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Assignment

on
Five Incidents of Victimization Experienced by Myself

Submitted to:

Md. Omar Faruk
Lecturer,
Dept. of Criminology and Police Science
Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University

Submitted by:

Md. Rokon Uddin
3rd year, 1st semester,
Session: 2004-05
Registration no. CP05019
Dept. of Criminology and Police Science
Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University

Date of submission: 31.10.07

Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University
Santosh, Tangail.

victim-criminal justice system relationships. and thus may be regarded as a part of the general problem of crime. Hence. victimization and the effort of society to preserve the rights of the victim. To study these events of victimization scientifically. . it needs to a short discussion on victimology. and social movements. victimology is the entire body of knowledge regarding victims. politics. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. Before analyzing these incidents. medicine.that is. and corrections officials -. victim-offender relationships. including such aspects as patterns of offence.Introduction: The experience of being victimized is very familiar in our everyday life from various contexts. it is composed of knowledge drawn from such fields as criminology. This assignment is made on selective five incidents of victimization I have already experienced. victims and social movements. such as the media. Andrew Karmen. Schafer (1977) has described victimology as “the science which studies criminal-victim relationship”. place of incident. In broader sense." From this definition. the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system -. businesses. including the relationships between victims and offenders. we can see that victimology encompasses the study of: victimization. Definition of victimology: In a narrower sense. victims and the costs of crime. who wrote a text on victimology entitled Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology in 1990. concepts used in victimology. there is a new trend called ‘victimology’. victimology is the empirical. victimology is the study of victims of crime. factual study of victims of crime and as such is closely related to criminology. and also the historical development of victimology.and the connections between victims and other societal groups and institutions. psychology. and the like. characteristics of and relationship between victim and offender. broadly defined victimology: "The scientific study of victimization. social work. the police and courts. Devasia (1989) has also expressed the same view and he also added that victimology is an integral part of criminology. education and public administration. victims and the media. Drapkin (1974) has defined it as “that branch of criminology which primarily studies the victims of crime and everything that is connected with such a victim”. psychiatry. law.

Victimless: Victimless means the absence of a clearly identifiable victim other than the doer. economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights. to slaughter. Victimizer: Victimizer is a person who victimizes another or others. such as in cases of suicide and euthanasia. such as the aggressive victim who was killed in selfdefense. which is an act of negligible significance where there is no immediately recognizable victim. or senile person. victimization. etc. to put to death as. a person traveling without a ticket on a roadways bus. to destroy or spoil completely. have suffered harm. iv) Mutual victimization. Victimization: The action of victimizing. or in the manner of a sacrificial victim. Victimity: ‘Victimity’ is used as opposed to ‘criminality’. "victims" means persons who. such as a child or an unconscious person. developed a typology of victims in terms of their degree of guilt in the perpetration of crime: i) The completely innocent victim. v) The victim as most guilty. Victimizable: Victimizable refers to an individual who is capable of being victimized. iii) Tertiary victimization. Victimize: It refers to make a victim of. one of the pioneers of victimology. to cause to suffer inconvenience. including those laws proscribing criminal abuse of power. iii) The victim as guilty as offender. including physical or mental injury. which concerns those victims who themselves are offenders in a given mutually consensual act (e. which affects the public or the administration of society. such as those who provokes someone to commit a crime.g. to cheat. such as paranoids. swindle or defraud. It means the propensity of being a victim. emotional suffering.). in various senses. iv) The victim as more guilty than the offender. etc.g. Typologies of victim. either elaborately or by misdirected attentions.. individually or collectively. Victimal: It is opposed to the term ‘criminal’. where the victim is an impersonal target of the offender (e. adultery). Victimal refers to an individual who is victimized by an offender. involving personalized or individual victims.. v) No victimization. ii) The victim with minor guilt. . Wolfgang (1967) has identified five types of victimization: i) Primary victimization. hysterics. ii) Secondary victimization. such as a woman who provokes a miscarriage and dies as a result. vi) The simulating or imaginary victim.Definitions of other related concepts: Victim: According to the UN declaration of victims’ rights. Victimhood: Victimhood means the state of being victim. through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within Member States. a thief in a departmental store. Victimal receptivity: It means individual’s unconscious attitude for being victimized. and attitudes of victims: Benjamin Mendelson (1963). or fact of being victimized.

e. Submissive or conniving attitude. iv) victims who desire the injury. Lethargic attitude.Von Hentig (1948) has given four types of victims: i) victims whose injury may be the price of a greater gain. by challenging the opponent to kill him if he can and in an emotional state of mind.g. Hentig has further classified the attitudes of victims as: i..g. in abortion. iii. ii. . Cooperative or contributory attitude. e. and iv.. Provocative or instigative attitude.g.. iii) victims who provoke or instigate the offence. the opponent accepts the challenge and attacks. ii) victims who bring about the detrimental result partly by their own concurrent result (e. prostitutes).

Italy. 1959 In England. 1976 The Second International Symposium on Victimology is held in Boston. security. S. The World Society of Victimology is founded. 1979 Cohen & Felson introduced routine activities theory which is popular among victimologists today. descriptions of the harm and suffering that a crime has caused victims and their survivors. 1966 The first nationwide victimization survey is carried out in the USA. 1993 Braithwaite proposed a new form of justice system entitled Restorative Justice which may restore victims in terms of property. So the attempts to prevent victimization should be focused not on victims. 1982 The Second International Study Institute on Victimology held in Bellagio. 1981 President Ronald Reagan proclaims April 8-14 Victims Rights Week. 1973 The First International Symposium on Victimology is held in Jerusalem. Shultz explained how a victim contributes to the crime. Patrick Gartin & Michael Buerger found that certain types of crimes were committed in specific places i. hot spots of crime. 1998 Felson and Clarke made an opportunity model to prevent victimization by reducing opportunities.C. 1975 The International Study Institute on Victimology held in Bellagio. . The Fourth International Symposium on Victimology is held in Tokyo.e. 1964 US Congress rejects victim compensation legislation but studies the victim’s plight for the first time. 1978 A lifestyle theory of victimization was developed by Michael Hindeland. 1980 The First World Congress on Victimology is held in Washington D. 1986 UN declared the Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. but on the places themselves by making them less vulnerable to crime. Victimology: An International Journal begins publication. 1991 The U. Italy. West Germany. Gottfedson & James Garofalo. 1968 Stephen Schafer writes the first textbook about victims. dignity. 1984 Andrew Karmen wrote a text on victimology entitled Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology. 1958 Marvin Wolfgang sheds light on victim-precipitated homicide.e. a white paper presented in the Parliament emphasizing on victim’s welfare. injury. He coined the term victim-precipitation to refer to situations where victims initiate the confrontations that lead to their death. 1957 The British criminal justice reformer Margery Fry stimulates discussion and debate about how to reimburse victims. 1963 New Zealand first introduced victim compensation schemes. The Third International Symposium on Victimology is held in Munster.Historical development of victimology: Year Event 1941 Hans Von Hentig writes an article about the victim-criminal interaction 1947 Benjamin Mendelson coins the term victimology in an article. Supreme Court’s decision allows victim-impact statements i. 1989 Lawrence Sherman. social support etc.

Opportunities. 2005. From legal point of view: Theft is an offence against property defined under the Penal Code (Section 378). I knew the house would be unguarded for several days. absence of capable guardian) were present in that incident. if any money is found in the possession of the theft. rented a house to stay. But I didn’t report it to the police or to any law-enforcing agency. like the house was unguarded. but my properties were in direct target of the burglar. motivated offender. I was an impersonal target. also instigated the burglar. potential victim. . At 28 th February. The room has nothing but a complete emptiness. Instigation by victim (myself) to the offence: Under Shultz’s explanation. Again house-breaking is also a crime under section 445 of the Penal Code. I didn’t report about that incident of burglary to any law-enforcing agency because of the fear of harassment by them. Rengert and Wasilchick noted that opportunities for burglary occur only when a dwelling is unguarded or unoccupied. So I had no opportunity to recover my property. Even the punishment for theft in dwelling house is more severe than as to an ordinary theft. We made a contract with the owner of the house fifteen days before the classes started. In case of my being victim of burglary both opportunity and routine activities was present. the day of orientation class. I boarded all my necessary daily usages in a room which was newly rented by us and then I went to Dhaka to one of my relatives. Nature of the incident: Burglary (theft by breaking house). locking it well etc. I should have taken preventive measures to protect my property. Marvin Wolfgang (1967): Secondary victimization. I contributed to be victimized by omission of preventive measures. Benjamin Mendelson (1963): Completely innocent victim. I had no provocation or participation in case of the commission of that burglary. I was undone. I. The three variables of routine activities theory (i. Type of victim: Walter Reckless (1961): Non-reporting victim. Because of my losing all the necessities. and an innocent purchaser may be compensated for the price paid under section 519 of the same Code. with some of my year-mates from various disciplines. such as not put my materials into the house.Fact 01: It was February. I came to my room and found it unlocked and opened. Theft in dwelling houses is specially stated in section 380 of the Penal Code. I admitted myself into Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University (MBSTU). tin-shed. System response to the victim: In view of section 517 of the Criminal Procedure Code the property stolen may be returned to the person from whom it was stolen. closed with a small lock etc.e. Theoretical explanation: Criminologists are increasingly interested in the factors that go into a decision to burglarize. I myself was not targeted personally by the offender but only my property into the house. But the property restored should be in existence should be in existence at the time of theft.

But using counterfeiting bank-note is also a crime under section 489-B of the same Code though he might not made it. I found 300 grams deficits in it. My unconsciousness indirectly provoked the offender to use that note against to me. Theoretical explanation: This incident is adopted with the routine activities theory. Fact 03: I bought two kilograms beef from a local market. From legal point of view: Counterfeiting currency-notes or bank notes is a crime defined under section 489-A of the Penal Code. There was also opportunity enough to the victimizer to make me victim. I had no provocation or participation in case. Type of victim: Walter Reckless (1961): Non-reporting victim. I gave a bank-note of 500 (five hundred) taka to the sells-man to pay for. Mendelson: Innocent victim. It may be probable that who served me that note. After examining that bank-note the sells-man gave the opinion that the note is not genuine and also refused to take the note because of its being counterfeited. I then became a victim of five hundred taka which was counterfeited by someone (offender). As an offence was committed by law. From legal point of view: Fraudulent use of false weight or measure is an offence under section 265 of the Penal Code. Instigation by me to the offence: I couldn’t remember the person who served me that counterfeited bank note. Type of victim: Marvin Wolfgang (1967): Secondary victimization.7 kilograms though I had to pay for 2 kilograms. Benjamin Mendelson (1963): Completely innocent victim. I didn’t understand what was done with me during buying goods. The actual amount was 1. After taking the commodities. I didn’t report about that incident of burglary to any law-enforcing agency because of the fear of harassment by them. Nature of the incident: Victim of counterfeiting bank-note. The offender has had enough opportunity to do this.Fact 02: Once I went to the market to by some commodities. . especially in the point that there was no capable guardian to protect it. I was unconscious when I received the counterfeited bank-note. I myself was not targeted personally by the offender but only my property into the house. This section prescribes heavy punishment for counterfeiting bank-note. Theoretical explanation: This incident can be described under the opportunity model. was also a victim like me. After returning home I weighed it again. Certainly. I was victim legally. Nature of the incident: The seller (victimizer) used false weight fraudulently. I was an impersonal target of the offender.

I was also afraid of her that if she told these to my parents. Benjamin Mendelson (1963): Completely innocent victim. I inform this incident orally to the railway police. I was returning back to my university campus. She called me and blame for some of my activities. I used to keep a diary containing my daily activities. But they were unable as well as non-cooperative to find out my property in the running train.Fact 04: When I was in class X. On the way. the theft may not be committed. And consequently the thief got the opportunity to victimize me. I couldn’t express or share the facts with my family I have done. I was unconscious. If I kept the bag on the hanger. From legal point of view: UN Declaration for Victims of Crime defines victim which includes “…. After one hour from when the train started its journey. Type of victim: Hentig: Cooperative or contributory attitude. By keeping the bag under my seat. Nature of the incident: Theft. At that time. Benjamin Mendelson (1963): Completely innocent victim. In the UN declaration of Child’s Right..mental injury. One day my elder sister read it without my consent and knew everything which was assumed to her as delinquency. it is also discouraged to see a juvenile’s daily usages without his consent. I had no provocation or participation in case. Walter Reckless (1961): Reporting victim. In this case I suffered emotionally and began to distrust my sister. I was reading a newspaper and keep my bag under my seat. From legal point of view: It is only theft under 378 of the Penal Code and doesn’t amount to burglary. I was a juvenile aged 14 years. Many of my activities with my school friends were written down in that diary which might delinquency or deviance to my family member. I became ashamed because of her knowing everything about my personal matters. Fact 05: After enjoying Eid with my family members. I found my beg missing. Hentig: Lethargic attitude. . emotional suffering” too. Type of victim: Marvin Wolfgang (1967): Primary victimization. during boarding on a train. Nature of the incident: Personal and psychological victim. it was out of my sight.

References: Adler. Oxford ox2 6dp. California. Gerhard O. Oxford University Press. . Islam. Sociological Criminology. (2004). Victimology and Corrections. Md.Criminology. McGraw-Hill Companies. New Delhi-110026. Zahirul (2005). Devassia. Zahurul (2005). New York.. Feldman. Criminology and the Criminal Justice System. 2nd edition. Leelamma(1992).V. Philip (1993). Huq. Great Clarendon Street. The Psychology of Crime. Karmen. Cambridge University Press. Muller. Ahuja. New Age International (P) Limited. Dhaka. Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology. 5th Edition. Freda. The Penal Code. Inc. Adopted by General Assembly resolution 40/34 of 29 November 1985. William S. UN Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. Oxford Dictionary of Sociology (1998). Law Book Company. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. India. and Laufer. & Devassia.V. 9th Edition. W. Andrew (1984). Ashish Publishing House. Ram (1996). 1st Edition. Montery. Law and Practice of Criminal Procedure.