. group and behavor of the person Based on utilitarian philosophy ie. The Development of Schools of Criminology: School Preclsssical School Time/ Year 1700-1850 Thinker Hobbes. altitude of the place where crime takes place Crime is not only the reaction of poor people but also the disrecpect of the capitalistic society.Montesque & Lombroso Socialist School 1850 Bonger Criminological Work Deals with person. Gillin Positivist school 19th century Cesare Lombroso.R. Taft. the more effective it is in detering criminal behavior Certain situations or mental disorders deprive a person of his normal apacety to control his conduct. Jeremy Bentham Classical School Mid 18th century The neo-classical School 1851-1900 Prof. ii) Punishment can deter people from crime. climate. The scientific method was introduced and applied to study human behavior Offender is a product of his biological inheritance conditioned in his development by experiences of life to wich he has beenexposed from infancy upto the time of the commission of crime The phenomenon of crime is closely related with the geography.Locke and Rousseau Cesare Beccaria.1992 Fattah Can be regarded as belonging to the first generation of penal victimologist. iii) The more swift and certain the punishment.Quetelet and Guerry.Enrico Ferri. Behaviour is caused by internal and external factors outside of the individual's control. Raffaele Garofalo Clinical School After posttive School Prof.

Dr. They also focused on juvenile delinquents. including the "zone in transition" which was identified as most volatile and subject to disorder. Ernest Burgess They identified five concentric zones that often exist as cities grow. . Sutherland. Crime and Conflict Research Centre developed by sociologists and criminologists at Middlesex University.Typological School 1875 Sociological School 1915 Chicago School Early twentieth century Note: 1986 2006 Lombroso. Tarde. Seeks to locate causation of Cohen crime in social environment Robert Ezra Park.Goring The criminal tyoes have been classified on the basis of anthropologecal & psychological date. finding that they were concentrated in the zone of transition Centre for Criminology established at Middlesex Polytechnic (later University) to develop interdisciplinary research into crime and the criminal justice system.