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Air Conditioning System

(Part 2)

By : Rafikullah Deraman,
Lecturer JKA, Polisas

Learning Outcome:
At the end of this lesson, student should be able to:

• Differentiate types of air conditioning system
• Calculate the size of air-conditioner systems

• Window unit, are sufficient when cooling a single room or
small space.
• If you do choose a window unit, it is extremely important
that they are sized for the area being cooled.
• Capacity for cooling load is between 6000- 32,000 BTUH
• Under sizing a unit will cause the unit to run constantly
which will drive up your electric bills.
• On the other hand, if the unit is too large it won’t run long
enough to remove humidity.
• High humidity can cause poor indoor air quality.

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Cooling capacity: 9.Product in the Market RA-10KF-Hitachi 1.0hp Window Type Air Conditioner.010 BTU/h .

Disadvantages: • Higher noise levels • Physical appearance( typically unattractive) • Lower efficiency • Limited cool up to two rooms • Poor constant temperatures Window Unit Advantages • They are relatively inexpensive • Easy to install .

Split Unit Split Unit 4 indoor air-handling units c/w Single unit outdoor .

A split-system air conditioner splits the hot side from the cold side of the system. Indoor unit: The indoor unit is made up of a coil and blower which is located inside . as in the diagram below. Outdoor unit: The outdoor unit contains a compressor and a condensing coil filled with refrigerant.

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5hp Deluxe Air Conditioner.090 BTU/h RAS-S18CAM 2.110 BTU/h RAS-S13CY .Hitachi 1.410 -17‚750 BTU/h RAS-24CE9G 2.060 BTU/h .0hp Wide Deluxe Air Conditioner. Cooling capacity: 12. Cooling capacity: 10.Hitachi 1.5hp Deluxe Wide Air Conditioner.020-12.0hp Deluxe Wide Air Conditioner‚ Cooling capacity: 17. Cooling capacity: 24.RAS-S10CC .

. Since they are small units. More so. they can easily be installed.Advantages: • Flexibility and size. which are connected to a single unit placed outdoors. These 4 indoor air-handling units are able to cool down and heat up 4 rooms or zones. their flexibility is perfect for warming and cooling of rooms. Most of the models of split types encompass 4 indoor airhandling units.

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• The indoor unit can be placed on the floor. hung on wall brackets or mounted on the ceiling.Advantages: Easier to install • most of split types can be quickly and easily installed. . The outdoor unit is obviously installed outside of the buildings. • a window or wall opening is not required to install split ac units.

Advantages: Easy maintenance • The split ac units system should be maintained on a regular basis (at least twice a year). in terms of both power and efficiency.This will ensure that it always runs at its optimum performance levels. . • Easily maintained on the basis that they will normally have a filter which is washable. • A regular maintenance will also ensure the longevity of the split ac units system.

• The minimization of noise is importance in rooms which require a peaceful environment .Advantages: Quiet operation • The split ac units system is very quiet in comparison to other air conditioning systems.

thereby minimizing electrical energy consumption on an on going basis. • Energy efficiency ensures that the split ac units do not work any harder than is ultimately required. . Split ac units are extremely energy efficient.Advantages: Cost effective • With regards to the initial cost of purchasing split ac units it may be prudent to note that four indoor units can operate from one outdoor unit. • The running costs of the split ac units are also cost effective.

.Advantages: Simple control The Split ac units are simple to operate and are therefore suitable for every and any individual considering the purchase of an air conditioning system.

can be difficult to remedy. 4. 3. 2. The installation may require long runs of refrigerant pipework which. . Units have course filters therefore filtration is not as good as with AHU’s.Disadvantages: 1. if it leaks into the building. Sometimes the indoor and outdoor unit fan becomes noisy. Each unit or group of units has a filter. compressor and refrigeration pipework that needs periodic maintenance and possible re-charging.

Not at robust as central plant. therefore many units would be required to cool rooms with high heat gains. 7. Cooling output is limited to about 9 kW maximum per unit. 6.Disadvantages: 5. . The majority of room air conditioners just recirculate air in a room with no fresh air supply although most manufacturers make units with fresh air capability.

Package Unit .

designed and matched up by the manufacturer to form a complete system.000 BTUH  Used with and without a ducting system.  Cooling load capacity between 24. The package unit refer to the components namely  The compressor  The cooling coil  The condenser  The evaporator are all packaged. .000 to 360.  Usually used for medium and large installation air conditioning system.

) Capacity CoolingBTUH SEER TCY024G 2 29 36 56 24.XL1400 SINGLE PACKAGE AIR CONDITIONER Model Nominal Tons Height (in.000 14.600 14.5 29 36 56 30.00 TCY036G 3 29 36 64 36.500 14.00 TCY048G 4 33 45 65 49.00 TCY030G 2.) Length (in.40 .000 14.) Width (in.10 TCY042G 3.000 14.5 29 36 64 41.

500 48.000 41.) Length (in.) Capacity CoolingBTUH SEER TCY024F TCY030F TCY036F TCY042F TCY048F TCY060F 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 29 29 29 29 33 33 36 36 36 36 45 45 56 56 64 64 65 65 24.000 12 12.4 .05 12.000 36.000 30.) Width (in.XL1200 SINGLE PACKAGE AIR CONDITIONER Model Nominal Tons Height (in.3 12 12 13.000 60.

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2.Advantages : 1. Possible to switch off unit catering to unoccupied spaces thereby avoiding wastage 5. .trained man power is not required. Low installation cost 3. Simple operation. 4. Less plant room space required. A packaged unit saves precious space. Especially in an office that probably has limited space.

Limitations on the amount of fresh air intake. Limitations on air flow and filtration levels 2. Central Plant Systems Disadvantages: . 4. Smaller compression and hence higher kW/ton consumption. Operating sound levels can be quite high. 3.1.

movie theatres. gyms. offices. is usually only feasible with central conditioning unit Central Plant Systems Central Plant Systems . entire hotels. houses. galleries etc. huge spaces. factories etc. • Cooling big halls. malls. • A central air conditioning system is comprised of a huge compressor that has the capacity to produce hundreds of tons of air conditioning.• Central air conditioning is used for cooling big buildings.

all these parts are larger in size and have higher capacities. • The chilled is passed via the ducts to all the rooms.Central Plant Systems • There is a plant room where large compressor. . halls and other spaces that are to be air conditioned. They perform all the functions as usual similar to a typical refrigeration system. condenser. thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator are kept in the large plant room. However.

Cooling tower Plant room AHU room Air conditioning room Central Plant Systems 1. 3. . 2. 4.

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• These include the compressor. condenser. • Piping required to connect these parts 2) Air-Handing Unit (AHU) Room • The air handling units are installed in the place called air handling unit rooms.Components: 1) Plant Room: • The plant room is a important components. . • The air handling units comprise of the cooling coil. thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator or the chillier. air filter. the blower and the supply and return air ducts.

3) Air Conditioned Rooms: • These are the rooms or spaces that are to be air conditioned. • The hot return air enters the air handling unit. • At the top of these rooms the supply and the return air ducts are laid. This cooled air passes over the air filter and is passed by the supply air ducts into the space which is to be air conditioned.• • • The chilled water flows through the cooling coil. The air handling unit and the ducts passing through it are insulated to reduce the loss of the cooling effect. The supply air ducts supply the cool air to the room via one set of the diffusers. . gets cooled and again enters the room via supply duct to produce air conditioning effect. while the return air ducts absorbs the hot return air from the room by another set of the diffusers.

Here the water is cooled by the atmospheric air and is re-circulated through the compressor and the condenser. • When water flows through these components some water gets evaporated. to make up this loss some water is also added in the cooling tower.4) Cooling Tower: • The cooling tower is used to cool the water that absorbs heat from the compressor and the condenser. • The cooling tower is of evaporative type. .

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Central Plant Systems AHU .

Central Plant Systems .

Maintenance is centralised in the plant room. Noise in rooms is usually reduced if plant room is away from occupied spaces. 2.ADVANTAGES : 1. . The whole building can be controlled from a central control station. 3.Also time clocks can bring air conditioning on and off at appropriate times. This means that optimum start and stop can be used . Plant is easier to access.

2. . Individual room control is difficult with central plant.DISADVANTAGES: 1. Expensive to install a complete full comfort airconditioning system throughout a building. 3. Space is required for plant and to run ductwork both vertically in shafts and horizontally in ceiling spaces.

per hour. . multiply the length of the room by the width. To figure the size unit you need. (A room that's 10 feet by 20 feet. has 200 square feet in it. To estimate square footage. measure the space you're trying to cool and find it on this chart.Air Conditioning Size The cooling capacity of room air conditioners is measured in BTUs. for example. or British Thermal Units.

000 BTUs 550 to 700 square feet 14.000 to 1 400 square feet 24.000 BTUs per hour 150 to 250 square feet 6.000 BTUs 250 to 300 square feet 7.000 BTUs 1.000 BTUs 300 to 350 square feet 8.000 BTUs .000 square feet 18.000 BTUs 350 to 400 square feet 9.000 BTUs 450 to 550 square feet 12.000 BTUs 400 to 450 square feet 10.000 BTUs 700 to 1.Table To cool this area Size air conditioner 100 to 150 square feet 5.

you should increase the BTU capacity by 10% • If more than 2 people regularly occupy the room. as well: • If the room is heavily shaded. keep these suggestions in mind. .000 Btu/Hr. add 600 Btu for each additional person • If the unit is for a kitchen. you can reduce the BTU capacity by 10% • If the room is very sunny. increase the capacity by 4.When looking for the correct size air conditioner.

Thank You .