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Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering (AUTONOMOUS

)
L.B. Reddy Nagar, Mylavaram – 521 230.
Krishna Dist. (A.P)

Electronic Devices and Circuits Lab (L139)

Name

: .........................................................

Regd. No

: ........................................................

Course

: B.Tech (II - Semester)

Branch

: ECE

Academic Year

: 2014-2015

DEPT OF ECE

1

EDC LAB

Electronic Devices and Circuits Lab
List of Experiments
1. Course Code

: L139

2. Course Title

: ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND
CIRCUITS LAB

3. Year in which offered

: B. Tech. ECE II-SEM

4. No. of weeks of instruction

: 16

5. No. of hours per week

: 3 periods

6. Course objectives:
To study the Fundamental characteristics of PN Junction and ZENER
Diode, Input and output characteristics of BJT & FET in different configurations,
Rectifier operation and to verify resistor color coding, signal generation etc by
using LABVIEW simulation software.

7. List of experiments:
1). Study of CRO
2). P-N Junction Diode Characteristics
3). Zener Diode Characteristics
4). Half Wave Rectifiers (with & without filters)
5). Full Wave Rectifiers (with & without filters)
6). Transistor CB Characteristics (input and output)
7). Transistor CE Characteristics (input and output)
8). Transistor CC Characteristics (input and output)
9). Field Effect Transistor Characteristics
10).Uni-junction transistor characteristics
11).Calculation of series & parallel resistance by using
LABVIEW
12). Signal Generation by using LABVIEW
13). Resistor colour coding by using LABVIEW

DEPT OF ECE

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EDC LAB

INDEX

S.No

Date

1.

Name of the Experiment

Page No.

Calculation of series & parallel resistance by using
LABVIEW

5

Signal Generation by using LABVIEW

2.

Resistor colour coding by using LABVIEW

3.

Study of CRO

4.

P-N Junction Diode Characteristics

5.

Zener Diode Characteristics

6.

Half Wave Rectifiers (with & without filters)

7.

Full Wave Rectifiers (with & without filters)

8.

Transistor CB Characteristics (input and output)

9.

Transistor CE Characteristics (input and output)

10.

Transistor CC characteristics(input and output)

11.

FET characteristics

12.

UJT Characteristics

13.

DEPT OF ECE

3

Marks

Signature

6
7
8
11
16
20
24
28
33
38
43
48

EDC LAB

LABVIEW
INTRODUCTION:
Labview is simulation software developed by national instruments of India.
Labview software is updated in 2010.Labview contains so many functions so that we can use
them easily.
By using labview we can solve so many problems in mathematics .We can solve
matrices, we can evaluate integrations and various types of differentiations. We can plot
various graphs of various functions in 2D and 3D.We can design various electronics circuits
and we can run them. Almost all experiments on various fields can be done here in software
and thus it is called LABVIEW.Other simulation software is MULTISIM/PSPICE.
LABVIEW denotes
LAB –laboratory
V-Virtual
I-Instrumentation
E-Engineering
W-Work bench
When we open Labview software, first we can find a window on a screen. There
we can find blank VI, project module etc. and we can also find various links to national
instruments websites to upload latest version of software, and help regarding this software
and on various matters
If we choose Blank VI , then two windows are opened. One is FRONT panel and the
other is BLOCK diagram
FRONT PANEL:
Front panel is a front view which is used to give the inputs and view the results. For
giving input and getting desired output we need some controls. For example
BLOCK diagram:
It is the VI’s source code, constructed in LabVIEW’s graphical programming
language, G. It is the actual executable program

DEPT OF ECE

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EDC LAB

EXPT 1: CALCULATION OF SERIES AND PARALLEL
RESISTANCE
AIM:
To calculate the series and parallel resistance value by using LABVIEW software
APPRATUS:
LABVIEW 2010 Software
PROCEDURE:
1) Create control for two resistances values for finding series and parallel values.
2) Create an indicator to display the output.

RESULT:
Thus the series and parallel values of two resistors are calculated by using LABVIEW
simulation.

DEPT OF ECE

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EDC LAB

DEPT OF ECE 6 EDC LAB . RESULT: Thus different signals are generated by using LABVIEW. 2) Now generate controls for amplitude frequency and signal type.EXPT 2: SIGNAL GENERATION BY USING LABVIEW AIM: To generate different types of signals by using LABVIEW software APPRATUS: LABVIEW 2010 Software PROCEDURE: 1) First go to block diagram panel right click go to signal processing and select basic waveform generator. 3) Now provide an indicator like graph to see the output.

EXPT 3: RESISTOR COLOUR CODING USING LABVIEW AIM: To find the resistance value of the resistor using LABVIEW software APPRATUS: LABVIEW 2010 Software PROCEDURE: 1) For the three colors on the resistor. 2) Numeric constants like multiplier. adders are constructed on back panel. RESULT: Thus the value of resistor using colour code is calculated by using LABVIEW. DEPT OF ECE 7 EDC LAB . 3) Necessary connections are made to get resistor value as shown in above figure . we need three ENUM’S controls and these can be taken from front panel.

BNC to Crocodile Probes 2.05V 1V 2V 2 2V 0.No.O AIM:. 3. Now switch on the Function Generator.No. 4.20MHz Dual Trace CRO 1No.To study the Various front panel controls of Dual Trace Cathode Ray Oscilloscope and to Measure different frequencies and Voltages. Select the Sine wave and Connect the Function Generator output to CH-I or CH-II of CRO.05V 1V 2V 3 3V 1V 2V 5V DEPT OF ECE 8 EDC LAB . 2. 3. APPARATUS REQUIRED:1.No. PROCEDURE:1.EXPT 4: STUDY OF C. IN OF RESULTANT VERTICAL VOLTAGE DIVISIOVS(PP) 1 1V 1V0. If we measure mill Volts from Function Generator press 20db or 40db or 20db & 40db attenuating switches depending upon the required Voltage. VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT:Set the Frequency at 1 KHz S. For Voltage Variation use amplitude Control. APPLIED VOLTS/DIVISION NO. Measure different Signal Voltages and frequencies as per the given tabular Form. VOLAGE. If want in Volts release the attenuating push buttons in the out position. Switch the CRO and Select Mono/Dual Operation Observe the Trace on the CTR 2.R.Function Generator 1.

2V 0.5V (50mV) 0.1V 0.05V 10 0.4 5V 1V 2V 5V 5 10V 2V 5V 10V 6 15V 5V 10V 20V 7 20V 5V 10V 20V 8 0.05V 20MV 11 20mV 20V 10V 5Mv DEPT OF ECE 9 EDC LAB .1V 9 0.5V (500mV) 0.1V 0.1V 0.2V 0.5V 0.

1 ms 50µs 20 µs 5 50Hz 50 µs 20 µs 10 µs 6 100Hz 20 µs 10 µs 5 µs 7 500Hz 5 µs 2 µs 1 µs 8 1MHz 2 µs 1 µs 0.Studied various front panel controls and measured different voltages and Frequencies using a CRO.FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT:Set the Amplitude at 3V (Cal.05ms 1 ms 2 ms 2 5Hz 0. Variable Control should be in minimum position) S.No APPLIED FREQ.2 ms 0.1 ms 3 10Hz 0.5 ms 0. IN 1 1KHz OF RESULTANT HORIZONTAL FREQUENCY DIVISIONS f=1/T 0. DEPT OF ECE 10 EDC LAB .5 µs RESULT:.1 ms 50 ms 4 20Hz 0.2 ms 0. TIME/DIVISION NO.

Bread Board 1.0-500  A DC Ammeter 1.EXPT 5: PN JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AIM: 1.No. 8. this way of biasing is called as forward bias.No. 4. In this biasing current is exponentially increasing with respective to applied voltage.No. 6. THEORY: Forward Bias: If P-type semiconductor is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and Ntype Semiconductor is connected to negative terminal of the battery. 3. 2. Reverse bias: If P-type semiconductor connected to negative terminal of the battery and N-type semiconductor is connected to the positive terminal of the battery is known as reverse bias. 2.0-50mA DC Ammeter 1.0-1V Dc Voltmeter.Resistor 1K  1.No.No. 1.0-30V DC Voltmeter 1. For every 10 degrees raise in temperature reverse saturation current becomes double.IN 4007 Diode 1.No. To find the static and dynamic resistances in Forward and Reverse Bias. DEPT OF ECE 11 EDC LAB . 7.0-30V Regulated Power Supply 1. Hence it is known as rectifier. 5. In reverse bias the current through the diode is I = -Io whose value is independent on applied voltages and which depends on minority carrier concentration and temperature. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Thus in forward bias diode offers less resistance and in reverse bias diode offers high resistance.No.No. To Plot the V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode.

DEPT OF ECE 12 EDC LAB . Connect the Circuit as per the Circuit Diagram on the bread board 2. Switch on the regulated Power supply and slowly increase the source voltage and note the down the voltage across the PN Junction diode insteps of . From the graph find out the static forward bias resistance of the diode r=Vf/If. From the graph find out the dynamic forward bias resistance of the diode 6. Observe and note down the cut in Voltage of the diode.1Volt and note down the Corresponding diode current under forward bias Condition as per table given below. Plot the graph Vf versus If on the graph Sheet to the scale.(0-30V) + V IN4007 (0-1V) FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS 1KΩ (0-500µA) + RPS. 3. 4. 5.CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: 1KΩ (0-50mA) +A RPS.(0-30V) A + IN4007 V (0-30V) REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS PROCEDURE : FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS: 1.

From the graph find out the static reverse bias resistance of the diode r =Vr/Ir.TABLE: FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS: S.3 0. 3. From the graph find out the dynamic reverse bias resistance of the diode.1 0. Switch on the Regulated Power supply and slowly increase the source Voltage and note the Voltage across the PN Junction diode insteps of 1 Volt.6 0.No 1 2 3.5 0.2 0. 8. Plot the graph Vr versus Ir on the graph Sheet to the scale. 5. 4. 6. FORWARD BIAS VOLTAGE (Vf) IN VOLTS 0.4 0. 7. 5.8 FORWARD BIAS CURRENT (If) IN mA REVESE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS: 1. 4. And note the Corresponding current flowing through the diode under reverse bias Condition as per table given below. 2. Connect the Circuit as per the Circuit Diagram on the bread board. DEPT OF ECE 13 EDC LAB .7 0.

Identify the Diode terminals properly while connecting.No 1 2 3. 2. 7. 4. Keep all COARSE controls of RPS minimum and CURRENT controls in maximum position before switch ON.REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS: S. DEPT OF ECE 14 EDC LAB . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 REVERSE BIAS VOLTAGE (Vr) IN VOLTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 REVERSE BIAS CURRENT (Ir) IN A MODEL GRAPH: PRECAUTIONS: 1. 6. 5.

7. What is meant by depletion layer in p-n junction diode? DEPT OF ECE 15 EDC LAB . Static forward resistance = 2. Dynamic reverse resistance = The V-I Characteristics of the PN Junction diode are plotted for the Both forward and reverse bias conditions and Calculated the dynamic forward and reverse bias resistance. What is meant by P.type layer? 2. What is meant by reverse bias of p-n junction diode? 6. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the function of p-n junction diode? 4. What is meant by N. Dynamic forward resistance = 4. What is meant by forward bias of p-n junction diode? 5.RESULT: 1. Static reverse resistance = 3.type layer? 3. Define cut-in voltage of p-n junction diode.

Bread Board. In the reverse bias it acts as regulator because its doping concentration is higher than the ordinary diode. APPARATUS REQUIRED:1.1V V (0-30V) REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS DEPT OF ECE 16 EDC LAB . 3. Thus a large amount of current is drawn through the diode. due to this a large electric field intensity is developed at the junction with narrow distance.0-30V Each 1No. D.C Regulated Power Supply 0-30V 1No. 4. To find out the Zener Break down Voltage and Zener resistances from the Characteristics.1V or 9. CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:- (0-50mA) 1KΩ + A RPS(0-30V) + 5.1V or 9. 2.EXPT 6: ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AI M:- 1.Zener Diodes 5.1V V (0-1V) FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS (0-50mA) 1KΩ + RPS(0-30V) A + 5. 6.Resistor 1 K  1No. The diode which adopts this is zener diode. 1No. 5.1V 1No.DC Voltmeters 0-1V. THEORY: In forward bias it acts as similar to the diode. To Plot the V-I characteristics of ZENER diode.DC Ammeter 0-50mA 2No. 2. This phenomenon is known as Zener Break.

5 0.1V and note the corresponding diode current under forward bias condition as per the tabular form given below. 3.7 0. TABULAR FORMS:FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS:S. Switch on the D.PROCEDURE:- Forward bias characteristics:1. Repeat the above procedure for the 9.4 0. Connect the Circuit on the Bread Board as per the Circuit Diagram given below. Draw graph between voltage Across the diode (Vf) Vs current (If) through the diode on graph sheet for both zener diodes. Switch the DC Regulated power supply and slowly increase the source Voltage and note down the Voltage across Zener diode insteps of the 1Volt and note the Corresponding diode current as per table given below. 2. 5. 2.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DEPT OF ECE For 5. Vr Z r = Ir .8 17 Forward Current(If) in mA EDC LAB . From the graph find out the Zener break down voltage(Zvbr) & Zener resistance.C regulated power supply and slowly increase the source Voltage and note the Voltage across the Zener diode in steps of 0. 4. 4. Connect the circuit on the Bread Board as per the Circuit Diagram given above. 3.2 0. Reverse bias characteristics:1.1zener diode Forward Voltage(Vf) inVolts 0.1V Zener diode. Repeat the above procedure for 9.1 0. Draw the graph between Voltage across the Zener diode (Vr) Vs current (Ir) through the diode on graph sheet for the both zener Diodes.3 0.6 0.1V Zener diode.

RESULT: 1. DEPT OF ECE 18 EDC LAB . Zener Break down Voltage = 2.1zener diode Reverse Voltage(Vr) In Volts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Reverse Current(Ir) in mA MODEL GRAPH:- PRECAUTIONS: 1. Identify the Diode terminals properly while connecting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 For 5.REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS:S. Zener resistances = The Characteristics of the Forward and Reverse biased Zener Diode and the Zener Break Down Voltage from the Characteristics are Observed.No. Keep all COARSE controls of RPS minimum and CURRENT controls in maximum position before switch ON. 2.

What is meant by Zener break down voltage?How a Zener acts like a voltage regulator? DEPT OF ECE 19 EDC LAB .What is meant by Zener effect? 3.What is meant by Avalanche effect? 2.What is meant by static and dynamic resistance of zener diode? 4.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.

Thus whatever the input signal is applied transmitted to the load resistance when the negative swing of the A. Thus it gives Half wave output signal . And to find the Ripple factor & % Regulation. Transformer 230v/6v – 0 – 6v 2. Bread Board 6. Multimeter 5. 20MHz Dual Trace CRO 7. it acts as reverse bias connection Since it offers as high resistance. Decade resistance Box 4.The amount of A. In this no signal is allowed to the load. APPARATUS: 1.C signal is applied to the diode. During the positive swing of power supply. Diodes IN4007 3. the diode acts as forward bias condition. Ripple factor = V rms V dc Percentage of Regulation = VNL -VFL X 100 VFL DEPT OF ECE 20 EDC LAB . Capacitor.C signal is present in output wave form is measured by ripple factor. Hence it offers very less resistance. Connecting wires THEORY: As per the circuit diagram. it contains transformer and one diode.EXPT 7: HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER AIM: To observe the input & output waveforms of Half-Wave Rectifier with and without filters. DRB.

Disconnect load resistance ( DRB) and note down No load voltage Vdc 6. Connect the decade resistance box and set the RL value to 500Ω 4. 50Hz 3. Connecting the circuit on bread board as per the circuit diagram 2. Calculate Percentage of regulation = Vnoload – Vfull load x 100% Vfull load DEPT OF ECE 21 EDC LAB .CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:HALF WAVE WITHOUT FILTER HALF WAVE WITH FILTER PROCEDURE: 1.e. 230V. Calculate Ripple Factor γ = Vac Vdc 8. Connect load resistance at 5KΩ and connect Channel – II of CRO at output terminals and CH – I of CRO at Secondary Input terminals observe and note down the Input and Output Wave form on Graph Sheet 7. Connect the primary of the transformer to main supply i. connect the Multimeter at output terminals and vary the load resistance (DRB) from 500Ω to 5KΩ and note down the Vac and Vdc as per given tabular form 5.

NO Load Resistance In Ohms 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vdc Vac Ripple Factor γ %of Regulation VNC – VFC X 100% VFL Vac Ripple Factor γ %of Regulation VNC – VFC X 100% VFL 500 1K 2K 3K 4K 5K TABULAR FORM: With filter V no Load Voltage (Vdc) = S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 Load Resistance In Ohms 500 1K 2K 3K 4K 5K Vdc WAVE SHAPES: HALF WAVE WITHOUT FILTER DEPT OF ECE 22 EDC LAB .TABULAR FORM: Without filter V no Load Voltage (Vdc) = S.

What is meant by voltage regulation of HWR? 3. Maintain RL(DRB) should be above 100 Ω. RESULTS: Average Ripple factor without filter : Average Ripple factor with filter : Average % Regulation without filter : Average % Regulation with filter : Observe Input and Output Wave forms and Calculate ripple factor and percentage of regulation in Half wave rectifiers with & without filter. What is the function of half wave rectifier (HWR)? 2. What is the value of ripple factor in HWR? DEPT OF ECE 23 EDC LAB . Don’t touch the Primary side of the Transformer when it is PLUG-IN. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.HALF WAVE WITH FILTER PRECAUTIONS: 1. What are the applications of HWR? 4. What is the value of peak inverse voltage of HWR? 5. 2.

Diode1 acts as a conductor in 0 to . APPARATUS: 1. 4. Capacitor 470µf/35v . Multimeter 6.When the primary of transformer is between  to 2 diode 1 acts as non-conductor and diode 2 acts as conductor. And to find the Ripple factor & % Regulation.EXPT 8: FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER AIM: To observe the input & output waveforms of Full. Hence the output is almost equal to input of diode 1. The diode 2 acts as a non-conductor. Transformer 230v/6v – 0 – 6v 2 . CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: FULL WAVE WITHOUT FILTER DEPT OF ECE 24 EDC LAB .2 no’s 3.Diodes IN4007 . Decade resistance Box 5. When the input is 0 to  due to the center tapping we have two waveforms which are in opposite phase. Hence the output signal is almost equal to input signal of diode2 Thus we can observe a continuous waveform. 20MHz Dual Trace CRO THEORY: It contains two diodes connected across the load and a center tapped transformer. Bread Board 7.Wave Rectifier with and without filters.1 no.

Connect load resistance at 100KΩ and connect CH – I of Dual Trace CRO at Secondary (Input) terminals. Disconnect load resistance ( DRB) and note down No load voltage Vdc 6. Calculate Percentage of regulation = Vnoload – Vfull load x 100% Vfull load TABULAR FORM: Without filter V no Load Voltage (Vdc) = S. Calculate Ripple Factor γ = Vac Vdc 8. 50Hz 3. 230V. Connect the decade resistance box and set the RL value to 100Ω 4.e. Connect the primary of the transformer to main supply i. Channel – II of Dual Trace CRO at output terminals and observe and note down the Input and Output Wave form on Graph Sheet 7. Connect the multimeter at output terminals and vary the load resistance (DRB) from 100Ω to 5KΩ and note down the Vac and Vdc as per given tabular form 5.FULL WAVE WITH FILTER PROCEDURE: 1. Connecting the circuit on bread board as per the circuit diagram 2.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Load Resistance In Ohms 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1K 2K DEPT OF ECE Vdc Vac Ripple Factor γ 25 %of Regulation VNC – VFC X 100% VFL EDC LAB .

TABULAR FORM: With filter V no Load Voltage (Vdc) = S.No Load Resistance In Ohms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1K 2K Vdc Ripple Factor γ Vac %of Regulation VNC – VFC X 100% VFL WAVE SHAPES: FULL WAVE WITHOUT FILTER FULL WAVE WITH FILTER DEPT OF ECE 26 EDC LAB .

2. What is the value of ripple factor in FWR? DEPT OF ECE 27 EDC LAB . What is the value of peak inverse voltage of FWR? 5. What is meant by voltage regulation of FWR? 3. Maintain RL(DRB) should be above 100 Ω.PRECAUTIONS: 1. RESULTS: : Average Ripple factor without filter = Average Ripple factor with filter = Average % Regulation without filter = Average % Regulation with filter = Observe Input and Output Wave forms and Calculate ripple factor and percentage of regulation in Full wave wave rectifiers with & without filter VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Don’t touch the Primary side of the Transformer when it is PLUG-IN. What are the applications of FWR? 4. What is the function of full-wave rectifier (FWR)? 2.

This means that input resistance is small. Resistor 1K  1No. Voltmeters and Ammeters are connected to measure the input and output voltages and currents. 7. Connecting wires THEORY: In a common Base transistor base terminal is connected common to both the nput (Emitter – Base) voltage and the output (collector –base) voltage . 0-30V. 3. 1No. 6. the input current (Emitter current) is recorded. 2.EXPT 9: COMMON BASE TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS AIM: 1. 4. Input Characteristics: To determine the input characteristics. To find input and output resistance from the characteristics. 1A Dual Channel power supplies 1No. 0-30V 2No. Ri = ΔVBE at constant VCB IE DEPT OF ECE 28 EDC LAB . Bread Board. 2. Ammeter 0-50mA 2No. 5. For each level of the input voltage. (a) Input Resistance ( Ri ) : The Emitter current increases rapidly with small increase in V BE . It is defined by the ratio of VBE to change in IE at constant VCB. the output (Collector-Base) Voltage is maintained constant . Voltmeter 0-1V. APPARATUS: 1. Transistor BC 107 or SL 100 1No.and the input (Emitter-Base) voltage is set at several convenient levels. To observe the input & output characteristics of a transistor connected in CB configuration.

(a) Output resistance (RO) : It is the ratio of change in output voltage to corresponding change in output current at constant VCB. and the corresponding levels of collector current are recorded.Output Characteristics: To determine the output characteristics the input (Emitter) Current is held constant at each of several fixed levels. the output voltage VCB is adjusted in convenient steps. RO = ΔVCB at constant IE IC (b) Current Amplification Factor ( α ) : It is ratio of change in output current to change in input current at constant VCB α = IC at constant VCB IE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: DEPT OF ECE 29 EDC LAB . For each fixed level of I E.

4.6 0. 4V. Vary the 0-5V(Channel -1)power Supply and the Values of IE and VEB. 5. Calculate Input resistance Zi= ΔVBE at constant VCB ΔIE TABULAR FORM:S.6 0. 6. 2. Make VCB open and Vary the 5V Supply (Channel-1) and note the Values of IE and VBE by increasing the IE in steps of 0. Vary the VCB inspects of 1v 5. 2. VCB = 1V IE(mA ) 0.3 0.3 0.8 VEB(V) VCB = 2V IE(mA ) 0. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit Diagram.8 Output characteristics:1. 2. 1. Adjust VCB = 1V (Channel -2) Power supply.1 0. 8. Repeat steps 2 to 4 for IE = 1mA.1 0.7 0.5mA 6.5 0.4 0. Connect the circuit as in the circuit Diagram. Adjust the 0 – 5V (Channel – 1) power supply and fix the value I E =0.4 0.4 0.7 0.PROCEDURE: Input characteristics: 1.5mA 3.2 0.1 0.3 0. 6 7.6 0.5mA.8 VEB(V) IE(mA ) 0.No VCB Open VEB(V) 1 2 3 4 5. 2mA. Repeat the steps 3 & 4 For VCB = 2V .2 0.7 0. Vary the 0 – 20 V (Channel – 2) power supply and note the value of I c andVCB 4.5 0.5 0.2 0. Calculate output resistance Zo= ΔVCB at constant IE IC DEPT OF ECE 30 EDC LAB . 3V.5mA 3.

TABULAR FORM:- S.No. Plot the output characteristics by taking Ic on y – axis and VcB on X – axis DEPT OF ECE 31 EDC LAB . Plot the input characteristics by taking IE on y – axis and VEB on X – axis 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 IE=1mA Ic(mA) VcB(v) 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 IE=2mA VcB(v) Ic(mA) 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 IE=3mA Ic(mA) VcB(v) 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 GRAPH:- INPUT CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS 1.

Define input and output characteristics for CB. Explain Early effect in CB configuration? 2. 4. 2. RESULT: Input resistance Zi = Output resistance Zo = Input and out put characteristics of CB Transistor are plotted. DEPT OF ECE 32 EDC LAB . Keep all COARSE controls of RPS minimum and CURRENT controls in maximum position before switch ON. 3.PRECAUTIONS: 1. Carefully connect the transistor terminals. Define large signal current gain. Give the relation between IB and IC . VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.

Ammeter 0-50mA. Resistor 1K  1No.Connecting wires THEORY: In a common Emitter transistor Emitter terminal is connected common to both the input (Emitter – Base) voltage and the output (Collector – Emitter) voltage . 7.Bread Board. 3. 6. 5. the input current (Basecurrent) is recorded.Emitter) Voltage is maintained constant . To observe the input & output characteristics of a transistor connected in CE configuration. 2.0-30V.Voltmeter 0-1V. This means that input resistance is small. APPARATUS: 1. It is defined by the ratio of V BE to change in IB at constant VCE. (b) Input Resistance ( Ri ) : The Base current increases rapidly with small increase in V BE . Voltmeters and Ammeters are connected to measure the input and output voltages and currents. the output (Collector.and the input (Emitter-Base) voltage is set at several convenient levels. 4.Transistor BC 107 or SL 100 1No. 0-30V 2No. To find input and output resistance from the characteristics. Input Characteristics: To determine the input characteristics. 0-500µA 2No. Ri = ΔVBE at constant VCE IB DEPT OF ECE 33 EDC LAB .1A Dual Channel power supply 1No. 2. 1No. For each level of the input voltage.EXPT 10: COMMON EMITTER TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS AIM: 1.

5mA. Make VcE Open and Vary the 5 V Supply(Channel 1) and note the Values of IB and VcE. (b) Output resistance (RO) : It is the ratio of change in output voltage to corresponding change in output current at constant VCB. Connect the Circuit as shown in the Circuit Diagram. Ammeter while taking the input Characteristics.Output Characteristics: To determine the output characteristics the input (Base) Current is held constant at each of several fixed levels.4V. Vary the 0-5V (Channel 1) power Supply and note the Values of IB and VBE 5. Adjust VCE = 1V in Channel 2 Power supply. 4.3V. the output voltage VCE is adjusted in convenient steps.Repeat the Steps 3 and 4 for VCE = 2V . 6. Need not Connect 0-2mA(IC Measurement). For each fixed level of IB. RO = ΔVCE at constant IB IC (b) Current Amplification Factor ( α ) : It is ratio of change in output current to change in put current at constant VCB α = IC at constant VCE IB CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE : 1. Calculate Input resistance Zi= ΔVBE at constant VCE ΔIB DEPT OF ECE 34 EDC LAB . 3. 2. and the corresponding levels of collector current are recorded. 7. By increasing the IB in Steps of 0.

TABULAR FORM : at constant IB .

50  A .5 6 0.6 7 0.4 5 0.4 0.8 0. 6.5 0.No.3 0.5 0. 2.7 8 0.2 3 0.8 OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS : 1.Repeat the steps 3 & 4 for IB = 30  A.8 0.Calculate Input resistance Zo= ΔVBE ΔIC DEPT OF ECE 35 EDC LAB .1 2 0. Vary in the Steps of 1V.4 0.Connect 0-500  A Ammeter in place of 0-20mA. VcE Open VCE = 1V VcE = 2V VBE(V) IB(mA) VBE(V) IB(mA) VBE(V) IB(mA) 1 0.Adjust 0-5V (Channel -1) power Supply and fix the Values of IB = 10  A 4. 5.1 0.2 0.Vary the VCE 0-20V (Channel -2) power supply and note down the Values of the Ic and VCE.6 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.6 0. 3.S.7 0. 40  A.1 0.3 4 0.Connect the Circuit as shown in the Circuit Diagram.

No. Plot the input characteristics by taking IB on Y-Axis and VBE on X-Axis. 2.TABULAR FORM : IB = 100  A IB = 200  A VCE(mA) IC(mA) VCE(mA) IC(mA) VCE(mA) IC(mA) 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 S. Plot the output characteristics by taking IC on the Y-Axis and VCE on X .Axis INPUT CHARACTERISTICS DEPT OF ECE 36 EDC LAB . IB = 300  A GRAPH : 1.

Define saturation region. Carefully connect the transistor terminals. Give the relation between IB. 2. IC and IE 2. cut-off region and active region.OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS PRECAUTIONS: 1. 3. 4. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Define the transport factor. Keep all COARSE controls of RPS minimum and CURRENT controls in maximum position before switch ON. Give the relation between ICEO and ICBO. RESULT: Input resistance Zi = Output resistance Zo = Input and out put characteristics of CE Transistor are plotted. DEPT OF ECE 37 EDC LAB .

The value of VCE up to which the collector current changes with V CE is known as Knee voltage. APPARATUS: Transistor (SL100 or BC107) R.P.EXPT 11: CHARACTERISTICS OF EMITTER FOLLOWER(CC) CIRCUIT AIM: To draw the input and output characteristics of transistor connected in CC (Common Collector) or Emitter follower configuration. After this the emitter current becomes almost constant. The input characteristics resemble that of a forward biased diode curve.S (O-30V) 2Nos Voltmeters (0-20V) 2Nos Ammeters (0-200µA) 2Nos (0-200mA) Resistors 100Kohm Bread board and connecting wires THEORY: A transistor is a three terminal device. the emitter current varies with VCE unto few volts only. The terminals are emitter. collector. The output characteristics are drawn between IE and VCE at constant IB. and independent of VCE. This is expected since the Base-Emitter junction of the transistor is forward biased. I E is always constant and is approximately equal to IB. The transistor always operated in the region above Knee voltage. base. input voltage is applied between base and ground terminals and out put is taken across the emitter and collector terminals. . In emitter follower configuration.

Dept of ECE 38 .

plot the graph between VCB and IB for constant VCE OUTPUT CHARACTERSTICS: 1. vary VCE and note down the corresponding IE value.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE: INPUT CHARECTERSTICS: 1. 4. With IB set at 0µA. Disconnect the voltmeter from input circuit. 5. For plotting the input characteristics the output voltage VCE is kept constant at 2V and note down values of VCB for each value of IB 3. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. Change VCE to 10 V and repeat the above step. 2. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. 39 .

NO VCE = 2V VCB(V) VCE = 4V IB(µA) VCB(V) VCE = 10 V IB(µA) VCB(V) IB(µA) OUT PUT CHAREACTARISTICS: S. 4. Plot the output characteristics between VCE and IE for constant IB. 80µA and repeat the above step. OBSERVATIONS: INPUT CHARACTERISTICS: S. Set IB at 40µA.3.NO IB = 0 µA VCE(V) IB = 30 µA IE(mA) VCE(V) 40 IB = 40 µA IE(mA) VCE(V) IE(mA) .

MODEL GRAPHS: INPUT CHARACTERSTICS: OUTPUT CHARECTERISTICS: 41 .

Meters should be connected properly according to their polarities VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration? 2. What is the phase relation between input and output? 0 5. Identify various regions in the output characteristics? 3. Why CC configuration is preferred for buffering? 4.PRECAUTIONS: 1. The supply voltage should not exceed the rating of the transistor 2. Draw diagram of CC configuration for PNP transistor? What are the applications of CC configuration? .

it becomes constant. namely Source. The drain current Id rises rapidly with drain source voltage VDS . 0 – 30v. GATE is the common terminal to both input and output. Ammeter 0 – 20 Ma 1 No. there by increased the resistance of N –type bar. FET BFW – 10/11 2. As a result. the gate source diode is always reverse biased so the input applied to FET is reverse biased. The source and drain terminals are interchangeable. and Drain. 6. In JFET . There are three terminals in FET. Thus reduces the width of the channel . When a reverse voltage VGS is applied between the source and gate. Resisters – 470 Ώ 1 No. the current from source to drain is decreased the width of the depletion layers also decreases. 7. After reaching some value. 2 No. 3. . 1A Dual Channel Power Supply 1 No. As a result the current from source to drain is increased.To form a J FET two junction diodes are connected internally . Bread Board Trainer 1 No.channel FET and if the bar is made up of P. This increases the width of the conducting channel. Connecting Wires 4. GATE . THEORY: A junction field effect (JFET) consists of a P – type or N – type silicon bar . If the bar is made up of Ntype material it is known as N.type material it is known as P.42 EXPT 12: FET CHARACTERISTICS AIM: To plot Output Characteristics and Transfer Characteristics of Field Effect Transistor (FET) APPARATUS: 1. DRAIN CHARACTERSTICS:- This is the curve drawn between the drain – source voltage (V DS) and the drain current (ID) at constant gate source voltage.channel FET. the width of the depletion layer is increased. Multimeter (volt meter 0-10v) 2 No. 5. The bar is the conducting channel for the charge carriers.

DEPT OF ECE 43 EDC LAB .

FORMULAE: TRANSCONDUCTANCE : (gm) = ΔID/ΔVGS At constant VDS DRAIN RESISTANCE: (rd) = ΔVDS/ΔID At constant Vgs AMPLIFICATION FACTOR : (μ) = rd*gm CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: (0-20mA) A 470 Ω (0-30V) (0-30V) + V BFW10 (0-5V) 470 Ω + (0-20V) V + FET CHARACTERISTICS PROCEDURE: OUTPUT (Drain) CHARACTERISTICS 1. Make VGS =0v. Adjust the 0 – 30v (Channel – II) power supply and note the values of ID and VDS with the variation of VDS in step of 1v. as per table given below 4. Repeat the above procedure for VGS=0.5v and 1v TABULAR FORM (OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS): VGS=0v VDS(V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DEPT OF ECE ID(mA) VGS=1v VDS(V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ID(mA) 44 VGS=2v VDS(V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ID(mA) EDC LAB . by adjusting 0 – 5v (Channel – I) power supply 3. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram 2.

6 0.5v VGS(V) 0 0.4 0. as per table given below 4.PROCEDURE: INPUT (Transfer) CHARACTERISTICS 1.0 ID(mA) GRAPH: OUT PUT CHARACTERISTICS DEPT OF ECE 45 EDC LAB .4 1. Make VGS =1v. by adjusting 0 – 30v (Channel – II) power supply 3.4 0.6 1.8 1.0 1.2v.0 1.2 1.2 0. Repeat the above procedure for VDS=2v and 3v TABULAR FORM (INTPUT CHARACTERISTICS): VDS=1v VGS(V) 0 0.2 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.2 0.2 0.6 1.4 1.6 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram 2.8 2. Adjust the 0 – 5v (Channel – I) power supply and note the values of ID and VDS with the variation of VGS in step of 0.0 ID(mA) VDS=2v VGS(V) 0 0.0 ID(mA) VDS=1.8 1.6 0.0 1.8 2.6 0.4 1.8 2.

Plot the Transfer Characteristics by taking ID on Y-axis and VGS on X-axis for constant values of VDS PRECAUTIONS: 1. 2. RESULT: Thus the Drain & Transfer Characteristics of the given JFET are studied and the following parameters are found out. AMPLIFICATION FACTOR : DEPT OF ECE 46 EDC LAB . 1. Plot the Output Characteristics by taking ID on Y-axis and VDS on X-axis for constant values of VGS 2. TRANS CONDUCTANCE : 2. Keep all COARSE controls of RPS minimum and CURRENT controls in maximum position before switch ON. Carefully connect the FET terminals. DRAIN RESISTANCE : 3.TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS GRAPH : 1.

Why the name field effect transistor? 5. Define pinch-off voltage. What are the merits of FET as compared with BJT? 2. Name the regions in static characteristics of FET? DEPT OF ECE 47 EDC LAB .VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 4. What is the drawback of FET as compared with BJT? 3.

EXPT 13: UJT CHARACTERISTICS AIM: To observe the characteristics of UJT and to calculate the Intrinsic Stand-Off Ratio (η).2Nos Breadboard and connecting Wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 48 . 100_ Multimeters . 1A) . APPARATUS: Regulated Power Supply (0-30V.2Nos UJT 2N2646 Resistors 1k_.

When the emitter voltage is driven approximately one diode voltage above the voltage at the point where the P diffusion (emitter) is. The UJT Unijunction Transistor (UJT) has three terminals an emitter (E) and two bases (B1 and B2). The emitter is of ptype and it is heavily doped. The 2N2646 is the most commonly used version of the UJT.THEORY: A Unijunction Transistor (UJT) is an electronic semiconductor device that has only one junction. Two ohmic contacts B1 and B2 are attached at its ends. or UJT. The base is formed by lightly doped n-type bar of silicon. This reduction in resistance means that the emitter junction is more forward biased.The original unijunction transistor. The resistance between B1 and B2. the additional current (actually charges in the base region) causes (conductivity modulation) which reduces the resistance of the portion of the base between the emitter junction and the B2 terminal. and so even more . current will begin to flow from the emitter into the base region. This causes a potential drop along the length of the device. Because the base region is very lightly doped. Circuit symbol The UJT is biased with a positive voltage between the two bases. when the emitter is open-circuit is called interbase resistance. is a simple device that is essentially a bar of N type semiconductor material into which P type material has been diffused somewhere along its length.

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When the emitter voltage reaches Vp.VEB propotional to IE. A graph is plotted between VEE and IE for different values of VBE. MODEL GRAPH: . 2. especially in simple oscillator circuits.beyond the valleypoint . 3. This procedure is repeated for different values of output voltages. the current startsto increase and the emitter voltage starts to decrease.current is injected. This is what makes the UJT useful.RB1 reaches minimum value and this region.This is represented by negative slope of the characteristics which is reffered to as the negative resistance region. Connection is made as per circuit diagram. PROCEDURE: 1. 4. Overall. Output voltage is fixed at a constant level and by varying input voltage corresponding emitter current values are noted down. the effect is a negative resistance at the emitter terminal. All the readings are tabulated and Intrinsic Stand-Off ratio is calculated using η = (Vp-VD) / VBB 5.

What does it indicates the direction of arrow in the UJT? 6. Is UJT is used an oscillator? Why? 8. Draw the equivalent circuit of UJT? 3. Draw the characteristics of UJT? IE(mA) . What is its value of resistance between B1 and B2? 10. What is the Resistance between B1 and B2 is called as? 9. What is the difference between FET and UJT? 7. What are the applications of UJT? 4.50 OBSERVATIONS: VBB=1V VEB(V) VBB=2V IE(mA) VEB(V) VBB=3V IE(mA) VEB(V) CALCULATIONS: VP = ηVBB + VD η = (VP-VD) / VBB η = ( η1 + η2 + η3 ) / 3 VIVA QUESTIONS 1. Formula for the intrinsic stand off ratio? 5. Wha is the symbol of UJT? 2.

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