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RAILWAY TRACK

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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CROSS SECTION OF TRACK

CROSS SECTION OF TRACK

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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Planning & Coordination Department 4 .IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL IDEAL SOIL POOR SOIL MARCH 2015 Research.

Ideal soil can be seen very rare in nature. Strong against static loading and crashes must be less. Delivery and construction should not be expensive. MARCH 2015 Research.IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL IDEAL SOIL The characteristics of the ideal soil. high structural strength and well compacted. Planning & Coordination Department 5 . Solid. and serve like filter to track bed and ground. Elastic. Permeable for water. Differences in grains. Resistant to erosion. strong aganist dinamic loading.

Mixed ground with cohesive.IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL POOR SOIL The characteristics of the poor soil. soft or semi-soft sand. Flowing and loose. Has too much boulders. MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 6 . mud. clay.

Planning & Coordination Department 7 .SOIL TYPES COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FINE-GRAINED SOILS PROPORTIONS ORGANIC SOILS MARCH 2015 Research.

SOIL TYPES COARSE-GRAINED SOILS The particles can be distinguished by the naked eye : Boulders (have diameter greater than 300 mm) Cobbles (have diameter between 75 mm and 300 mm) Gravel (has diameter between 4. Planning & Coordination Department 8 .75 mm and 75 mm) Sand (has diameter between 0.75 mm) MARCH 2015 Research.075 mm and 4.

MARCH 2015 Research. structure and color. Elasticy is determined by the clay content in them. Planning & Coordination Department 9 .SOIL TYPES FINE-GRAINED SOILS Corrupt mud. silt or clay are examples for fine-grained soils. Fine-grained soils are identified with elasticy.

SOIL TYPES PROPORTIONS Fine material has diameter below 0.075 mm Proportion of fine material Below %5 Coarse-grained soil Proportion of fine material Between %5 and %40 Mixed-grained soil Proportion of fine material Over %40 Fine-grained soil MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 10 .

SOIL TYPES ORGANIC SOILS These are the swamps and peat soil. MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 11 . Organic layers in the ground can be animal or vegetable origin.

Planning & Coordination Department 12 .SOIL TESTS MARCH 2015 Research.

Planning & Coordination Department 13 .SOIL TESTS SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U) PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST PLATE LOAD TEST BEARING CAPACİTY TEST PLASTIC PROPERTIES CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) WATER CONTENT AND DRY DENSITY MARCH 2015 Research.

SOIL TESTS SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U) U is ratio between weights of grains have size 0-60 mm and 0-10 mm. It shows slope of grain distiribution. If this ratio is low (U is lower than 6 ) slope is vertical. Planning & Coordination Department 14 . If this ratio is high (U is higher than 6) ground has different grain sizes. MARCH 2015 Research. This means ground has almost same grain size.

SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST This test establish relation between water ratio and dry unit weight of ground. Using this relation we have a proctor density that is a value using to estimate compress density of adhesive grounds. MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 15 . proctor density can be 100% with an additional compressing. proctor density can not be calculated with an additional compressing. If water ratio above optimal water ratio. When water ratio below optimal water ratio.

MARCH 2015 Research.  Dry volume weight ratios record on water ratio which they belong.SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST  The proctor test is a compression test. In this experiment. Planning & Coordination Department 16 . the material is put into a container and is compressed by using a mallet release.  Dry volume density is called simple proctor density and water ratio that is belong this density called optimal amount of water.  This test is done in cases where the materials contain various amounts of water.  Proctor curve gives information about acceptable water content to reach the required compression values. A curve is formed from results and top of this curve shows dry volume density.

Circle makes a mark is measured to calculate depth.SOIL TESTS PLATE LOAD TEST Beside dry density. this test gives us a value that specifes quality of loadbearing or protective material and bearing capasity. MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 17 . At plate load test a circle plate has 30 cm diameter makes loading and discharge with different weights.

If sinking and vibration is bigger. Planning & Coordination Department 18 .SOIL TESTS BEARING CAPACİTY TEST Short time pulsed loadings are made to track bed. MARCH 2015 Research. This way track bed has softened vibration. Results are nearer to real load effects than plate load test and also results is ready to use directly. This test has shorter needed time. track bed has low bearing capacity.

SOIL TESTS PLASTIC PROPERTIES If fine-grained soil is added water. Adhesion disappears step by step. then plastic form and final liquid form. First ground passes to half solid. and ground gets a liquid form. Increasing water ratio causes to grains adhesion force to decrease. MARCH 2015 Research. ground loses stiffness slowly. Planning & Coordination Department 19 .

Result is percentage of force that do equal going into best loadbearing material.SOIL TESTS CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) CBR ıs resistant that ground shows to 20 cm2 cylinder compress ground with a steady speed that 1. Resistant curve is compared to a standart curve. Planning & Coordination Department 20 .25 mm in a minute. MARCH 2015 Research.

Optimal dry density is maximum dry density that ground can be concentrated. Planning & Coordination Department 21 . MARCH 2015 Research. Dry density is t/m3 or kg/m3 .SOIL TESTS WATER CONTENT AND DRY DENSITY Water content is determined with drying process in oven. Water content ratio is current water content over dry weight.

GROUND INSPECTION MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 22 .

GROUND INSPECTION SEISMIC METHOD BORING CONE PENETRATION TEST MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 23 .

TRACK BED SEISMIC METHOD MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 24 .

TRACK BED SEISMIC METHOD Seismic method is used in the examination of major grounds. MARCH 2015 Research. When appliying this examination speed of waves. size of amplitude and decrease of amplitude is measured. Planning & Coordination Department 25 .

MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 26 . soils that will be tested. With these tests we get soil proporties.TRACK BED BORING Boring machine will bring to the surface.

TRACK BED CONE PENETRATION TEST MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 27 .

There is a force required to pass different layers. strength and thickness can be detected directly. This force is a measure to bearing capacity. Planning & Coordination Department 28 . MARCH 2015 Research.TRACK BED CONE PENETRATION TEST With this method rigidity.

Planning & Coordination Department 29 .GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT MARCH 2015 Research.

GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND STABILIZATION GROUND IMPROVEMENT MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 30 .

at least 20 cm protective layer must be placed. at least 40 cm thick layer of lime should be used. If lime is used as binder. Planning & Coordination Department 31 . Lime and cement can be used as a binding material. MARCH 2015 Research.GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND STABILIZATION At the ground stabilization process. Above the lime layer. increasing the bearing capacity of the ground must be provided by the addition of binding materials. cement layer must have thickness at least 20 cm. If cement is used as binder.

This way ground should be compressed better and should have better bearing capacity. suitability for construction of ground and compressibility are improved. Planning & Coordination Department 32 . Mechanical ground improvement is possible.GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND IMPROVEMENT At ground improvement process. MARCH 2015 Research. Also ground improvement can be done with lime. when track bed grain mix can be fixed with grains that have appropriate size are added.

CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 33 .

CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND IMPROVEMENT WİTH LİME GROUND STABILIZATION WITH CEMENT MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 34 .

Lime must apply only with sandy gravel protection layer and must have at least 20 cm thickness. MARCH 2015 Research. Improvement of ground should be economic to be meaningful. When lime mixed to clay. Drained clay is hard and have high bearing capacity.CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND IMPROVEMENT WİTH LİME Bearing capacity of clay is highly dependent on the water content. Adding lime to coarse-grained ground do not provide improvement. Planning & Coordination Department 35 . Ground improvement with lime is short term improvement. clay will be drained.

Cement must be added to sandy or muddy ground for at least 15 cm. Before stabilization with cement at clay. Planning & Coordination Department 36 . MARCH 2015 Research.CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND STABILIZATION WITH CEMENT Coarse-grained ground stabilization and increasing bearing capacity of coarse-grained ground can be done with adding cement. lime must be mixed to ground.

Planning & Coordination Department 37 .TRACK BED MARCH 2015 Research.

Planning & Coordination Department 38 .TRACK BED TRACK BED TRACK BED LAYERS TRACK BED DRAINAGE LAYER REQUIREMENTS USAGE OF GEOTEXTİLE PRODUCTS TRACK BED FAILURES CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES MARCH 2015 Research.

and to provide an elastic and uniform base. MARCH 2015 Research. Layers have multiple layers with different materials and properties.TRACK BED TRACK BED Composed of ballast and ballast blanket and subbase. Track bed and drainage infrastructure are required to keep the ballast clean. Planning & Coordination Department 39 . No build-up of water or mud in the ballast. Its purpose is to support the sleepers and dissipate the forces applied by vehicles passing over the sleepers.

TRACK BED TRACK BED Under the sleepers are known collectively as ‘Track bed’. MARCH 2015 Research. This consists of the ballast. the ballast blanket and the sub-grade. and between the blanket and sub-grade must be inclined at 1/20 to allow water to flow towards the nearest drainage line. The interfaces between the ballast and ballast blanket. Planning & Coordination Department 40 .

TRACK BED
TRACK BED LAYERS

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED
TRACK BED DRAINAGE

In order to prevent accumulation of water on track bed;
Grass growth must be prevented,
Ballast should be cleaned and a cross slope should be
created,

Side slopes and drainage channels should be cleaned,
At sides, drainages should be done and drainages should
have control and ventilation funnels.

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TRACK BED
LAYER REQUIREMENTS
Subballast, geosynthetic materials, subbase prevent fine
materials in infrastructure move up to inside ballast and
accumulation water in infrastructure.
Balast layer have slope with 1/20 rate to nearest drainage
channel.
In case of ballast layer or filler contains sand, average
pressure should not exceed 0.05 MN/m2 at layer contains
sand. Other granular materials can be rated for higher
pressures and geosynthetic layers (e.g. geotextile, geogrid,
geomembrane, geocomposite ) can be used.
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g. Planning & Coordination Department 44 .TRACK BED LAYER REQUIREMENTS In case ground movement is possible (seasonal changes or changes in ground from quakes). MARCH 2015 Research. Appropriate drainage systems. during the design phase should be integrated into the track bed. using terracing layer ) should be designed. in a way that allow ground movements ( e.

Planning & Coordination Department 45 .USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT MARCH 2015 Research.

and a crossfall of 1:20. • If the existing ballast blanket is functional. < 100 mm thick in places  A ‘Separating Geotextile’ laid over. a 3 m wide geogrid should be placed below the ballast. this should extend ≥ 0. Planning & Coordination Department 46 .70 m beyond the sleeper ends.70 m beyond the sleeper ends. this should extend ≥ 0. and a crossfall of 1:20 MARCH 2015 Research. • If the existing ballast blanket is functional < 50 mm thick in places  The blanket should be re-applied with a thickness ≥ 100 mm  and a ‘Separating Geotextile’ laid over.USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT  Drainage lines should be sufficient and clean. contaminated regions should be cleaned.  If subgrade stiffness is too low.  Ballast should not be contaminated.

Planning & Coordination Department 47 . Geotextile materials are placed on compressed and improved track bed. and covered with a protective material.USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT The function of geotextile material. MARCH 2015 Research. Geosynthetic materials used between track bed and ground. increase bearing capacity extend life of added layers. help to reduce tension and deformation.

it causes water accumulation and under sleepers ballast subside. Planning & Coordination Department 48 . Muddy grounds. Line immediately decomposes at rainy weather and at dry weather line stabilizes again quickly. move to surface of ballast.TRACK BED TRACK BED FAILURES Soils formed of same material. as sand. when weather rainy track bed fluctuates and during muddy ground be subjected to load changes. sand move to surface of travers from inside ballast result of vibration. MARCH 2015 Research. At nonadhesive or less adhesive grounds result of dinamic loading track bed and ground become loose and this causes cracks and crack regions.

At grounds with equal size of sand. swells can occur due to wetting. ground swells under and between sleepers in direction of side road. This shape changes in ground occur both in rainy and dry weather. pitting occurs under sleepers. At very adhesive grounds at drought times cracks occur due to become dry and shrinking.TRACK BED TRACK BED FAILURES At very adhessive grounds and grounds become tight due to load changes. MARCH 2015 Research. specially warm climates at rainy times. Planning & Coordination Department 49 . On this grounds when weather is rainy mud is pumped to surface of ballast from sides of sleepers. losses can occur with wind erosion. and it occurs very slowly.

Planning & Coordination Department 50 . Compressing track bed is not sufficient or track bed losses volume.TRACK BED CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES Causes of track bed failures. In case ground is remained under static and dynamic over load. MARCH 2015 Research. in other words a ground composed with unsuitable ground types. Cracks are formed dry fill with rain. High water level. Using rail that has not sufficient carrying capacity Using sleepers with over weight. A bad ground. and using sleepers with over distance between. When it rains or line remaines under flow drainage is not sufficient.

Planning & Coordination Department 51 . Extra line works.TRACK BED CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES Consequenses of track bed failures. regions should be passed slow or repair works can be necessary Nonrigid grounds are over loaded under traffic load. rail steel fatigues early and rail’s working life shortens. MARCH 2015 Research.

Planning & Coordination Department 52 .DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MARCH 2015 Research.

Planning & Coordination Department 53 .DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS MARCH 2015 Research.

They are most frequently found in line sections where water running off the trackbed cannot freely drain away. This is to facilitate cleaning of sediment that may deposit in drains. MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 54 . Cess drainage systems are constructed with a slope of at least 1/200. to remove water that has percolated through the ballast and is flowing along the capping layer towards the outside of the track formation.DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS • Cess drainage systems Cess drains are surface drainage systems located at formation level at the side of tracks.

These drainage systems can be lined with geosynthetic materials or instead of geosynthetic materials. The purpose of such drainage systems is to intercept water flow by means of embankments or obstacles in order to stop it before it reaches the track. MARCH 2015 Research. and remove water and prevent ponding at the base of embankments. Planning & Coordination Department 55 . depending on the condition of local soil. This type of drainage system may also be used on the uphill side of embankments.DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS • Catch drainage systems These drainage systems are also named top drainage systems or surface drainage systems. pipes with semilunar holes or trapeze-section ducts can be used.

Planning & Coordination Department 56 .DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS • Functions of subsurface drainage systems Collection of infiltration water that seeps into the platform Lowering underground water level MARCH 2015 Research.

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS • Functions of subsurface drainage systems Collection of water leakages at an impermeable boundary MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 57 .

Planning & Coordination Department 58 .DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS • Types of subsurface drainage systems Transverse drainage systems MARCH 2015 Drainage blankets Research.

Planning & Coordination Department 59 .DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS Channel Drains and Ditches: common problems and their remedies Problem Cause Blockage Stone fall Remedy Clean out. Vegetation Overgrowth Improve the channel:  Collapsing drainage channel Collapse preserve cross-section  reduce maintenance Protect against bank erosion on slopes by using 500 mm wide grass strips. Burrowing animals MARCH 2015 Control vermin and fill burrows. line and reprofile. Scour On steep slopes. Research. reduce the flow velocity using baffles.

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS Catchpits and Manholes: common problems and remedies Problem Cause Remedy Clean out by Silting Normal operation a. Planning & Coordination Department 60 . mechanical jetting or vacuuming Increase frequency of cleaning or Blockage Balast girmesi Chambers filled or buried Collapse MARCH 2015  remove ballast in sump and replace Damaged or missing damaged or missing covers to keep ballast covers out Poor ballasting  raise Catchpits before ballast drops practices and/or clean chambers on completion of track work Damage by ground Rebuild Catchpit/Manhole movement or on-track plant Research. hand excavation b.

MARCH 2015 Research. Cleaning can be undertaken by pressure jetting. Planning & Coordination Department 61 . This is because flooding can occur if pipes at a higher level are cleaned first. The roots of hedges and/or trees growing in close proximity to a drain can penetrate pipes in search of moisture.DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS • Maintenance and cleaning of drainage pipes The cleaning of pipes should always start from the lower end or outfall. The removal of silt through drains can result in the pipe collars or holes of drainage pipes becoming blocked. It might be necessary to use pressurized water or air equipment to remove roots. rodding or by winching a drain cleaning device (commonly known as a ‘badger’) through the pipe.

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS Table 3: Piped Collector Drains: common problems and their remedies Problem Cause Blockage of filter media Wet Beds Remedy Dig out and replace filter surround Ballast attrition Uneven pipe gradient from disturbance of formation Upgrade/relay drainage before renewing Track Support System Inadequate capacity for Catchment runoff Replace filter surround to improve drawdown from Track Support System and prevent formation of Wet Beds Hydraulic MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 62 .

Planning & Coordination Department 63 .DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS Problem Carrier Drains: common problems and their remedies Cause Remedy (depending upon severity) Rodding: by hand for clearing of small local blockages and locating larger obstructions Capacity reduced by ingress of ballast or silt. clean out/ repair/ replace Water jetting: on-track plant ranging from roadrailers to drain trains Blockage Winching: relies on ability to pass cable through pipe Vegetation management to restrict spread of trees and: Root intrusion  Cutting and cleaning roots  Pipe replacement Major pipe cracking or deformation Partial collapse Local open cut repair and/or replacement Holes and collapses of less than one pipe length Complete collapse Structural failure of more than one pipe length Renew by open cut Poor fall or pipe alignment Replace filter surround to improve drawdown from track and prevent formation of Wet Beds Relay drains Hydraulic insufficiency Inadequate pipe capacity MARCH 2015 Relay by open cut or increase diameter of pipe. poor pipe alignment Open excavation: dig up pip. crushed pipes. size is a compromise between flow capacity and selfcleansing velocity Research.

flumes and connection channels Reconstruct Collapse Insufficient capacity MARCH 2015 Remove obstructions from downstream body of water Fit Trash Screens Local repairs. or water jetting Clear non-man entry Culverts by water jetting. drag scraping or. drag scraping. Silt if sufficient headroom. by mini digger Problem Blockage Rubbish or trash General deterioration Fill voids/ repair lining Reline conduct Structural Scour voids Extend headwall or training walls. replace missing bricks/ repoint mortar joints flow Change in upstream Catchment Outlet smaller than inlet Remediation to increase capacity Research. Planning & Coordination Department 64 .DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS Culverts: common problems and remedies Cause Remedy (depending upon severity) Debris Check/ clear Trash Screen Clear non-man entry Culverts by rodding. hand excavation.

tear Blockage MARCH 2015 Seized flap valve Repair or replace valve Research. flumes and connection channel Wear.DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS Siphons: particular problem and its remedy Problem Blockage Cause Remedy (depending upon severity) Dry weather flow velocity insufficient for self-cleansing Seek advice from the appointed engineer before commencing any work on siphons Common problems and remedies Problem Cause Remedy (depending upon severity) General deterioration Local repairs: replace missing bricks/ repoint mortar joints Structural Extend headwall or training walls. Planning & Coordination Department 65 .

TUNNEL GAUGE MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 66 .

TUNNEL GAUGE TUNNEL GAUGE CONSTRUCTION GAUGE LOADİNG GAUGE MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 67 .

Planning & Coordination Department 68 .TUNNEL GAUGE TUNNEL GAUGE MARCH 2015 Research.

TUNNEL GAUGE CONSTRUCTION GAUGE MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 69 .

TUNNEL GAUGE LOADİNG GAUGE MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 70 .

Planning & Coordination Department 71 . VIADUCTS MARCH 2015 Research. CULVERTS.BRIDGES.

CULVERTS. VIADUCTS BRIDGES CULVERTS VIADUCTS MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 72 .BRIDGES.

or larger structures. railway or similar barriers. and the total length of 8 m. MARCH 2015 Research. CULVERTS. Planning & Coordination Department 73 . Total Length : The horizontal distance between starting point and endpoint of bridge. Clear Span : The remaining horizontal distance between bridge piers. not under fill. VIADUCTS BRIDGES It is called bridge that built to cross rivers. roads.BRIDGES.

VIADUCTS BRIDGES MARCH 2015 Research. CULVERTS. Planning & Coordination Department 74 .BRIDGES.

MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 75 .BRIDGES. CULVERTS. VIADUCTS CULVERTS Bridges that have total length under 8 m and regardless of total length structures under fill.

CULVERTS. MARCH 2015 Research. and avoid risks that are produces by high filling. Planning & Coordination Department 76 .BRIDGES. VIADUCTS VIADUCTS Bridges are made to pass deep valleys or lands have very high filling cost.

VIADUCTS VIADUCTS MARCH 2015 Research. Planning & Coordination Department 77 . CULVERTS.BRIDGES.