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INTRODUCTION

Training is systematic programme of the organization, which aims at increasing the aptitudes,
skills and abilities of the workers to perform specific jobs. By training the employee will acquire
new manipulative skills, technical knowledge, problem solving ability etc.
Organization and individual should and progress simultaneously for their survival and
attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization
through human resource development. Employee training is a specialized function and is one of
the fundamental operative functions for human resources management.
CONCEPT
Henrich defines training as organizationally initiated procedures which are intended to
faster learning among organizational member in a direction contributing to organizational
effectiveness.
Training can be defined as the modification of behavior through experience, the transfer of
skills and knowledge for those who have them, to those who do not have or bringing about a
significant improvement in performance as a result of instrumentation, practice and experience.

MEANING
After an employee is selected, placed and introduced he or she must be provided training
facilities. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a
particular job. Training is a short term educational process and utilizing a systematic and
organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite
purpose. Dale S. Beach defines the training as the organized procedure by which people learn
knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose.

GLOBAL VIEW
The first training program was developed by professor Roethlisburg of Howard business
school one important conclusion was that productivity of a group of workers depend on the
attitude of the supervisor and his skill in handling his men. He further identified this attitude as
friendly and democratic and this skill human relation skill and formulated I supervisory training
program to help supervisors to develop necessary attitude and skill. It was however during the
Second World War, that at first, the British government, and a little later the government of USA
realized the importance of training supervisors in large numbers and so training within Industry
(TWI) program was developed and thousands of were trained under this program.
The rapid change over in the industry from peace to war, led to training schemes for
semi-skilled workers, for workers transferred to new and for women newly brought in to
industry. Thereafter, the rapid advancement of technological change made training a necessity in
almost all walks of life. At the operating level in industry and in public utilities, new techniques,
new methods, new tools, new synthesis, new sources of power and increased uses of automation
have brought extensive changes in the past decades and the rate of changes tends to increase as
time goes on.
All of this brought a new approach to training. Since changes are frequent with
technological advancement, refresher training has become common in clerical as well as in
industrial work.

INDIAN VIEW:
Industrial organization can no long ignore the training and development needs of its
employee without seriously inhibiting its performance. Even the most careful selection does not
eliminate the need for training, since people are not moulded to specifications and rarely meet
the ends of their job adequately. In a rapidly changing society, employee training and
development is an activity in an organization must commit resources to, if it is maintaining a
viable and knowledgeable work force.

The basic aim of training programs is always to satisfy specific training need s of the
business community which is ascertained through research conducted among the memberenterprises but also through the close monitoring of the developments and changes in the
economic, legal and business environment both in Cyprus and abroad.
All the programs are conducted by Cypriot or foreign Instructors have extensive
experience and knowledge in the specific topics but also Dire generally in the field of
training/education.
To ensure the success of the programs, all modern training approaches are used such as
multimedia projections, case studies examples real business life, discussion, etc.,

Importance of Training:
The importance of Human Resource management to a large extent depends on human
resource development. Training is the most important technique of human resource development.
As stated earlier, no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the
organizational requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee and make him
suitable to the job.
Job and organisational requirements are not static, they are changed from time to time in
view of technological advancement and change in the awareness of the Total Quality and
Productivity Management (TQM & TPM).
The objectives of the TQM and TPM can be achieved only through training, as training
develops human skills and efficiency. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an
organization. Organisational efficiency, Productivity, progress and development to a greater
extent depend on training. Organizational objectives like viability, stability and growth can also
be achieved through training. Training is important as it constitutes significant part of
management control.

IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING


Effective training can solve many managements most vexing problems. Difficulty in
getting experienced and skilled workers, quality standards not being met, customers complaints
because of poor service, leads to low morale throughout the organization. All these are seniors
management problems and are within the scope of a well-planned training programme. Some of
the benefits are:

Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict.


Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.
Develops a sense of growth in learning.
Provides trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/ her future.
Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills.
Increases job satisfaction and recognition.

REQUISITES FOR EFFECTIVE TRAINING


1. It should be a systematic process with some planning and control rather than random
learning from experience.
2. It should be concerned with changing concepts or attitudes of people treated both as
individuals and as groups.
3. It should be intended to improve performance in both the present and the future period.

TRAINING OBJECTIVES
Generally line managers ask the personnel manager to formulate the training policies.
The personnel manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the
companys goal and objectives:
a) To prepare the employee both new and old to meet the present as well as the changing
requirements of the job and the organization.
b) To prevent obsolescence.
c) To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent
performance of definite job.
d) To prepare employees for higher level tasks.
e) To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing
them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills they
will need in their particular fields.
f) To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more
responsible positions.
g) To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an
interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of
h)
i)
j)
k)

outlook that may arise from over-specialization


To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.
To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.
To ensure economical output of required quality.
To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, cooperative
attitudes and good relationships.

Principles of Training
Providing training in the knowledge of different skills is a complex process. A number of
principles have been evolved which can be followed as guidelines by the trainees. Some of them
are as follows:

Motivation:
As the effectiveness of an employee depends on how well he is motivated by
management, the effectiveness of learning also depends on motivation. In other words, the
trainee will acquire a new skill or knowledge thoroughly and quickly if he or she is highly
motivated. Thus, the training must be related to the desires of the trainee such as more wages or
better job, recognition, status, promotion, etc. The trainer should find out the proper ways to
motivate experienced employees who are already enjoying better facilities in case of re-training.

Progress Information:
It has been found by various research studies there is a relation between learning rapidly
and effectively and providing right information specifically, and as such the trainer should not
give excessive information or skill without much difficulty and without handing too much or
receiving excessive information or wrong type of progressive information. So the trainer has to
provide only the required amount of progressive information specifically to the trainee.

Reinforcement:
The effectiveness of the trainee in learning new skills or acquiring new knowledge
should be reinforced by means of rewards and punishments. Examples of positive reinforcement
are promotions, rise in pay, praise etc. Punishments are also called negative reinforcements.
Management should take care to award the successful trainees.

Practice:
Trainee should actively participate in the training programmes in order to make learning
programmes an effective one. Continuous and long practice is highly essential for effective
learning. Jobs are broken down into elements from which are fundamental, physical, sensory and
mental skills are extracted. Training exercises should be provided each skill.

Full Vs. Parti:


It is not clear whether it is best to teach the complete job at a stretch or dividing job into
parts and teaching each part at a time. If the job is complex and requires a little too long to learn,
it is better to teach part of the job. Generally the training process should start from the known
and proceed to unknown and from the easy to the difficult when parts are taught. However, the
trainer has to teach the trainees based on his judgment on their motivation and convenience.

Individual Differences:
Individuals training are costly, and group training is economically viable and
advantageous to the organization. But individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude from person
to person. So the trainer has to adjust the training programme to the individual abilities and
aptitude. In addition, individual teaching machines and adjustments of differences should be
provided.

TRAINING NEEDS:
The need for the training of employees would be dear from the observations made by the
different authorities.

Increase Productivity
Instruction can help employees increase their level of performance on their present
assignment. Increased human performance often directly leads to increased operational
productivity and increased company profit. Again, increased performance and productivity,
because of training, are most evident on the part of new employees who are not yet fully aware
of the most efficient and effective ways of performing their jobs.

Improve Quality:
Better informed workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. Quality increases
may be in relationship to a company product or service, or in reference to the intangible
organizational employment atmosphere.

To Help a Company Fulfill its Future Personnel Needs:


Organisations that have a good internal educational programme will have to make less
drastic manpower changes and adjustments in the event of sudden personnel alternations. When
the need arises, organizational vacancies can more easily be staffed from the internal sources if a
company initiates and maintains an adequate instructional programme for both its nonsupervisory and managerial employees.

Improve Organisational Climate:


An endless chain of positive reactions results from a well planned training programme.
Production and product quality may improve financial incentives may then be increased, internal
promotions become stressed, less supervisory pressure ensure and base pay rate increases result.
Increased morale may be due to many factors, but one of the most important of these is the
current state of an organizations educational endeavour.

To improve Health and Safety:


Proper training can help prevent industrial accidents. A safer work environmental leads to
more stable mental attitudes on part of the employees. Managerial mental state would also
improve if supervisors know that they can better themselves through company-designed
development programmes.

Obsolescence Prevention:
Training and development programs foster the initiative and creativity of employees and
help to prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, temperament or motivation,
or the inability of a person to adapt himself to technological changes.

Personal Growth:
Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational
experiences Again Management development programmes seem to give participant a wider
awareness, and enlarged skill and enlightened altruistic philosophy, and make enhanced personal
growth possible.

TRAINING METHODS
The forms and types of employee training methods are inter-related. It is difficult, if not
impossible; to say which of the methods or combination of methods is more useful than the
other. In fact, methods are multifaceted in scope and direction, each is suitable for a particular
situation. The best technique for one situation may not be best for different groups or tasks. Care
must be used in adapting the technique/method to the learner and job. An effective training
technique generally fulfills these objectives; provide motivation to the trainee to improve job
performance, develop a willingness to change, provide for the trainees active participation in the
learning process, provide a knowledge of results about attempts to improve (i.e. feedback), and
permit practice where appropriate.

CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING METHODS

Training programme

On the job

Demonstration

Apprenticeship

Other training
Methods

Vestibule training

Lectures

Conference

Stimulation

Case study

Role play

Classroom methods

Programmed
Instruction

Association

Audio visual
Aids

1.2 TRAINING DONE AT NTTF OF INDIA LTD.

Training done at NTTF has two parts. The first part starts with the training plan and
the second part starts with sharing of the learning outcome.
I a. TRAINING PLAN
Firstly, a training plan is designed every year, which shows the allocation of the
training programs to each category of employees. Employees include managers, executives
and shop floor employee. The programs can be related to Innovation, Creativity, Leadership,
Self managed teams etc.
b. TRAINING CALENDAR
A training calendar is also prepared quite similar to the training plan, which shows
the training programs given to the managers, executives and shop floor employees. Some of
the programs conducted for the managers are time management, stress management etc.
programs related to creativity, negotiation skills, leaderships are some that are conducted for the
executives. Organization culture, self- managed team skills are some of the programs that are
being conducted for the shop floor employees.

C. TRAINING PROGRAMS
Two kinds of training are been provided on the job training and off the job training.
On the job training methods
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Orientation training
Job instruction training
Apprentice training
Coaching

Off the job training methods


I.
II.

Lectures
Case study

III.
IV.
V.

Stimulation
Laboratory training
Conferences or discussions

C. CONDUCT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMS


A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be
conducted. A decision is made from the following choices:I.
II.
III.

At the job itself


On site but not on the job like a training room in the company.
Off the site, such as in other companies, conference halls or universities etc.
D. FEEDBACK
After the training program has been implemented, feedback has to be obtained from

the employees in order to rate the effectiveness of the program. For this purpose, a course
evaluation form is being given to the employees after the program, which shows the employees
perception on the program and the faculty.

II a. SHARING OF THE LEARNING OUTCOMES


Here, the employees share with their departmental heads what they have gained through
the program in their respective departments. This helps them to bring out their opinions
regarding the program and if the program has helped them improve their job performance. This
in turn improves the relationships between the superiors and the subordinates.

b. FORM CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS


Cross functional teams are formed where employees from different departments
come together to evaluate of the existing training program.

c. REVIEW MECHANISM
Here, reviews are being conducted to keep a check on the employees performance,
which would help in bringing about improvements with necessary.

d. CHECK ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM- PLAN


VERSUS ACTUAL
Here, a comparison is made on the already planned training program and existing
training program. This helps in finding which of the training programs are effective and
accordingly improvements are being made.

FOUR FACTOR COMPARISION METHOD


This method is proposed by Kirpatrick and others. According to this method, evaluation
of following four factors is essential to determine effectiveness of training programme.

1. Reactions
Happy trainees would focus on the training principles. They would give insight into the
content and techniques they find most useful.
Some of the questions that can be asked are.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What were your learning goals for this programme?


Did you achieve them?
Did you like this programme?
Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals?
What suggestions do you have for learning the programme?
Should the organization continue to offer if?

2. Learning

Learning measures assess the degree to which trainees have mastered the concepts,
knowledge and skills of the training.
3. Behaviour
Transfer of training refers to the effective application of principles learned to what is
required on the job.
Approaches to maximize transfer of training are
a.
b.
c.
d.

Feature identical elements conditions should be similar to the job.


Focus on general principles.
Establish a climate for transfer.
Give employees transfer strategies.

4. Results
Here, the final results of the programme are looked at. In other words, things like
whether there was an improvement reject rate, degrees in scrap page cost and so forth
need to be looked at. The main purpose of collecting organizational results is to examine
the impact of training on the work group or the entire company.

THREE FACTOR COMPARISION METHOD:


In this method, the training effectiveness is determined by analyzing following three factors:

Cost factor
Change factor
Impact factor

Cost Factor:
In this method the cost of training is computed which involve training cost on men.
Materials, training aids which might include rentals, salaries, cost of stationery and other

consumables which are directly and indirectly involved in imparting training. Based on total
outlay cost per trainee is estimated and compared.

Change factor:
Here a comparison is made on knowledge/skill or attitude of a trainee as he possessed
both before and after the training and the change is normally expressed as a ratio. Changes are
recorded on performance, and behavioral aspects as well. These figures are measured by
conducting pre-testing and post-testing.

Impact Factor:
This factor measures the change of results before and after training on aspects such as
productivity, rejection rates, number of accidents, number of defectives, morale indications, and
motivational factors wherever such attributes can be qualified directly or indirectly. Wherever
quantifiable changes are positive it indicates effectiveness of training and negative when
training is not effective.
Organization and individual should develop progress simultaneously for their survival
and attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization
through human resource development. Employee training is a specialized function and is one of
the fundamental operative functions for human resources management.
In other words training improves, changes, moulds the employee knowledge, skill,
behavior, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirement of the job and organization. Training
refers to teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members
of an organization, to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes needed by a
particular job and organization.
Thus, training bridges the differences the differences between job requirements and
employees present specifications.
Essential Ingredients for a Successful Evaluation

There are three essential ingredients in a successful evaluation. They are supports
throughout the evaluation process. Support items are human resources, time, finance equipment
and availability of data source, records etc. Existence of open communication channels among
top management, participants and those involved in providing data etc. and existence of sound
management process.
Bases of Evaluation:
Training programme can be evaluated on the basis of various factors like production
factor, general observation, human resource factor, performance, tests, cost value relationship
etc.

TRAINING EVALUATION
Objectives of training evaluation is to determine the ability of the participant in the
training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained, the specific nature of training
deficiencies, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training, and the extent of
training not needed for the participants to meet job requirements.

PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the following principles:


Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purpose of evaluation
Evaluation must be continous.
Evaluation must be specific.
Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise

themselves, their practices, and their products.


6. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards.
OBJECTIVES:

Evaluation of training is intended to serve the following objectives:


To check effectiveness of training to improve performance of employees on the jobs.
To ascertain how the training is useful to improve career prospects of individual
employee in the organization

To identify the deficiencies of training for the purpose it is intended, in order to

incorporate additional to the training programme.


To identify unnecessary aspects in the training for the purpose of deleting such things

from the training programme.


To improve cost effectiveness of training programme.

EVALUATION TECHNIQUES:
A number of techniques have been developed for evaluating effectiveness of training
programme. These are listed below:

Factor comparision method


Test-retest methods
Pre-post performance test method
Experimental-control group testing methods.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Compton (2007) in his study stated that audio visuals form an important pack of the
training material and are mainly for use in animating courses and seminars. They play an
important role in posing questions, generating discussions and generally stimulating a critical
attitude towards problem being discussed.

Sadri and Sinha (2007) conducted a study on evaluation training program


in western Engineering Limited Aurangabad, and that the aim of training is to support the
forces and systems that favors wide spread spontaneous learning. The company has
progressively stepped its investment in terms of time and money, in training and
developing their people at levels based on individual and organization needs. He reason
that, the company believes that the ability to learn and transform themselves faster than
their competitors is the only sustainable competitive advantage.
Visagam and Vijaya Banu (2007) made a study on the evaluation of training organized
by the welding training center at

B H E L., and that after the training there has been

modified work behavior improved productivity. The employees had become self-inspective at
work.
Biswan S (2007) of Training Programme must be perceived as relevant for future career
advancement and people who have greater emotional attachment to the organization are more
likely to put on efforts than others in the organization.
Stephen Paul A J (2007) conducted a study of training programme in public sector bank
at Madras. It was found that the trainees were happy when they were maintained for training
programme because they felt that it would enhance their knowledge and skills. Another
fiding was that the individuals need is of prime importance and this helps them to update
their technical knowledge and develop their human skills. Another identifies that learning
more about human relation and motivation would also help to bring best out of the
subordinators.
Khosh A P [2006] conducted a study and the major findings were pat the individuals
need is of prime importance and this helps them to update their technical knowledge and
develop their human skills another identifies that learning more about human relation and
motivation would also help to bring the best out of the subordinates.
Walter Dick (2006) in his study mainly focused on employee based rating and was
prepared to support the departments to disseminate formation about effective strategies and
practices for training and lining the American Workforce. Thus report synthesis information on
welfare and effects of private sector training.
Randy Hodson (2006) conducted a study to find out if labour training could be better
than vocational training so the individuals could be trained specially to achieve the
organizational goals. Tools used were in-depth interviews with Personal Directors. Trainers and
work students in tousing customaries labour training programs, large monopoly sector firms as
small sector firms.
Robert E (2005) Thompsett compared traditional and integrative learning method in
organizational training programs. They examined the effects of Integrative learning (IL) based
training in relation to Lecture-Based Training. Employees enrolled in a three day resource

planning training course were randomly assigned to either integrative learning or traditional
training.
Kenneth R.Robbinsons(2005) training management have a detailed understanding
about the training process, methods and problems encountered in the areas of importance and
concern and provide rules and more detailed knowledge.
Rudrabasavaraj (2004) conducted a study of 12 leading organization private sector and
reported that in many organizations training is regarded non-essential or peripheral activity rather
than a central one. It is more decorative than functional. Some organization starts a training
department low status according to this activity is also revealed from the fact that the training
departments of several organizations are headed by inconvenient or anted employees rather than
employees of standing merit.
Lynton and Pareek (2004) in their book Training for organisational formation reported
that training can significantly enhance the abilities of the organization to deal with ever changing
demands of petition, globalization and technology with the corporate plans and activity.
Manoharan T.M (2003) he conducted a study and the findings were that individual need
is of prime importance and this helps them to update. Technical knowledge and develop their
human skills. Another identifies that learning more about human relations and motivations would
help to bring the best out of the sub-ordinate.
Srinicasagam and Vijayabane(2003) made a study on the evaluation of the training
organized by Welding Training Center at BHEL, and stated that after the training, there has been
modified work behaviours and improved productivity. The employees have become self-active in
their work.
Manohar and Manikandan(2003) conducted a study on the Evaluation of training
programme for supervisors at HAL and reported that it necessary that a training program or
policy should be prepared with great thought case, as it should serve the purpose of the
establishment as well as needs of the employees and sufficient care has to be taken to discover in
which training is needed most and to create the necessary environment for its conduct.

Robert E(2002) compares traditional and integrative learning method in organizational


training programs. They examined the effects of Integrative learning( IL ) based training in
relation to Lecture-Based Training.
Sathyaraju and sasikanth(2002) conducted a study on evaluation of training in State
Bank of Hydrebad. The study stated that bank re training directly to the fresh recruits at the
training center or on the job lining. When the training is given after posting of the candidate
senior persons train juniors under on the job training. Later the trainees were trained at the banks
Training center.
Miguel A Quinones(2001) examined the effects of framing program assignment on
training outcomes. Both preceptors of past performance and expected assignments were found to
moderate the relationship between training assignments, fairness effectiveness also, motivation
to learn was a key variable linking pertaining characterizing at trainer outcomes.
Cannon and Sales(2001) conducted a study on theoretically based principles of
evaluation of training. The purpose of this research was to advance understanding of evaluation
training system designed by investigating factors that may affect the success of training
significantly in terms of performance improvement in the operational environment. Results
indicated that several non technical trainees related factors had a significant tract on training
outcomes.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Research simply means, search for knowledge. It is scientific and systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic. Every research should have a well defined
methodology that states the relevance of the study, the methods applied, and the evaluation
technique and so on. Thus research methodology is the blue print of the strategy to be adopted to
solve the research problem.
In this chapter, the researcher is studying the evaluation of training programmes among
executives. It explains the various stages through which the study was carried out, it aims and
objectives, the tools used, the universe of the study, the sampling method, the method of data
collection, analysis and limitations of study.
FORMULATION OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Training is a short term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized
procedure which all personnel learn the skills and knowledge for definite purpose. Training is
important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. Since the organization,
NTTF industries pvt ltd, wanted to find out the evaluation of the training programme which was
already conducted by the organization and also wanted to find whether the executives have
developed their skills and knowledge by attending the training programme. Hence the researcher
selected this problem.

NEED AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY


After employees have been selected for various positions in an organization, training
them for the specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes great importance. It is true
in many organizations that before an employee is fitted in to harmonious working relationship
with other employees, he is given adequate training. Training is an act of increasing the
knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. The major outcome of
training is learning. A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the
training that helps him improve performance. Training enables an employee to do his present job
more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher job.

AIM OF THE STUDY


The aim of the study is to study the perception of the evaluation of training program
among executives with special reference to NTTF Industries pvt Ltd, Bangalore.

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

To study the personal profile of the respondents.


To study the perception of employees toward the training program with reference

to NTTF Industries pvt ltd.,


To test the hypothesis framed for the study.

HYPOTHESIS
There is no significant difference among the age of the respondent with regard to

their level of perception towards training program.


There is no significant difference among the department of the respondents with

regard to their level of perception towards training program.


There is no significant difference among the designation of the respondents with

regard to their level of perception towards training program.


There is no significant difference among the income of the respondents with

regard to their level of perception towards training program.


There is no significant difference among the experience of the respondents with

regard to their level of perception towards training program.


There is no significant difference among the field of training of the respondents

with regard to their level of perception towards training program.


There is no significant difference among the place of training of the respondents

with regard to their level of perception towards training program.


There is no significant difference among the period of training of the respondents
with regard to their level of perception towards training program.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The research design used in the present study Descriptive and Diagnostic Descriptive
research design attempts to describe the personal profile of the respondents such as age, gender,
designation and department etc. Diagnostic research design was used to find out whether the
personal profile of the respondents have any impact on evaluation of training program of the
respondents.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Training evaluation:
Training evaluation is the degree to which trainees are able to learn and apply the
knowledge and skills acquired during the training programmes and analysis whether the trainees
have improved their knowledge and skills.

Training Program:
Training program conducted by the organization from the month of April to October to
the executives who were working in NTTF Industries Pvt. Ltd.

Executives:
Here executives refer to Engineer, Sr. Officer, Designer, Technicians, who were working
in NTTF Industries Pvt. Ltd.
UNIVERSE:
In NTTF Industries Pvt. Ltd, there are total of 153 executives

Inclusion Criteria
Only the executives working in tool design department, quality control department, quality
assurance department, information technology department, Component manufacturing
department, purchase department, R & D, TRD, Marketing department.
Day shift executives were included.

Exclusion Criteria

Contract workers were excluded


Night shift executives were excluded
Junior executives were excluded
Executive trainees were excluded

SAMPLING
The researcher adopted simple random sampling procedures for selecting the
respondents. The respondents were selected randomly from each department to obtain 50
respondents for the study.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The sources of data collection were classified into primary sources and secondary
sources. Both the sources were used in the study. Questionnaire method was used for primary
data collection. Secondary data were those collected from journal, magazine, articles, and the
records and brouchers of the organization.

TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION


The questionnaire consists of 2 parts.
Personal Profile of Respondents
Personal profile consists of questions relating to respondent department, designation,
income, experience, field of training, place of training, period of training.

Evaluation Training Scale


The second part of the questionnaire deals with the perception of training program scale
devised by Cary L. Cooper (2000). It is a 5 point scale and all the questions are positive.
The response are always highly satisfied, satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied, highly
dissatisfied. The scores given to it are 5, 4,3,2,1. The maximum possible score is 120 and
minimum score is 5.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
After the data collection, the data was coded and transferred into a master table. By using
this table, mixed tables, were prepared. Simple percentage, ANOVA, t-test were applied for data
analysis.
DIFFICULTIES FACED BY THE RESEARCHER

The respondents were busy with their works in their organization.


The researcher was not able to meet all the respondents in one stretch and therefore had

to visit the organization frequently.


Some of the respondents had a hesitation to fill up the questionnaire because of the fear
that data will be given to management.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:


The study confined on NTTF Industries Pvt. Ltd. and the findings and suggestions at the
end of the study are applicable only to NTTF Industries Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore and no branch is
included for this study. So the study cannot be generalized.
CHAPTERISATION
The study comprises of the following chapters.

The first chapter deals with introduction, training, meaning, objectives, principles, need,
training method, training procedure. Effectiveness of training, objectives, principles,
Effectiveness technique, essential ingredients for successful effectiveness.

The second chapter deals with research methodology, formulation of the problem, need
and scope of the study, about the organization, pilot study, aim and objective, hypothesis,
research design, operational definition, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, universe,
sampling procedure, tools of data collection, difficulties faced by researcher, limitations

of the study and chapterisation.


The third chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation.
The fourth chapter highlights findings, suggestions, and conclusion

CHAPTER III

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


TABLE NO: 1
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR AGE
S.No

Age

No

Percent

25 30

16

26.67

31 35

20

33.33

36 40

12

20

41 45

12

20

60

100

Total

Table 1 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their age. Among the total
respondents 26.67 percent of the respondents belong to age of 25-30 year old , 33.33 percent of
the respondents belong to age of 31-35 year old, 20 percent of the respondents belong to age of
35-40 year old, 41-45 percent of the respondents belong to age of 41-45 year old.

CHART NO: 1
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR AGE

25
20

20
16
15
PERCENTAGE

12

12

36 - 40

41 - 45

10
5
0

25 - 30

31 - 35
AGE

TABLE NO: 2
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR DEPARTMENT
S.No

Department

No.

Percent

CMD Plan

10.0

Electronic Data Processing

11.7

Information Technology

8.3

Marketing

10.0

Metrology

8.3

Purchase

8.3

Quality Assurance Department

13.3

Quality. Control

8.3

Research & Development

5.0

10

TDD

8.3

11

TRD

8.3

60

100.0

Total

Table 1 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their department.


Among the total respondents 13.3 percent of the respondents belongs to quality
assurance department, 11.7 percent of the respondents belongs to electronic data
processing, 10 percent of the respondents belongs to CMD Plan, 10 percent of the
respondents belongs to marketing, 8.3 percent percent of the respondents belongs
to information technology, 8.3 percent percent of the respondents belongs to
metrology, 8.3 percent percent of the respondents belongs purchase, 8.3 percent
percent of the respondents belongs to quality control, 8.3 percent percent of the
respondents belongs to TDD, 8.3 percent percent of the respondents belongs to
TRD.

CHART NO: 2
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR DEPARTMENT

8
7
6
5

7
6

6
5

4
PERCENTAGE

5
3

3
2
1
0

DEPARTMENT

TABLE NO: 3
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR DESIGNATION

S.No

Designation

No.

Percent

Designers

13.3

Engineers

21

35.0

Senior Officers

21

35.0

Technicians

10

16.7

60

100.0

Total

Table 3 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their designation. Among the total
respondents 35 percent of the respondents belong to engineers, 35 percent of the respondents
belong to senior officer, 16.7 percent of the respondents belong to Technicians, 13.3 percent of
the respondents belong to designers.

CHART NO: 3

DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR DESIGNATION

25
21

21

20
15
PERCENTAGE
10

10
8

5
0

Designers

Engineers

Officers

Technicians

DESIGNATION

TABLE NO: 4
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR LEVEL OF INCOME

No.

S.No

Percent

LEVEL OF INCOME

Rs.10001-20000

47

78.3

Rs.20001-30000

13

21.7

Total

60

100.0

Table 4 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their department. Among the total
respondents 78.3 percent of the respondents draw a monthly income between 10001-20000,
21.7 percent of the respondents draw a monthly income between 20001-30000.

CHART NO: 4
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR LEVEL OF
INCOME

50
45
40
35
30
PERCENTAGE 25
20
15
10
5
0

47

13

Rs.10001-20000

Rs.20001-30000

LEVEL OF INCOME

TABLE NO: 5
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR EXPERIENCE

S.No

Experience

No.

Percent

<5 yrs

41

68.3

5-10 yrs

12

20.0

10-15 yrs

11.7

60

100.0

Total

Table 5 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their experience. Among the total
respondents 68.3 percent of the respondents have below 5 years, 20 percent of the respondents
have 5-10 years and the remaining 11.7 percent of the respondents have below 10-15 years.

CHART NO: 5
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR EXPERIENCE

45

41

40
35
30
25
PERCENTAGE 20
15

12

10

5
0

<5 yrs

5-10 yrs

10-15 yrs

EXPERIENCE

TABLE NO: 6
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR FIELD OF TRAINING

S.No

FIELD OF TRAINING

No.

Percent

On the job

25

41.7

Off the job

10

16.7

Both

25

41.7

60

100.0

Total

Table 6 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their field of training. Among the
total respondents 41.7 percent of the respondents attended on the job training, 41.7 percent of the
respondents attended off the job training, 16.7 percent of the respondents attended both training.

CHART NO: 6
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR FIELD OF
TRAINING

30
25

25

25

20
PERCENTAGE

15

10

10
5
0

On the job

Off the job


FIELD OF TRAINING

Both

TABLE NO: 7
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR PLACE OF TRAINING

S.NO

Place Of Training

No.

Percent

Within organisation.

23

38.3

Related industry

25

41.7

In related industry

12

20.0

60

100.0

Total

Table 7 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their field of training. Among the
total respondents 41.7 percent of the respondents attended the training within the organisation, 23
percent of the respondents attended the training in related industry, 12 percent of the training
attended in related industry.

CHART NO: 7
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR PLACE OF
TRAINING

PERCENTAGE

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

23

25
12

PLACE OF TRAINING

TABLENO: 8
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR PERIOD OF TRAINING

S.No

Period of Training

No.

Percent

One day

6.7

2-4 days

29

48.3

One week

14

23.3

One year

13

21.7

60

100.0

Total

Table 8 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their period of training. Among
the total respondents 48.3 percent of the respondents attended 2-4 days training, 23.3 percent of
the respondents attended one week training, 21.7 percent of the respondents attended one year
training, and the remaining 6.7 percent of the respondents attended one day training.

CHART NO: 8
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR PERIOD OF TRAINING

35
29

30
25
20
PERCENTAGE 15

14

13

One week

One year

10
5
0

4
One day

2-4 days

PERIOD OF TRAINING

TABLE NO: 9
S.No

Score

No. Of

Percentage

respondents
1

Bad ( < = 70 )

Moderate ( 70 100 )

37

62.0

Good ( > = 100 )

23

38.0

60

100

Total

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THEIR PERCEPTION OF


TRAINING PROGRAM SCORE

Table 9 indicates the distribution of the respondents by their perception on training


program score training program. Among the total respondents 38 percent of the respondents have
high score in training program, 62 percent of the respondents have high score in training program

CHART NO: 9
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THEIR PERCEPTION OF
TRAINING PROGRAM SCORE

40

37

35
30
23

25
20
15
10
5
0

Low ( <0 = 70 )

Moderate ( 70 100 )

High ( > = 100 )

TABLE NO: 11
SHOWING SUMMARY OF THE ANOVA SCORES PERTAINING TO THE
PERCEPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND
AGE

VARIANCE

DF

Between

MEAN
G1 = 97.187

groups
Within

Groups

56

G2= 93.5
G3=96.5
G4=94.58

SUM OF

MEAN

STATISTICAL

SQUARES

SQUARE

INFERENCE

145.246

48.415

5831.354

104.131

F=0.465
(P>2.07)
Not
Significant

G1 = 25 30; G2= 31 35; G3=36 40; G4=41 - 45

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference among the age of the respondent with regard to their
level of perception towards training program.

It is understood from table 11 that ANOVA was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the age groups of the respondent with regard to their level of
perception towards training program. The ANOVA result shows that the calculated F-ratio value
is 0.465 which is less than the table value of 2.07 at 5% level of significance. Since the
calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no significant difference
among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training program scores. Hence
the Hypothesis is accepted.

There is no significant difference, the mean score indicates respondents belonging to the ae
group of 25 30 have a high score in level on perception of training program.

TABLE NO: 11
SHOWING SUMMARY OF THE ANOVA SCORES PERTAINING TO THE
PERCEPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND
DEPARTMENT
VARIANCE

DF

Between

MEAN
G1 = 94.5;G2=

groups
Within

10

Groups

49

SUM OF

MEAN

STATISTICAL

SQUARES

SQUARE

INFERENCE

999.486

99.949

F=0.984

92.57; G3=95.40;

(P>2.03)

G4=98.17;
G5=104.20;

Not
4977.114

101.574

Significant

G6=99; G7=93.50;
G8=95.40;
G9=97.67;G10=86.
60; G11=94

G1 = CMD PLAN; G2 = ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSOR; G3 = INFORMATION


TECHNOLOGY;
G4 = MARKETING; G5 = METROLOGY; G6 = PURCHASE; G7 = QUALITY ASSURANCE
DEPARTMENT;
G8 = QUALITY CONTROL; G9 = RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT; G10 = TOOL
DESIGN DEPARTMENT;
G11 = TOOL RESEARCH DEPARTMENT

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference among the department of the respondent with regard
to their level of perception towards training program.

It is understood from table 11 that ANOVA was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the department groups of the respondent with regard to their level
of perception towards training program. The ANOVA result shows that the calculated F-ratio
value is 0.984 which is less than the table value of 2.03 at 5% level of significance. Since the
calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no significant difference
among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training program scores. Hence
the Hypothesis is accepted.

There is no significant difference, the mean score indicates respondents belonging to the
electronic data processor department have a high score in level on perception of training
program.

TABLE NO: 12
SHOWING SUMMARY OF THE ANOVA SCORES PERTAINING TO THE
PERCEPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND
AS DESIGNATION

VARIANCE

DF

MEAN

SUM OF

MEAN

STATISTICAL

SQUARES

SQUARE

INFERNENC

857.405

285.802

F=3.126

5119.195

91.414

E
Between

Groups
Within

56

Groups

G1= 97.75;
G2=90.29;
G3= 97.24; G4=

(P>2.77)
Significant

99.80

G1 = DESIGNERS; G2 = ENGINEERS; G3 = SENIOR OFFICERS; G4 = TECHNICIANS

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference among the designation of the respondent with regard
to their level of perception towards training program

It is understood from table 12 that ANOVA was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the designation of the respondent with regard to their level of
perception towards training program. The ANOVA result shows that the calculated F-value value
is 3.126 which is higher than the table value of 2.77 at 5% level of significance. Since the
calculated value is higher than the table value it is inferred that there is significant difference
among the designations in the average perception of evaluation of training program scores.
Hence the Hypothesis is rejected.

TABLE NO: 13
STUDENTS tTEST AMONG THE INCOME OF RESPONDENTS WITH REGARD
TO THEIR LEVEL OF PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND AS
INCOME
Score

VARIANCE
Mea
n
Rs.10001Incom
e

20000
Rs.20001-

94.2

10.2

99.0

30000

TOTAL

S.D

8.67

95.3

10.0

No.

47

13

60

G1 = 10001-20000; G2 = 20001-30000
T-test for Equality of Means

T
1.54
7

Df
58

Sig
Ns

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference the income of the respondent with regard to their
level of perception towards training program.
It is understood from table 13 that t-test was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the income of the respondent with regard to their level of
perception towards training program. The calculated t-test value is 1.547 which is less than the
table value of 2.002 at 5% level of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table
value it is inferred that there is no significant difference between income1 and income2 in the
average perception of evaluation of training program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

Though there is no significant difference, the mean score indicates respondents belonging to the
earnings of Rs20001-30000 have a high score in level on perception of training program.

TABLE NO: 14
SHOWING SUMMARY OF THE ANOVA SCORES PERTAINING TO THE
PERCEPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND
AS EXPERIENCE
Variance

df

Mean

Sum of

Mean Square

squares
Between

Groups
Within

G1=94.98;

24.708

12.354

G3=95.00

F=0.118
(P>3.16)

5951.892

Groups

G1 = < 5 YEARS; G2 = 5-10 YEARS; G3 = 10-15 YEARS

Hypothesis:

Inference

G2=96.58;
57

Statistical

104.419

Not
Significant

There is no significant difference among the experience of the respondent with regard
to their level of perception towards training program.

It is understood from table 14 that ANOVA was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the experience of the respondent with regard to their level of
perception towards training program. The ANOVA result shows that the calculated F-ratio value
is 0.118 which is less than the table value of 3.16 at 5% level of significance. Since the
calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no significant difference
among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training program scores. Hence
the Hypothesis is accepted.

There is no significant difference, the mean score indicates respondents belonging to the 5-10
years have a high score in level on perception of training program.

TABLE NO: 15
SHOWING SUMMARY OF THE ANOVA SCORES PERTAINING TO THE
PERCEPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND
AS FIELD OF TRAINING

Variance
Between
Groups
Within
Groups

df
2

Mean
G1=95.84;G2=
92.20; G3=96.00

Sum Of Squares

Mean Square

115.640

57.820

5860.960

102.824

57

G1 = ON THE JOB TRAINING; G2 = OFF THE JOB TRAINING; G3 = BOTH

Statistical
Inference
F=0.562
(P 3.16)
Not
Significant

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference among the field of training of the respondent with
regard to their level of perception towards training program.

It is understood from table 15 that ANOVA was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the field of training of the respondent with regard to their level of
perception towards training program. The ANOVA result shows that the calculated F-ratio value
is 0.562 which is less than the table value of 3.16 at 5% level of significance. Since the
calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no significant difference
among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training program scores. Hence
the Hypothesis is accepted.

There is no significant difference, the mean score indicates respondents who attended both on the
job and off the job department have a high score in level on perception of training program.
TABLE NO: 16
SHOWING SUMMARY OF THE ANOVA SCORES PERTAINING TO THE
PERCEPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND
AS PLACE OF TRAINING

Variance

df

Mean

Sum of

Mean Square

Squares
Between
Groups
Within
Groups

2
57

G1=93.43;
G2=96.00;
G3=97.42

146.031

73.016

5830.569

102.291

Statistical
Inference
F=0.714
(P>3.16)
Not
Significant

G1 = WITHIN THE ORGANISATION; G2 = RELATED INDUSTRY; G3 = TRAINING


INSTITUTE

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference among the place of training of the respondent with
regard to their level of perception towards training program.

It is understood from table 15 that ANOVA was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the place of training of the respondent with regard to their level of
perception towards training program. The ANOVA result shows that the calculated F-ratio value
is 0.714 which is less than the table value of 3.16 at 5% level of significance. Since the
calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no significant difference
among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training program scores. Hence
the Hypothesis is accepted.

There is no significant difference, the mean score indicates respondents who attended the
training in training institute have a high score in level on perception of training program.

TABLE NO:17
SHOWING SUMMARY OF THE ANOVA SCORES PERTAINING TO THE
PERCEPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM AND
AS PERIOD OF TRAINING

Variance

Between
Groups

df

Mean

G1=90.75;
G2=98.48;

Sum of

Mean

Statistical

Squares

Square

Inference.

686.317

228.772

F=2.422

(P>2.77)
Within Groups

5 G3=90.64;G4=94.6
6 2

5290.283

94.469

Not significant

G1 = ONE DAY; G2 = 2-4 DAYS; G3 = 1 WEEK; G4 = 1 YEAR

Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference among the period of training of the respondent with
regard to their level of perception towards training program.

It is understood from table 17 that ANOVA was applied to find out whether there is any
significant difference among the period of training of the respondent with regard to their level of
perception towards training program. The ANOVA result shows that the calculated F-ratio value
is 2.422 which is less than the table value of 2.77 at 5% level of significance. Since the
calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no significant difference
among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training program scores. Hence
the Hypothesis is accepted.

There is no significant difference, the mean score indicates respondents who attended the
training in 2-4 days have a high score in level on perception of training program.
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

This chapter compromises of major findings of the study. Besides the findings of this chapter also
includes suggestions and conclusion based on findings. The researcher has derived the following findings
of the careful anslysis of the data.

PERSONAL PROFILE:
AGE

It is inferred that of the total respondents 26.67 percent of the respondents belong to

age of 25-30 year old, 33.33 percent of the respondents belong to age of 31-35 year old, 20
percent of the respondents belong to age of 35-40 year old, 41-45 percent of the respondents
belong to age of 41-45 year old.
DEPARTMENT
It is inferred that of the total respondents 13.3 percent of the respondents belongs to quality

assurance department, 11.7 percent of the respondents belong to electronic data processing, 10
percent of the respondents belong to CMD Plan, 10 percent of the respondents belong to
marketing, 8.3 percent of the respondents belong to information technology, 8.3 percent of the
respondents belong to metrology, 8.3 percent of the respondents belong purchase, 8.3 percent of
the respondents belong to quality control, 8.3 percent of the respondents belong to TDD, 8.3
percent of the respondents belong to TRD.
DESIGNATION
It is inferred that of the total respondents 35 percent of the respondents belong to engineers,

35 percent of the respondents belong to senior officer, 16.7 percent of the respondents belong to
Technicians, and 13.3 percent of the respondents belong to designers.

INCOME
It is inferred that of the total respondents 78.3 percent of the respondents draw a monthly

income between 10001-20000, 21.7 percent of the respondents draw a monthly income between
20001 - 30000.
EXPERIENCE
It is inferred that of the total respondents 68.3 percent of the respondents have below 5 years,

20 percent of the respondents have 5-10 years and the remaining 11.7 percent of the respondents
have below 10-15 years.

FIELD OF TRAINING
It is inferred that of the total respondents 41.7 percent of the respondents attended on the job

training, 41.7 percent of the respondents attended off the job training, 16.7 percent of the
respondents attended both training.
PLACE OF TRAINING
It is inferred that of the total respondents 41.7 percent of the respondents attended the

training within the organisation, 23 percent of the respondents attended the training in related
industry, 12 percent of the training attended in related industry.
PERIOD OF TRAINING
It is inferred that of the total respondents 48.3 percent of the respondents attended 2-4 days

training, 23.3 percent of the respondents attended one week training, 21.7 percent of the
respondents attended one year training, and the remaining 6.7 percent of the respondents
attended one day training.

ANOVA FINDINGS
AGE AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed calculated F-ratio value is 0.465 which is less than the table value of 2.07
at 5% level of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred
that there is no significant difference among the department in the average perception of
evaluation of training program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

DEPARTMENT AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed F-ratio value is 0.984 which is less than the table value of 2.03 at 5% level
of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no
significant difference among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training
program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

DESIGNATION AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed F- ratio value is 3.126 which is higher than the table value of 2.77 at 5%
level of significance. Since the calculated value is higher than the table value it is inferred that
there is significant difference among the designations in the average perception of evaluation of
training program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is rejected.

EXPERIENCE AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed F-ratio value is 0.118 which is less than the table value of 3.16 at 5% level
of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no
significant difference among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training
program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

FIELD OF TRAINING AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed F-ratio value is 0.562 which is less than the table value of 3.16 at 5% level
of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no
significant difference among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training
program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

PLACE OF TRAINING AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed F-ratio value is 0.714 which is less than the table value of 3.16 at 5% level
of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no
significant difference among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training
program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

PERIOD OF TRAINING AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed F-ratio value is 2.422 which is less than the table value of 2.77 at 5% level
of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no
significant difference among the department in the average perception of evaluation of training
program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

t TEST FINDINGS
INCOME AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS TRAINING PROGRAM

The computed t-test value is 1.547 which is less than the table value of 2.002 at 5% level
of significance. Since the calculated value is less than the table value it is inferred that there is no
significant difference between income1 and income2 in the average perception of evaluation of
training program scores. Hence the Hypothesis is accepted.

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