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Case Study

Modeling of Damaged Structures Using a Hybrid Exact

Stiffness and Finite Element Approach.

1. Introduction

Imperfection or damage in structural element is a common phenomenon.

Depending on the criterion of damage, over all strength of the material

decreases. In some case a little imperfection in a small structural element

can cause failure to the whole structure. Modeling of damaged structures are

relatively complicated in comparison with the modeling of perfect structures.

Modeling of the damaged structure is one of the major research concerns

now days. The aim of the case study is a feasibility study of modeling a

beam embedded with a damage in it which will be helpful for good

approximations for modeling plate structures.

There are different type of damage in structures.

Background Reading:

Numerical Methods:

The analyses of complex engineering structures or problems are difficult and

sometimes impossible. Alternatively, if the structure is divided into small

fragments, the analysis of the individual element is easier(Zeinkiewicz et al

2000 pp 1). Thus, necessity of the complex problem solving developed

approximate numerical techniques.

Numerical solutions assumes exact solution at distinct points which are

known as nodes. The first step of any numerical solution is discretization into

number of elements and nodes. For fragmentation of an object, depending

on the shape and characteristic the whole model is divided into a finite

number of discrete elements and each element is associated with

corresponding boundary conditions and corresponding differential equations

associated with the element properties. There two parts of the solution: (1) a

homogeneous part and (2) a particular part. Material inherent properties

such as modulus of elasticity and section properties such as second moment

of area, Poissons ratio are considered as homogeneous properties. On the

other hand, particular part comprises of disturbances such as external

forces, moments, temperature differences and pressure differences in fluid

flow(Moaveni1999 p2 pdf).

There are two common classes of numerical methods. There are two

common classes of numerical methods : (1) finite difference methods and

(2)finite element methods. The finite difference method is used for simple

problems where each node is associated with a differential equation and the

element method is

problems which

use integral

approximate continuous shape function is assumed for each element for

solution. For complete solution each elemental solution is assembled to form

a global matrix according to the node number to maintain continuity at the

interelemental boundaries(Moaveni 1999 pp2-5 pdf) .

Finite Element Method (FEM) is a widely used numerical procedure now days

for solving different problems. In structural engineering-stress analysis,

deflection an, in mechanical engineering heat transfer, in electrical

engineering- computation of losses and resistance and in water resource

engineering modeling of open channel flow are common examples.

There are three approaches of solving finite element problems: (1)Direct

formulation, (2)The Minimum Total Potential Energy Formulation, (3)

Weighted Total Potential Energy Formulation (Moaveni 1999 pp 6 pdf). Here

only direct formulation approach is used for solution. A simple example is

presented here for general understanding the FEM steps.

Example of FEM:

A uniform bar is fixed at one end and loaded P at the other end. Its length is

L, area A and modulus of elasticity is E.

Preprocessing phase :

1. Discretize the solution domain into finite elements:

The bar is divided into three elements and noted with four nodes as

shown in the figure. The bar can be subdivided into n- number of

elements

element:

For analyzing each element we can assume that every element is

associated with force F and elongation l .

Average stress in the member is

F

=

A

and the strain is

=

l

l

(1.1)

(1.2)

=E

(1.3)

( AEl )

F=

(1.4)

We can rewrite ,

kb =

AE

l

(1.5)

is zero. Expressions for each element

Node:1

R1

k 1 ( u2u 1)

=0

(1.6)

Node:2

k 1 ( u2u 1)

k 2 ( u3u 2 )

=0

Node:3

k 2 ( u3u 2 )

k 3 ( u4 u3 )

=0

Node:4

k 3 ( u4 u3 )

P =0

k 1 u1

k 1 u 2

k 1 u1

= R1

+ k 1 u2

+ k 2 u2

k 2 u 3

=0

(1.7)

k 2 u 2

=0

+k 2 u3

+k 3 u3

k 3 u 4

k 3 u 3

k 3 u4

=P

k1

k 1

0

0

k 1 k 1 ++k 2 k 2

0

0

k 2

k 2 + k 3 k 3

0

0

k 3 +k 3

]{ } { }

u1

R1

u2

= 0

u3

0

P

u4

(1.8)

follows

{ }[

k1

k 1

0

0

R1

0

0 = k 1 k 1 ++k 2 k 2

0

0

k 2

k 2 + k 3 k 3

0

0

0

k 3 +k 3

]{ } { }

u1

0

u2

0

0

u3

P

u4

(1.9)

{ R } = [ K ] {u } { F }

Or

Reaction

displacement

Stiffness

load

[K]

(G )

(1 G)

= [K]

+ [K]

( 2 G)

+[ K ]

(3 G )

k 1 k 1 0

0

0

0

( )

k +k 1 + k 2 k 2 0

0

[K]G= 1

0

0 k 2 +k 2 +k 3 k 3

0

0

0

0 k 3 + k 3

(1.10)

In equation 1.10

[K]

(G )

(nG)

[K]

where, n=1,

3. Applying boundary conditions and loads at each nodes

Boundary conditions are known as constrains in degrees of freedom at

certain node. At fixed end displacement

u1 is zero ,

transforms in to

1

0

0

0

k 1 k 1 +k 2 k 2

0

0

k 2 k 2 + k 3 k 3

0

0

k 3 +k 3

]{ } { }

u1

0

u2

= 0

0

u3

P

u4

(1.11)

displacement and load as

Stiffness

displacement

load

4. Solution Phase

From the element property we can derive the values of

[ K ] and for

After having the nodal displacements we can determine stresses and

reactions. For simple problems we can solve by hand, but when the

problem is more complex computer is necessary for calculations.

Calculations:

ld

[ K 1]

QT DQdx C1

Finite element stiffness:

[ ]

12

6

3

ld

l d2

6

4

2

ld

ld

[ K FE ]=EI 12

6

3

ld

l d2

6

2

2

ld

ld

Mass matrix:

12

l d3

6

l d2

12

l d3

6

l d2

6

ld 2

2

ld

6

ld 2

4

ld

12

ld

12 l d

2

4 ld

l d2

ld

l d

3

3

[ K M ]=P/10 L 12 l 12 l

d

d

l d 2

4 ld 2

ld

l d

3

3

12 EI

l d3

6 EI

l d2

[ K 1 ]= 12 EI

l d3

6 EI

l d2

[ K 1 ]=

6 EI

l d2

4 EI

ld

6 EI

l d2

2 EI

ld

12 EI 12 P

+

10 l d

l d3

6 EI l d P

+

l d2 10 l d

12 EI 12 P

10 l d

l d3

6 EI P l d

+

l d2 10 l d

12 EI

ld 3

6 EI

l d2

12 EI

ld 3

6 EI

l d2

][

6 EI

12

l d 12 l d

l d2

2 EI

4 ld 2

l d 2

ld

l d

ld

3

3

+P/10l d

12 l d

12 l d

6 EI

2

2

ld

l d

4 l d2

ld

l d

4 EI

3

3

ld

6 EI l d P

+

l d 2 10 l d

2

4 EI 4 l d P

+

ld

30 l d

6 EI l d P

10 l d

ld 2

2

2 EI Pl d

+

l d 30l d

12 EI 12 P

10 l d

ld 3

6 EI l d P

10 l d

l d2

12 EI 12 P

+

10 l d

l d3

6 EI l d P

10 l d

l d2

6 EI l d P

+

l d2 10l d

2

2 EI l d P

ld

30l d

6 EI l d P

10l d

l d2

2

4 EI 4 l d P

+

ld

30 l d

12 EI 12 P

+

10 l d

l d3

6 EI P

+

l d2 10

e

[ K ]=

12 EI 12 P

10 l d

ld 3

6 EI P

+

l d2 10

6 EI P

+

l d 2 10

4 EI 4 l d P

+

ld

30

6 EI P

10

l d2

2 EI P l d

+

ld

30

12 EI 12 P

10 l d

ld 3

6 EI P

10

ld 2

12 EI 12 P

+

10 l d

ld 3

6 EI P

10

ld 2

6 EI P

+

l d2 10

2 EI l d P

ld

30

6 EI P

10

l d2

4 EI 4 l d P

+

ld

30

] [

a 0 0

e 0 0

[ k 11 ]= 0 b d ; [ k 12 ]= 0 f h

0 d c'

0 h g

] [

e 0 0

a 0

0

; [ k 21 ] = 0 f h ; [ k 22 ] = 0 b d

0 h g

0 d c '

In vibration problem:

a=

( EAl )

b=

( )

cot ;

e=

EA

( sin cosh +cos sinh )

3

l

c=

d=

( )

EA 2

sin sinh / Z ;

l2

( )

In Buckling Problem:

a=e=

EA

;

l

( )

f=

/Z ;

EA

( sin cosh cos sinh ) /Z

l

( EAl )cosec

g=

h=

EA

( sin +sinh ) /Z ;

3

l

/Z

EA 2

( cosh cos ) /Z

l2

( )

b=f=

( EAl ) s

3

(1- c

);

c=sEI/l ;

g=sc EI/l ;

d=h=

( EAl ) s (1+ c)

2

2

s(1+c)=(P l /2EI)/(1- cot )

and

s(1-c)= 2 cot ;

with

1 /2

=(/2)

; =P/

Pe

3

4

5

6

3

8 EA 2 (

12 EI 12 P

s 1c2 ) + 3 +

3

10 l d

ld

( lld )

ll d

6 EI P

( 2) s ( 1+c ) + 2 +

10

ld

4 EA 12 EI 12 P

l 3 10 l d

d

6 EI P

+

l d2 10

ll d

6 EI P

( 2) s ( 1+c ) + 2 +

10

ld

4 EA 2 sEI 4 EI 4 l d P

+

+

ll d

ld

30

6 EI P

10

ld 2

2 EI P l d

+

ld

30

12 EI 12 P

10 l d

l d3

6 EI P

10

ld 2

8 EA 2

12 EI 12 P

s ( 1c2 ) + 3 +

3

10 l d

ld

( lld )

6 EI P

ll d

( 2) s ( 1+c ) 2

10

ld

4 EA

Project Proposal:

The exact stiffness of beam is already defined, but for plates it is not known.

Especially in damaged composite plate there is lots of research going on to

define the exact stiffness. The aim of the project is to define quick exact

solution for delaminated composite plates for aerospace industry. The hybrid

of exact and FEM is a feasibility study of the beam which will can be used

for defining stiffness matrices of any frame structures or composite plates .

Finite element analysis widely used for analyzing and modeling of different

structures. FEA

important factor where FEA is not a good option. In contrast, VICONOPT is

the solution which gives quick results.

In VICONOPT the anisotropic flat plates are analyzed for fixed length and

consider line support which is very handful for modeling perfect structures. If

the there is presence of delamination, the software is no longer useful

because it is no longer prismatic. So, a hybrid of exact and finite element

analysis will be very helpful to perform structural analysis and design.

Currently in VICONOPT code the part of FE is not included, but later it can be

modified to add FE part of coding to incorporate with exact strip analysis

which will not elongate the analyzing time.

Background Reading:

Aircraft Structures:

Globalization made human being to travel around the globe. So,

Airways became one most preferable mode of transport for long distance

travel. According to the statistical information of Civil Aviation Authority

(CAA), in the year 2009 total 218 million passengers

used all UK

requires durable and high performance materials. A commercial aircraft use

to fly 60,000 h. over its 30 years life time, with more than 20,000 flights and

taxi more than 100,000 miles.(Peel, C.J et al 1995, cited in Campbell 2006, p.

2 ).

Cost Efficiency and environmental pollution are two of the most

important factors in aircraft operations. So, for increasing the performance

continuous researches are going on for developing lighter but stronger

materials. Using light material for airframe structure is the most efficient

solution for improving performance. From research result it is been derived

that, application of reduced density material is 3-5 times more efficient than

increasing high performance materials such as Youngs modulus, yield

strength or damage tolerance(Ekvall, J.C. et al 1982 cited in Campbell 2006,

p. 2).Besides, use of functionally graded materials in jet engines increases

thermal efficiency a lot.

Table 1.1 Objective of Composite Materials for Aerospace

Application (Baker , 2004)

Weight Reduction

Increased flying range

Improved Performance

Smoother more aerodynamic

Fuel efficiency

Higher pay load

form

Special aeroelastic properties

Increased

temperature

Increased maneuverability

Reduced Acquisition Cost

Reduced fabrication cost

capability

Improved damage tolerance

Reduced detectability

Reduced Through Support

Cost

Resistance

corrosion

Resistance

to

to

fatigue

and

mechanical

damage

Early 1920s aircrafts were largely made of metal especially steel and

aluminum. First composites of boron in mid 1960s in F-14 and later in early

1970s carbon fiber in F-15 were developed for military aircrafts, resulted in

significant weight savings. However, use composite materials increased from

2% on F-15 to 27% on AV-8B Harrier by 1980s. Most military aircrafts use

more than 20% composite materials (Campbell 2006, p. 2).

Identical trend have been followed for commercial aircrafts. Airbus

were more aggressive than Boeing in using composite materials for different

parts of on A3XX aircrafts models, but recently Boeing is committed to use

wing and fuselage as illustrated in the figure 1 and 2 (FAA,2009).

( 2010)

Figure2: Airbus A380 Material Distribution figure reproduced from FAA( 2009)

The objective of using high performance fiber reinforcement in

comparatively weak matrix is to provide significant improvement over

conventional metal alloys. In carbon fiber/ epoxy composites, carbon fibers

are arranged during manufacture of the component in various directions and

concentrations to provide required sufficient stiffness. In contrast, it has been

derived that, carbon/epoxy is more competent than Ti-6Al-4V, and 7075-T6

aluminum which is described in the given figure.

reproduced from Campbell 2004, cited in Campbell, 2006, p.274

The toughness of the composite is much higher than the toughness of

each component. The reason is the strength of fiber-matrix interface which is

greater than the individual strength. For example brittle material glass fiber

and polyester resin is used to make fiberglass which is tough and strong

composite.

For in-plane loading, stiffness is achieved by using laminated layers or

plies of unidirectional or bidirectional or bi-directional oriented fibers.

Besides, the fatigue strength and corrosion resistance of composites are

higher than other high strength metals. The comparisons of fatigue property

of different materials are described in the figure 4.

On the other hand, composites also have some disadvantages. Raw

material costs of composites are costly. Again, it is highly affected by

temperature and moisture. Though the in-plane load bearing capacity is

high, but in the out of plane direction, load bearing capacity is significantly

low, where the matrix carries the primary load. Moreover, composites are

vulnerable to impact damage. Delaminations or ply separations are also

important defects in composites because the repair work is more difficult

than other metallic structure.

Campbell 2004, cited in Campbell, 2006, p.275)

Composite Materials :

Composite materials can be divided into four categories depending on

geometry and material properties. Those are:

1) Fiber composites

2) Particulate composites

3) Laminated composites

Fiber Composites

Fiber composites are combination of reinforcement material fiber and base

material known as matrix. Stiff, strong fibers can be made from light

elements such as carbon, boron etc. coupoubds like silicon oxide( silicon and

silica based glasses), silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Moreover, long

chain organic molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen can be used for

making fibers such as aramid (Kevlar). Carbon fibers, made from pyrolysis of

4

up to 2.5 10 Filaments. (Baker 2004, pp. 18-20a)

early 1990s. Sheets of hexagonal graphite basal plane are rolled up into a

tube and the geometry depends in the way of sheet rolling. (Baker 2004, pp.

18-30b)

The matrix are base materials can be polymer, metal or ceramic. Shape of

the components depends on the matrix. Besides, matrix transfers load into

and out of the fibers and detaches the the fibers from failure of the adjoining

damaged fibers and finally it perform as a shield to prevent any damage.

(Baker 2004, pp. 18-30c)

Particulate Composites

Particulate composites are of two types:

1)metal- matrix- composites(MMC)

2) ceramic matrix composites(CMC).

MMC are widely used in aerospace structure, most common are aluminum or

titanium alloy- matrices which are reinforced with ceramic(silicon carbide /

alumina) particles in the micron range .Unlike fiber composites the

reinforcement is not directional rather they are dispersed to form an isotropic

environment.

Similarly, CMC are also useful in aerospace structure where high temperature

is involved such as gas turbine engine. To perform efficiently in temperate

environment the reinforcement of ceramic matrices must be high oxidation

resistance at high temperature to prevent microcracking and the fibers must

be chemically compatible . . (Baker 2004, pp. 18-30d)

Laminated Composites:

Laminated composites are continuous fiber layers which are known as ply

or lamina and oriented in different directions to develop strength in primary

loading direction. In layers the plies are arranged in angles from

90o . Laminates with the orientation of

0o

0o

to

are

in Campbell, 2006, p.276)

o

much stronger and stiff in the unidirection ( 0 ), but weak in the

90o

the tensile strength of a fiber can be 500ksi whether a typical polymeric

matrix normally has a tensile strength of only 1%~2% of tensile strength

(Campbell, 2006, p.276).

numbers was biggest since the second world war.[Online]Available at

http:www.airportwatch.org.uk/news/detail.php?

art_id=3894&art_AIRPORTWATCH=Y, accessed on 27/04/2010[Accessed: 27

April 2010]

Elsevier Ltd figure reproduced in . F.C. 2006 Manufacturing Technology for

Aerospace Structural Materials,UK, Elsevier Ltd, p. 276 .

Materials, p. 2]

[Campbell. F.C. 2006 Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural

Materials, p. 2 cited in Peel, C.J., Gregson, P.J.1995 Design Requirements for

Aerospace Structural Materials in High Performance Materials in Aerospace,

Chapman & Hall, pp1-48]

[Ekvall, J.C., Rhodes, J.E., Wald, G.G., 1982 Methodology of Evaluating Weight

Savings From Basic Material Properties in Design of Fatigue and Fracture

Resistant Structures, ASTM STP761, American Society for Testing and

Materials, pp.328-341 ]

[University of Oslo, SAGA GD, SIAM Activity Group on Geometric Design.

Surface modeling of Composite Materials[Online]Available at

http://www.ifi.uio.no/siag/problems/grandine/ [Accessed: 27 April 2010]]

[FAA 2009, New Large Aircraft Composite Fire Fighting report of Airport

Technology Research And Development Branch [Online] Available at

http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/safety/patterson2.asp [Accessed : 27 April 2010]]

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc]

[Campbell, F.C., Manufacturing Process for Advanced Composites, Elsvier LTd

cited in Campbell. F.C, 2006 Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace

Structural Materials, p.274]

[Campbell, F.C., Manufacturing Process for Advanced Composites, Elsvier LTd

cited in Campbell. F.C, 2006 Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace

Structural Materials, p.275]

[Howson, W.P. 1979 A Compact Method of Computing the eigenvalues and

Eigenvectors of Plane Frames.]

When a uniform member of a structure is subjected to vibration or axial

force the correlation of the member stiffness, deflection and load can is :

KD=P

(1)

Where K is the load factor dependent stiffness matrix of the structure which

is circular frequency in vibration problem and load factor in buckling

problem. D and P are the consequent displacement and force vectors,

respectively.

Member equation of the plane frame member is

k ii d i+ k ij d j= pi

And

(2)

k ji d i +k jj d j= p j

Stiffnesses (k) of corresponding points are 33 load factor dependent

matrices and d, p are associated dispalacements.

The solution of eigenvalue problem of vibration or buckling is

KD=0

(4)

The values of load factor of natural frequency or critical load factor for

which the equation (4 ) is satisfied are known as eigenvalues.

The eigenvalues of the system are which satisfy equation (4) and

corresponding natural frequencies in vibration problems and critical load

factors when beam-column theory is used. The eigenvectors are the modal

displacements, D, Corresponding to each eigenvalue and amplitudes of

quantities with a sinusoidal time dependence in vibration problems.

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