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indigenous - ---native, originating in a place

subjective - ---relating to the mind as the subject of experience


paradox - ---seeming contradiction or an actual contradiction
anomalous - ---irregular, unusual
viscous - ---having a thick consistency, gelatinous
ephemeral - ---fleeting, or short life or duration
corroborate - ---to confirm or make certain
implicit - ---implied, tacitly understood
lucid - ---clear, understandable
prodigal - ---foolishly generous, not thrifty
feign - ---to pretend
specious - ---having the deceptive look of truth
arbitrary - ---random, capricious, impartial
intrepid - ---bold, fearless
antagonism - ---hostility, enmity
antipathy - ---strong feeling against, dislike for
dogma - ---firmly held disbelief
pertinent - ---clearly relevant
variance - ---difference, disagreement
incompatible - ---not well matched, unsuited
isolate - ---to separate and make alone or single
sever - ---to cut off completely
synthesis - ---the combination of diverse elements into one
engender - ---to create, foster
discrete - ---distinct, separate
disperse - ---to spread out
eccentric - ---unusual, strange
redundant - ---repetitive, and thus unnecessary
precursor - ---a necessary predecessor
defer - ---to postpone or to submit to another

catalyst - ---a thing that sets another in motion or causes change


disarm - ---to deprive of weapons or to win over, ingratiate
prone - ---inclined, or the position of lying face down
profound - ---deep, thoughtful
torque - ---rotational force, twist
digress - ---to move away from
diverge - ---to go apart in different directions
tangential - ---peripheral, no on the subject at hand
porous - ---having pores, having minute holes
plummet - ---to fall suddenly
circumlocution - ---excessive speaking, wordiness
perturb - ---to disquiet, upset
opaque - ---not transparent, not letting light through
impenetrable - ---unable to penetrate, pierced
desiccate - ---to dry out, dehydrate
phenomenon - ---an occurrence
tacit - ---unspoken yet understood
whimsy - ---caprice, a playful thing
abstract - ---theoretical or to summarize or a summary
inherent - ---in the essential nature of a thing
dubious - ---doubtful, questionable
platitude - ---a trite saying, bromide
fallacy - ---a logical flaw, mistake
demur - ---to hesitate, protest
assert - ---to state without need of proof
refute - ---to disprove, to argue against
inquisitive - ---curious, seeking knowledge
mundane - ---everything, pedestrain
coherent - ---intelligible, consistent
equivocal - ---wavering, vacillating

harangue - ---long, complaining speech


jargon - ---specialized vocabulary
succinct - ---concise, stating in few words
diffuse - ---to spread thinly, or scattered
articulate - ---well- spoken, intelligible, speak clearly and distinctly
garrulous - ---extremely talkative
orate - ---to make a speech, esp. pompously
laconic - ---few words, reticent
obscure - ---to hide or hidden, vague, not easily understood
chicanery - ---flim-flam, trickery
furtive - ---secret, sneaky
volatile - ---unstable, likely to explode or vaporize
extemporize - ---to speak spontaneously
zealot - ---one who has great enthusiasm esp for a cause
espouse - ---to take to oneself, to adopt a belief
provocative - ---tending to simulate
superfluous - ---excess, extra
expend - ---to use up
malevolent - ---evil, having evil intent
paragon - ---an ideal, perfect model
nullify - ---negate, make invalid
consummate - ---complete, accomplish, perfect, to a high degree
arduous - ---difficult, strenuous
felicity - ---happiness, pleasantness
prodigy - ---very talented child
guile - ---cunning, trickery
ingenious - ---extremely clever, original
imperative - ---necessary, immediately important
constrain - ---restrict, confine
suppress - ---keep secret, contain, inhibit

capitulate - ---give in, surrender


obsequious - ---sycophantic-flatter, fawning
placate - ---please, pacify
affluent - ---wealthy
zeal - ---fanatical enthusiasm
inhibit - ---restrain, forbid
plasticity - ---malleability, stretchiness
cynic - ---one who has an attitude of contempt, distrust
bolster - ---support
resolute - ---determined, faithful
connoisseur - ---one who appreciates fine things
decorous - ---in good taste, very proper
euphemism - ---mild word or phrase substituted for an offensive one
pedantic - ---overly scholarly
bombast - ---pompous speech
arrogant - ---overbearing, proud
misanthrope - ---one who hates humanity
jeer - ---taunt, deride
disingenuous - ---seemingly honest while not being so
propriety - ---appropriateness, social acceptability
heretic - ---one who holds unorthodox or unapproved beliefs
authentic - ---genuine, trustworthy
eradicate - ---to eliminate completely
gist - ---general meeting, essence
objective - ---empirically provable, existing independently
affiliation - ---connecting, association
apposite - ---relevant, to the point
antithesis - ---direct opposite
heterogeneous - ---mixed, made up of unlike elements
stereotype - ---generalized judgment of a group

paradigm - ---model, theoretical framework


precedent - ---earlier example setting a rule
conform - ---adapt or compliant with
correspond - ---to match, to conform, to parallel
dissent - ---to disagree
nuance - ---slight distinction
negligible - ---insignificant, not to be considered
trivial - ---minor, not important
subordinate - ---depending on, subservient
depletion - ---lessening
alloy - ---mixture esp of metal
eclectic - ---having varying elements
convoluted - ---intricate, coiled, twisted
inextricable - ---not able to be untangled
labyrinth - ---maze
multifarious - ---diverse, of great variety
consolidate - ---to join together, merge
component - ---essential element
shard - ---fragment esp glass or pottery
comprehensive - ---all inclusive
pervasive - ---throughout, in every part
plethora - ---multiplicity, excessive amount
fracas - ---riot, flight
gratuitous - ---uncalled for, not warranted
pandemonium - ---noisy chaos, bedlam
sporadic - ---occasional, infrequent
prologue - ---introductory passage
incipient - ---beginning, budding
definitive - ---authoritative
nexus - ---connection, center

sequential - ---in order, arranged serially


conflate - ---to blend together, esp a text
quorum - ---number of members of a governing body necessary in order to proceed
troupe - ---group of performers
intrinsic - ---essential nature of a thing
orthodox - ---adhering to a strict set of beliefs
maverick - ---intrepid person, innovator
aberrant - ---deviating from the norm
enumerate - ---to count
fusion - ---merging of diverse parts into a whole
dichotomy - ---separation into two parts
anachronism - ---a thing or person out of place in time
fledging - ---young, inexperienced
exigent - ---needing swift action
inopportune - ---not timely, inappropriate
alacrity - ---promptness, eagerness
adjourn - ---to suspend, as a meeting
prevalent - ---common, frequent
stasis - ---stagnation, equilibrium
labile - ---unstable, open to change
equilibrium - ---state of balance
riveting - ---commanding full attention, fascinating
cessation - ---stoppage, ceasing
relinquish - ---to let go of, give up
renegade - ---an outlaw, one who is unconventional
supersede - ---to supplant
reciprocate - ---to give and take, to return, to pay back
crusade - ---a zealous campaign for a cause
seminal - ---original or relating to seed or semen
endow - ---to grant, as a gift

nugatory - ---negligible, having no effect


unassailable - ---not questionable, not doubtable
flaccid - ---limp, drooping
dynamic - ---in motion
viable - ---capable of living, capable of working
proliferate - ---multiply, procreate
fallow - ---barren, not cultivated or sown
fabricate - ---to create
incubation - ---period of gestation
susceptible - ---prone to, open to
propensity - ---inclination
collaborate - ---to work together, cooperate
connive - ---to conspire, to be in secret sympathy with
synchronous - ---at the same time
recalcitrant - ---stubborn, defiant
bucolic - ---pastoral, relating to country life
ubiquitous - ---everywhere, in all places
acculturate - ---to adapt to a culture
colossus - ---giant statue, very large thing
dimension - ---property of space, as in height, width, depth
burgeon - ---to bloom, flourish
contigeous - ---adjacent with, borders touching
rift - ---a gap or fissure
recapitulate - ---to repeat, sum up
tenuous - ---not solid, weak
nadir - ---low point, point opposite the zenith
rudimentary - ---basic
recumbent - ---lying down, resting
buttress - ---supporting piece of a structure, strengthen, support
transpose - ---change from one place to mode to another

facade - ---false front


peripheral - ---outside, surrounding, auxiliary
nucleate - ---to cluster, to form a nucleus
strata - ---layer
lateral - ---sideways, on the side
amorphous - ---without shape, unclassifiable
ellipse - ---oval
tortuous - ---twisting, winding, tricky
obtuse - ---difficult to understand, unable to understand, stupid
striate - ---to stripe
constrict - ---to compress, constract
occlude - ---to obstruct, block up
dormant - ---asleep, inactive
halcyon - ---happy, prosperous, peaceful
placid - ---quiet, calm
stagnant - ---stale, foul, motionless
accelerate - ---speed up
precipitate - ---sudden or steep, rain, snow, to bring about suddenly
saunter - ---to walk in an easygoing swagger
amble - ---walk leisurely
reconnaissance - ---survey, esp military action
pulverize - ---smash into dust
avert - ---turn away, avoid
errant - ---wandering, traveling
converge - ---come together, merge
egress - ---exit
lactate - ---to produce milk
secrete - ---give off or to hide
welter - ---chaotic mess
cyclical - ---periodic and repeating

tepid - ---lukewarm, room temperature


pigment - ---coloring element in paint
spectrum - ---range of all colors, complete range
florid - ---flowery or reddish
iridescent - ---having shiny rainbow colors, shimmery
mosaic - ---picture made of many small parts such as tiles
pied - ---multi- colored and blotchy
stipple - ---speckle or fleck esp with paint, effect of many small dots
transcendental - ---abstract, supernatural
impalpable - ---not physical, not able to be touched
monolith - ---a single, huge structure, or a large organization acting as one force
hydrate - ---add water
emollient - ---lotion that moisturizes
ferrous - ---with iron
turbid - ---muddy, obscurd
arid - ---dry
aerate - ---to supply or combine with oxygen or air
resuscitate - ---to revive, renew
carrion - ---animal remains
demise - ---death, cessation
vapid - ---uninteresting, without liveliness
cloying - ---sweet, sentimental
pungent - ---strong tasting or smelling
redolent - ---aromatic, having an odor
ostensible - ---apparent, under pretext
discord - ---argument, strife
fatuous - ---foolish, silly
inane - ---silly, empty-headed
ludicrous - ---ridiculous, absurd
dilettante - ---amateur, dabbler

cogitate - ---to think hard, ponder


forage - ---look for food
peruse - ---study thoroughly
perspicacious - ---keen, mentally sharp
doctrine - ---creed, belief
naivete - ---unsophisticatedness, artlessness
belie - ---contradict, give false cover to
implausible - ---not believable
pontifical - ---like a pontiff, pope, extremely authoritative
falter - ---stumble, hesitate
relic - ---remnant, souvenir, venerated object
juggernaut - ---large vehicle that crushes anything in its path
proscribe - ---condemn, forbid
censure - ---disapprove, condemn, disapproval, condemnation
impunity - ---without fear of punishment
indictment - ---formal charge against a person
gourmand - ---one who likes to eat alot
ascetic - ---austere, disciplined
hedonist - ---one who lives for pleasure
profligate - ---extravagent, prodigal
obdurate - ---stubborn, unfeeling
altruism - ---unselfish behavior
quisling - ---traitor
veracity - ---truthfulness
probity - ---honesty
candor - ---straightforwardness, sincerity
artlessness - ---crudeness, naturalness
vituperate - ---scold with excessively harsh language
tirade - ---long, harsh, highly critical speech
reprobate - ---depraved, condemned

culpable - ---deserving of blame


castigate - ---scold severely
countenance - ---face, expression or allow to happen
approbation - ---praise, approval
adulation - ---admiration
travesty - ---mockery, parody
derision - ---scorning, ridicule
vindictive - ---vengeful, spiteful
truculent - ---ferocious, extremely harsh
affable - ---friendly, pleasant
urbane - ---sophisticated, wordly
lionize - ---make much of
aggrandize - ---praise greatly, make seem greater
effrontery - ---boldness
grandiloquent - ---having high sounding speech
spurious - ---false, fradulent
timorous - ---timid, fearful
redoubtable - ---formidable, illustrious
aesthetic - ---artistic, relating to beauty
unprepossessing - ---homely, plain
tentative - ---hesitantm, uncertain
discreet - ---having good judgment, prudent
daunt - ---subdue or tame
solicitude - ---over-attentive care, anxiety
disquiet - ---disturb or upset
commodious - ---having ample space
exacerbate - ---aggravate, make worse
contrite - ---sorry, repentant
levity - ---lightness, good humor
querulous - ---complaining, whining

pique - ---offense, resentment, provoke or excite


intuitive - ---known through immediate insight not gained through rational thought
sybil - ---witch
meticulous - ---extremely careful, fastidious
prescience - ---ability to foretell events
intelligible - ---understandable, comprehensible
limpid - ---clear, serene, transparent`
inadvertence - ---oversight, unwillingness
concede - ---to yield, grant
retract - ---take back, recant
ideology - ---set of beliefs
temperament - ---disposition, sensibility
peer - ---equal
chauvinist - ---extreme patriot, one who believes one group is superior to another
contend - ---fight with, oppose
scruple - ---have moral qualms about, moral principle
concur - ---agree
prattle - ---babble, as a child
oblivious - ---unknowing, unheeding
arcane - ---secret, esoteric
conundrum - ---riddle, puzzle
allusive - ---referring to or hinting t something esp in literature
elucidate - ---make clear, explain
flagrant - ---bold, open, apparent
salient - ---noticeable, prominent
erudition - ---knowledge, esp gained from books
proctor - ---one who supervises students at an exam
charade - ---pretense
hallmark - ---distinguishing mark
vestige - ---remnant, trace

tapestry - ---decorative wall hanging


vernacular - ---common speech, ordinary language
concise - ---exact
terse - ---short, curt
circuitous - ---round-about, indirect
superfluity - ---excess
verbiage - ---excessive wordiness
gregarious - ---outgoing, friendly
loquacioius - ---extremely talkative and articulate
prate - ---chatter, talk meaninglessly
voluble - ---fluent, talkative
discourse - ---conversation, long paper or speech on a subject
runic - ---like runes, mysterious, secret
reticent - ---not talkative
cryptic - ---encoded, secret, indecipherable
esoteric - ---hidden, available only to the initiate
eclipse - ---overshadowing, esp sun or moon
latent - ---potential, hidden quality
apocryphal - ---spurious, not genuine
dissemble - ---lie
prevaricate - ---lie
simulate - ---imitate, make seem real
hyperbole - ---excessive exaggeration
tout - ---solicit or promote
seine - ---fishnet
amenable - ---agreeable, obediant
diffident - ---shy, reserved
adamant - ---hard, unyielding, very hard stone
implacable - ---not able to be changed
intransigent - ---stubborn, uncompromising

obstinate - ---stubborn, unmoving


ambivalent - ---uncertain, having conflicting feelings
fluctuate - ---vary widely
caprice - ---impulsive action, whim
fickle - ---changeable, not constant
impromptu - ---spontaneous, spur of the moment
abscond - ---run away secretly
elusive - ---difficult to find or pin down
parry - ---fend off, dodge
shirk - ---neglect or ignore
aspiration - ---hope, ambition, breathing in
avarice - ---greed
proclivity - ---tendency
predestine - ---determined ahead of time
instigate - ---urge, incite
inveigle - ---acquire through sneakiness
piquant - ---spicy, as in hot sauce, stimulating, provocative
tantalize - ---tease, give taste of
profuse - ---plentiful
Amalgamation - ---a combination
Analgesic - ---capable of relieving pain
Anthropocentrism - ---theory that regards humans as the central element of the
universe
Avuncular - ---resembling an uncle in kindness or indulgence
Bromide - ---a common saying
Byzantine - ---highly complex or intricate
Cacophony - ---harsh, jarring sound
Calumny - ---a false statement intended to harm someone's reputation
Canonical - ---authorized or accepted
Chicanery - ---the use of tricks to deceive someone

Churlish - ---rude and vulgar


Circumlocution - ---an indirect way of expressing something
Concomitant - ---existing or occurring at the same time
Corpulent - ---excessively fat
Cumbersome - ---clumsy, awkward, and heavy
Demarcate - ---set, mark, or draw the boundaries of something
Disenfranchise - ---to deprive of voting rights
Draconian - ---harsh and severe
Egalitarian - ---characterized by the belief in equal rights for all people
Egregious - ---outrageously bad or offensive
Emollient - ---having a softening or soothing effect, especially to the skin
Ephemeral - ---lasting a very short time
Epistolary - ---relating to letters
Erudition - ---knowledge gained from study
Exculpate - ---to clear from blame
Exegesis - ---an explanation or critical interpretation
Flotsam - ---useless discarded items
Foible - ---a minor flaw or weakness of character
Fomentation - ---a push for trouble or rebellion
Foppish - ---affecting extreme elegance in dress and manner
Gustatory - ---relating to the sense of taste
Halcyon - ---joyful, peaceful, or prosperous
Histrionic - ---overly dramatic
Ignominious - ---disgraceful and shameful
Impious - ---lacking respect or devotion, usually for a god or religion
Impute - ---to attribute or credit to
Inchoate - ---in the early stages of development
Inimical - ---harmful or hostile
Insidious - ---intended to entrap, deceive, or harm
Invidious - ---intended to hurt, offend or discriminate

Irascible - ---quickly aroused by anger


Lexicography - ---the act of writing dictionaries
Loquacious - ---extremely talkative
Lugubrious - ---excessively mournful, sad and gloomy
Malediction - ---a curse
Malodorous - ---having an unpleasant smell
Melange - ---a mixture
Mendicant - ---begging
Morass - ---difficult situation
Moratorium - ---suspension of an ongoing activity
Munificent - ---very generous
Myopic - ---lacking long-term vision
Nascent - ---being born or beginning
Neophyte - ---a beginner
Nihilism - ---belief in the rejection of rules and the destruction of social and political
order
Obfuscate - ---to confuse or make unclear
Obstreperous - ---noisy and difficult to control
Panacea - ---a cure for all diseases, or a solution to all problems
Parsimonious - ---extremely reluctant to spend money
Penurious - ---stingy and frugal or extremely poor
Perfidious - ---tending to betray
Pernicious - ---exceedingly harmful
Perquisite - ---a payment or benefit in addition to one's regular pay
Picayune - ---small and of little importance
Polyglot - ---able to speak, read, or write in many languages
Potentate - ---a powerful ruler
Progenitor - ---a direct ancestor or originator
Proletarian - ---of the working class
Proselytize - ---to convert someone to another belief, religion, party, or cause

Pugnacious - ---tending to quarrel or fight easily


Punctilious - ---marked by precise accordance with details
Quixotic - ---not sensible about practical matters; idealistic and unrealistic
Raiment - ---clothes
Recalcitrant - ---stubbornly resistant to authority or control
Remuneration - ---payment
Rhapsodize - ---to talk with great enthusiasm
Schism - ---division of a group into opposing factions
Sentient - ---experiencing sense perception and consciousness
Sibilant - ---having a hissing sound
Somnolent - ---sleepy or drowsy
Sonorous - ---full and loud and deep, as a sound
Sophistry - ---a false argument meant to trick someone
Soporific - ---tending to make sleepy or drowsy
Specious - ---plausible but false
Stevedore - ---a laborer who loads and unloads vessels in a port
Stricture - ---a criticism
Stultify - ---to make one appear foolish, stupid, or useless
Supercilious - ---having an arrogant appearance
Temerity - ---fearless, daring
Tinder - ---easily combustible material used for starting a fire
Treacly - ---overly sweet or sentimental
Truncate - ---shorten by cutting off
Turpitude - ---vile, shameful behavior
Unctuous - ---unpleasantly and excessively suave
Vainglorious - ---feeling excessive self-importance or pride for one's own
accomplishment
Verisimilitude - ---the appearance of truth, the quality of seeming to be true
Vitiate - ---to make imperfect, to corrupt
Vitriolic - ---harsh or corrosive in tone

indigenous - ---native, originating in a place


subjective - ---relating to the mind as the subject of experience
paradox - ---seeming contradiction or an actual contradiction
anomalous - ---irregular, unusual
viscous - ---having a thick consistency, gelatinous
ephemeral - ---fleeting, or short life or duration
corroborate - ---to confirm or make certain
implicit - ---implied, tacitly understood
lucid - ---clear, understandable
prodigal - ---foolishly generous, not thrifty
feign - ---to pretend
specious - ---having the deceptive look of truth
arbitrary - ---random, capricious, impartial
intrepid - ---bold, fearless
antagonism - ---hostility, enmity
antipathy - ---strong feeling against, dislike for
dogma - ---firmly held disbelief
pertinent - ---clearly relevant
variance - ---difference, disagreement
incompatible - ---not well matched, unsuited
isolate - ---to separate and make alone or single
sever - ---to cut off completely
synthesis - ---the combination of diverse elements into one
engender - ---to create, foster
discrete - ---distinct, separate
disperse - ---to spread out
eccentric - ---unusual, strange
redundant - ---repetitive, and thus unnecessary
precursor - ---a necessary predecessor
defer - ---to postpone or to submit to another

catalyst - ---a thing that sets another in motion or causes change


disarm - ---to deprive of weapons or to win over, ingratiate
prone - ---inclined, or the position of lying face down
profound - ---deep, thoughtful
torque - ---rotational force, twist
digress - ---to move away from
diverge - ---to go apart in different directions
tangential - ---peripheral, no on the subject at hand
porous - ---having pores, having minute holes
plummet - ---to fall suddenly
circumlocution - ---excessive speaking, wordiness
perturb - ---to disquiet, upset
opaque - ---not transparent, not letting light through
impenetrable - ---unable to penetrate, pierced
desiccate - ---to dry out, dehydrate
phenomenon - ---an occurrence
tacit - ---unspoken yet understood
whimsy - ---caprice, a playful thing
abstract - ---theoretical or to summarize or a summary
inherent - ---in the essential nature of a thing
dubious - ---doubtful, questionable
platitude - ---a trite saying, bromide
fallacy - ---a logical flaw, mistake
demur - ---to hesitate, protest
assert - ---to state without need of proof
refute - ---to disprove, to argue against
inquisitive - ---curious, seeking knowledge
mundane - ---everything, pedestrain
coherent - ---intelligible, consistent
equivocal - ---wavering, vacillating

harangue - ---long, complaining speech


jargon - ---specialized vocabulary
succinct - ---concise, stating in few words
diffuse - ---to spread thinly, or scattered
articulate - ---well- spoken, intelligible, speak clearly and distinctly
garrulous - ---extremely talkative
orate - ---to make a speech, esp. pompously
laconic - ---few words, reticent
obscure - ---to hide or hidden, vague, not easily understood
chicanery - ---flim-flam, trickery
furtive - ---secret, sneaky
volatile - ---unstable, likely to explode or vaporize
extemporize - ---to speak spontaneously
zealot - ---one who has great enthusiasm esp for a cause
espouse - ---to take to oneself, to adopt a belief
provocative - ---tending to simulate
superfluous - ---excess, extra
expend - ---to use up
malevolent - ---evil, having evil intent
paragon - ---an ideal, perfect model
nullify - ---negate, make invalid
consummate - ---complete, accomplish, perfect, to a high degree
arduous - ---difficult, strenuous
felicity - ---happiness, pleasantness
prodigy - ---very talented child
guile - ---cunning, trickery
ingenious - ---extremely clever, original
imperative - ---necessary, immediately important
constrain - ---restrict, confine
suppress - ---keep secret, contain, inhibit

capitulate - ---give in, surrender


obsequious - ---sycophantic-flatter, fawning
placate - ---please, pacify
affluent - ---wealthy
zeal - ---fanatical enthusiasm
inhibit - ---restrain, forbid
plasticity - ---malleability, stretchiness
cynic - ---one who has an attitude of contempt, distrust
bolster - ---support
resolute - ---determined, faithful
connoisseur - ---one who appreciates fine things
decorous - ---in good taste, very proper
euphemism - ---mild word or phrase substituted for an offensive one
pedantic - ---overly scholarly
bombast - ---pompous speech
arrogant - ---overbearing, proud
misanthrope - ---one who hates humanity
jeer - ---taunt, deride
disingenuous - ---seemingly honest while not being so
propriety - ---appropriateness, social acceptability
heretic - ---one who holds unorthodox or unapproved beliefs
authentic - ---genuine, trustworthy
eradicate - ---to eliminate completely
gist - ---general meeting, essence
objective - ---empirically provable, existing independently
affiliation - ---connecting, association
apposite - ---relevant, to the point
antithesis - ---direct opposite
heterogeneous - ---mixed, made up of unlike elements
stereotype - ---generalized judgment of a group

paradigm - ---model, theoretical framework


precedent - ---earlier example setting a rule
conform - ---adapt or compliant with
correspond - ---to match, to conform, to parallel
dissent - ---to disagree
nuance - ---slight distinction
negligible - ---insignificant, not to be considered
trivial - ---minor, not important
subordinate - ---depending on, subservient
depletion - ---lessening
alloy - ---mixture esp of metal
eclectic - ---having varying elements
convoluted - ---intricate, coiled, twisted
inextricable - ---not able to be untangled
labyrinth - ---maze
multifarious - ---diverse, of great variety
consolidate - ---to join together, merge
component - ---essential element
shard - ---fragment esp glass or pottery
comprehensive - ---all inclusive
pervasive - ---throughout, in every part
plethora - ---multiplicity, excessive amount
fracas - ---riot, flight
gratuitous - ---uncalled for, not warranted
pandemonium - ---noisy chaos, bedlam
sporadic - ---occasional, infrequent
prologue - ---introductory passage
incipient - ---beginning, budding
definitive - ---authoritative
nexus - ---connection, center

sequential - ---in order, arranged serially


conflate - ---to blend together, esp a text
quorum - ---number of members of a governing body necessary in order to proceed
troupe - ---group of performers
intrinsic - ---essential nature of a thing
orthodox - ---adhering to a strict set of beliefs
maverick - ---intrepid person, innovator
aberrant - ---deviating from the norm
enumerate - ---to count
fusion - ---merging of diverse parts into a whole
dichotomy - ---separation into two parts
anachronism - ---a thing or person out of place in time
fledging - ---young, inexperienced
exigent - ---needing swift action
inopportune - ---not timely, inappropriate
alacrity - ---promptness, eagerness
adjourn - ---to suspend, as a meeting
prevalent - ---common, frequent
stasis - ---stagnation, equilibrium
labile - ---unstable, open to change
equilibrium - ---state of balance
riveting - ---commanding full attention, fascinating
cessation - ---stoppage, ceasing
relinquish - ---to let go of, give up
renegade - ---an outlaw, one who is unconventional
supersede - ---to supplant
reciprocate - ---to give and take, to return, to pay back
crusade - ---a zealous campaign for a cause
seminal - ---original or relating to seed or semen
endow - ---to grant, as a gift

nugatory - ---negligible, having no effect


unassailable - ---not questionable, not doubtable
flaccid - ---limp, drooping
dynamic - ---in motion
viable - ---capable of living, capable of working
proliferate - ---multiply, procreate
fallow - ---barren, not cultivated or sown
fabricate - ---to create
incubation - ---period of gestation
susceptible - ---prone to, open to
propensity - ---inclination
collaborate - ---to work together, cooperate
connive - ---to conspire, to be in secret sympathy with
synchronous - ---at the same time
recalcitrant - ---stubborn, defiant
bucolic - ---pastoral, relating to country life
ubiquitous - ---everywhere, in all places
acculturate - ---to adapt to a culture
colossus - ---giant statue, very large thing
dimension - ---property of space, as in height, width, depth
burgeon - ---to bloom, flourish
contigeous - ---adjacent with, borders touching
rift - ---a gap or fissure
recapitulate - ---to repeat, sum up
tenuous - ---not solid, weak
nadir - ---low point, point opposite the zenith
rudimentary - ---basic
recumbent - ---lying down, resting
buttress - ---supporting piece of a structure, strengthen, support
transpose - ---change from one place to mode to another

facade - ---false front


peripheral - ---outside, surrounding, auxiliary
nucleate - ---to cluster, to form a nucleus
strata - ---layer
lateral - ---sideways, on the side
amorphous - ---without shape, unclassifiable
ellipse - ---oval
tortuous - ---twisting, winding, tricky
obtuse - ---difficult to understand, unable to understand, stupid
striate - ---to stripe
constrict - ---to compress, constract
occlude - ---to obstruct, block up
dormant - ---asleep, inactive
halcyon - ---happy, prosperous, peaceful
placid - ---quiet, calm
stagnant - ---stale, foul, motionless
accelerate - ---speed up
precipitate - ---sudden or steep, rain, snow, to bring about suddenly
saunter - ---to walk in an easygoing swagger
amble - ---walk leisurely
reconnaissance - ---survey, esp military action
pulverize - ---smash into dust
avert - ---turn away, avoid
errant - ---wandering, traveling
converge - ---come together, merge
egress - ---exit
lactate - ---to produce milk
secrete - ---give off or to hide
welter - ---chaotic mess
cyclical - ---periodic and repeating

tepid - ---lukewarm, room temperature


pigment - ---coloring element in paint
spectrum - ---range of all colors, complete range
florid - ---flowery or reddish
iridescent - ---having shiny rainbow colors, shimmery
mosaic - ---picture made of many small parts such as tiles
pied - ---multi- colored and blotchy
stipple - ---speckle or fleck esp with paint, effect of many small dots
transcendental - ---abstract, supernatural
impalpable - ---not physical, not able to be touched
monolith - ---a single, huge structure, or a large organization acting as one force
hydrate - ---add water
emollient - ---lotion that moisturizes
ferrous - ---with iron
turbid - ---muddy, obscurd
arid - ---dry
aerate - ---to supply or combine with oxygen or air
resuscitate - ---to revive, renew
carrion - ---animal remains
demise - ---death, cessation
vapid - ---uninteresting, without liveliness
cloying - ---sweet, sentimental
pungent - ---strong tasting or smelling
redolent - ---aromatic, having an odor
ostensible - ---apparent, under pretext
discord - ---argument, strife
fatuous - ---foolish, silly
inane - ---silly, empty-headed
ludicrous - ---ridiculous, absurd
dilettante - ---amateur, dabbler

cogitate - ---to think hard, ponder


forage - ---look for food
peruse - ---study thoroughly
perspicacious - ---keen, mentally sharp
doctrine - ---creed, belief
naivete - ---unsophisticatedness, artlessness
belie - ---contradict, give false cover to
implausible - ---not believable
pontifical - ---like a pontiff, pope, extremely authoritative
falter - ---stumble, hesitate
relic - ---remnant, souvenir, venerated object
juggernaut - ---large vehicle that crushes anything in its path
proscribe - ---condemn, forbid
censure - ---disapprove, condemn, disapproval, condemnation
impunity - ---without fear of punishment
indictment - ---formal charge against a person
gourmand - ---one who likes to eat alot
ascetic - ---austere, disciplined
hedonist - ---one who lives for pleasure
profligate - ---extravagent, prodigal
obdurate - ---stubborn, unfeeling
altruism - ---unselfish behavior
quisling - ---traitor
veracity - ---truthfulness
probity - ---honesty
candor - ---straightforwardness, sincerity
artlessness - ---crudeness, naturalness
vituperate - ---scold with excessively harsh language
tirade - ---long, harsh, highly critical speech
reprobate - ---depraved, condemned

culpable - ---deserving of blame


castigate - ---scold severely
countenance - ---face, expression or allow to happen
approbation - ---praise, approval
adulation - ---admiration
travesty - ---mockery, parody
derision - ---scorning, ridicule
vindictive - ---vengeful, spiteful
truculent - ---ferocious, extremely harsh
affable - ---friendly, pleasant
urbane - ---sophisticated, wordly
lionize - ---make much of
aggrandize - ---praise greatly, make seem greater
effrontery - ---boldness
grandiloquent - ---having high sounding speech
spurious - ---false, fradulent
timorous - ---timid, fearful
redoubtable - ---formidable, illustrious
aesthetic - ---artistic, relating to beauty
unprepossessing - ---homely, plain
tentative - ---hesitantm, uncertain
discreet - ---having good judgment, prudent
daunt - ---subdue or tame
solicitude - ---over-attentive care, anxiety
disquiet - ---disturb or upset
commodious - ---having ample space
exacerbate - ---aggravate, make worse
contrite - ---sorry, repentant
levity - ---lightness, good humor
querulous - ---complaining, whining

pique - ---offense, resentment, provoke or excite


intuitive - ---known through immediate insight not gained through rational thought
sybil - ---witch
meticulous - ---extremely careful, fastidious
prescience - ---ability to foretell events
intelligible - ---understandable, comprehensible
limpid - ---clear, serene, transparent`
inadvertence - ---oversight, unwillingness
concede - ---to yield, grant
retract - ---take back, recant
ideology - ---set of beliefs
temperament - ---disposition, sensibility
peer - ---equal
chauvinist - ---extreme patriot, one who believes one group is superior to another
contend - ---fight with, oppose
scruple - ---have moral qualms about, moral principle
concur - ---agree
prattle - ---babble, as a child
oblivious - ---unknowing, unheeding
arcane - ---secret, esoteric
conundrum - ---riddle, puzzle
allusive - ---referring to or hinting t something esp in literature
elucidate - ---make clear, explain
flagrant - ---bold, open, apparent
salient - ---noticeable, prominent
erudition - ---knowledge, esp gained from books
proctor - ---one who supervises students at an exam
charade - ---pretense
hallmark - ---distinguishing mark
vestige - ---remnant, trace

tapestry - ---decorative wall hanging


vernacular - ---common speech, ordinary language
concise - ---exact
terse - ---short, curt
circuitous - ---round-about, indirect
superfluity - ---excess
verbiage - ---excessive wordiness
gregarious - ---outgoing, friendly
loquacioius - ---extremely talkative and articulate
prate - ---chatter, talk meaninglessly
voluble - ---fluent, talkative
discourse - ---conversation, long paper or speech on a subject
runic - ---like runes, mysterious, secret
reticent - ---not talkative
cryptic - ---encoded, secret, indecipherable
esoteric - ---hidden, available only to the initiate
eclipse - ---overshadowing, esp sun or moon
latent - ---potential, hidden quality
apocryphal - ---spurious, not genuine
dissemble - ---lie
prevaricate - ---lie
simulate - ---imitate, make seem real
hyperbole - ---excessive exaggeration
tout - ---solicit or promote
seine - ---fishnet
amenable - ---agreeable, obediant
diffident - ---shy, reserved
adamant - ---hard, unyielding, very hard stone
implacable - ---not able to be changed
intransigent - ---stubborn, uncompromising

obstinate - ---stubborn, unmoving


ambivalent - ---uncertain, having conflicting feelings
fluctuate - ---vary widely
caprice - ---impulsive action, whim
fickle - ---changeable, not constant
impromptu - ---spontaneous, spur of the moment
abscond - ---run away secretly
elusive - ---difficult to find or pin down
parry - ---fend off, dodge
shirk - ---neglect or ignore
aspiration - ---hope, ambition, breathing in
avarice - ---greed
proclivity - ---tendency
predestine - ---determined ahead of time
instigate - ---urge, incite
inveigle - ---acquire through sneakiness
piquant - ---spicy, as in hot sauce, stimulating, provocative
tantalize - ---tease, give taste of
profuse - ---plentiful
Cannot be false - def - ---Must be true
Cannot be true - opposite - ---could be true
Cannot be false - opposite - ---not necessarily true
Could be false - def - ---not necessarily true
Could be false - opposite - ---Must be true
Could be true - opposite - ---Cannot be true
Must be false - def - ---cannot be true
Must be false - opposite - ---could be true
Must be true - opposite - ---not necessarily true
As indicated by - ---premise
Because - ---premise

Due to - ---premise
For - ---premise
For example - ---premise
For the reason that - ---premise
Given that - ---premise
In that - ---premise
Owing to - ---premise
Since - ---premise
this can be seen by - ---premise
All - ---sufficient
Any - ---sufficient
Every - ---sufficient
If in order to - ---sufficient
People who - ---sufficient
When - ---sufficient
Whenever - ---sufficient
Not necessarily true - opposite - ---must be true
Not necessarily false - def - ---could be true
Not necessarily false - opposite - ---cannot be true
Then - ---Necessary
Only - ---Necessary
Only if - ---Necessary
Must - ---Necessary
Required - ---Necessary
Until - ---Necessary
Except - ---Necessary
Unless - ---Necessary
Without - ---Necessary
inconsistent - ---2 things that cannot be true
consistent - ---2 things that CAN be true

If it is snowing, then it must be cold. - ---If S happens then C happens.


It is snowing only if it is cold. - ---If S happens then C happens
It cannot snow unless it is cold. - ---If S happens then C happens
We know it is cold if it is snowing. - ---If S happens then C happens
Sierra goes for a walk if and only if Columbine goes for a walk. - ---Both or us go or
neither of us go
Sara cannot be second unless Trang is first. - ---If S is second then T is first. Or if T is
not first then S is not second. (Get rid of the cannot - arrow through the unless)
Cannot/Unless - ---Get rid of the cannot - arrow through the unless
R B - ---No person who buys the red shirt does not buy the blue shirt.

If someone buys the red shirt, that person buys the blue shirt. In other words,
buying the blue shirt is a necessary condition for buying the red shirt.

Since it is impossible to buy the red shirt without also buying the blue shirt, buying
the blue shirt is a necessary condition for buying the red shirt. In other words, one
can't buy the red shirt without buying the blue shirt, too.
Jameson does not attend the concert unless Steve does. - ---J --> S
Most - ---51% or more
Most + Most - ---Some
Some - ---1 to everyone
Some + Some - ---some or most
On the day after the day - ---2 days next to each other
impugn - ---Dispute the truth
inculcate - ---Instill by persistent instruction
petulance - ---irritable, peevish, or impatient
preceding - ---come before
Fewer than three - ---two or less
efficacy - ---the capacity to produce an effect
transgression - ---A violation of a law, command, or duty
A occurred before B, so A must have caused B. - ---Common Causal Flaw
A and B tend to occur together, so A must cause B. - ---Common Causal Flaw

A is one possible cause, so A must be the only cause. - ---Common Causal Flaw
Weaken a causal argument - ---Provide an alternate cause
Show that cause and effect are reversed
Show there is no causal relationship (merely a coincidence)
Reading comprehension 4 points - ---Cast of Characters
Author's Opinion
Main Idea
Passage Structure
Reading Comprehension pay attention - ---What's interesting
What questions would you ask yourself
Any ideas that are compared or contrasted
Predictions
unprecedented - ---Never done or known before
immediately/far - ---be on the look out
some/most - ---be on the look out
~h --> s - ---not s --> h can have both but must have at least one
h --> ~ s - ---s --> not h can have none but not both
If wrens are in the forest, then so are grosbeaks. - ---W--> G or no G --> no W
If harriers are in the forest, then grosbeaks are not. - ---H --> no G or G --> no H (not
both)
If jays, martins, or both are in the forest, then so are harriers. - ---J or M --> H or no
H --> no J and no M
Wendy appears in every photograph that Selma appears in. - ---S -> W
Raimundo appears in every photograh that Yakira does not appear in - ---Not Y--> R
because of - ---causal term
caused by - ---causal term
determined by - ---causal term
is an effect of - ---causal term
induced by - ---causal term
leads to - ---causal term
promoted by - ---causal term

produced by - ---causal term


played a role in - ---causal term
product of - ---causal term
responsible for - ---causal term
reason for - ---causal term
was a factor in - ---causal term
Socrates is a man
All men are mortal - ---Socrates is mortal
No budget committee member serves on the planning committee. - ---P -->not B
Neither giraffes nor bears are on display - ---no giraffes and no bears. Make sure
that you are looking at the NOT ~ conditional.
Some professors at the school teach Spanish.
Some Spanish teachers have been to Spain. - ---This tells you nothing because you
don't know that the Spanish teachers are from the school.
Tautology - ---needless repetition of an idea, statement, or word
Two types of Conclusions - ---Descriptive or Prescriptive which are either absolute or
possible.
Types of Descriptive Conclusion - ---1. Assertions of Truth
2. Comparisons
3.Predictions
4.Conditionals
Define Assertion of Truth - ---In an Assertion of Truth, the author states that
something is or is not the case.
"So, there are always situations in which it is healthy to try to express one's anger."
"Clearly, then, our patrons prefer not to eat potatoes."
Comparison - ---In a Comparison, the author makes a claim about one thing in
relation to another thing.
"This advantage makes B.t. toxins preferable tochemical insecticides for use as
components of insect pest management programs."
"On the basis of these results the official concluded that the new pesticide was more
effective thanthe old pesticide, at least in the short term, in limiting the loss of
certain fruit to insects."

Prediction - ---In a Prediction, the author states what will happen or what is likely to
happen in the future.
"So once humans begin to tap into this tremendous source of creativity and
innovation, many problems that today seem insurmountable will be within our
ability to solve."
Conditional - ---In a Conditional, the author states the conclusion in terms of,
"if...then..."
"Clearly, ifyou buy a Sturdimade, you can rely on being able to drive it for a very
long distance."
"So ifthey were not so brittle, one could reliably determine a rattlesnake's age
simply from the number of sections in its rattle."
Prescriptive Conclusion - ---Prescriptive Conclusionsstate what "should" or "ought" to
be the case.
Prescriptive Conclusions are always some form of recommendation.
Recommendation Conclusion - ---In a Recommendation, the author proposes a
course of action.
"Additional restrictions should be placed on driver's licenses of teenagers."
"So individuals who want to reduce their risk of cancer should reduce their fat
intake."
Absolute Certainty - ---Absolute

Something definitely is or is not the case.


A course of action should definitely be undertaken.
Possible Certainty - ---Something is likely or maybe the case.
A course of action should perhaps be undertaken.
Ways that author supports conclusion. - ---Offer an alternative explanation?
Eliminate possible alternative explanations?
Apply a general principle to a specific case?
Argue by analogy?
Use an example to prove a point?
Cite a relevant authority?
How should you attack a Method of Argument question? - ---1. Identify what the
question is asking you to do.
What is your job?

2. Engage the stimulus as directed by the question.


How do you do your job?
3. Consider the requirements of the correct answer.
What should the correct answer look like?
4. Evaluate the choices looking for the correct answer.
Which answer looks like your prediction?
Eliminate answer choices that do not accurately describe the author's method of
reasoning.
What is the evidence and the conclusion?

It is inaccurate to say that a diet high in refined sugar cannot cause adult-onset
diabetes, since a diet high in refined sugar can make a person overweight, and
being overweight can predispose a person to adult-onset diabetes. - ---Evidence:
A diet high in refined sugar can make a person overweight.
Being overweight can predispose a person to adult-onset diabetes.

Conclusion: It is inaccurate to say that a diet high in refined sugar cannot cause
adult-onset diabetes.

Method of Argument:
It is inaccurate to say that A cannot cause C because A can cause B and B can
cause C.
Any language learned by the geologist is learned by the the historian. - ---g --> h
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true? ---Must Be True
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage? - ---Must Be
True
The main point of the argument is that - ---Main Point
Larew and Mendota disagree about whether - ---Point at Issue
Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above? ---Assumption
Which one of the following, if assumed, allows the conclusion above to be properly
drawn? - ---Justify

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? - ---Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above ---Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively resolve the apparent
paradox above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? ---Weaken
Which one of the following describes the technique of reasoning used above? ---Method
The reasoning in the astronomer's argument is flawed because this argument ---Flaw
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to
the argument above? - ---Parallel
The answer to which one of the following questions would contribute most to an
evaluation of the argument? - ---Evaluate
If the statements above are true, which one of the following CANNOT be true? ---Cannot Be True
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the viewpoint of the
historians described above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Rosen's statement? ---Must Be True
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the reasoning above? ---Weaken
Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above? ---Assumption
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to
the argument above? - ---Parallel
Of the following, which one most accurately expresses the main point of the
argument? - ---Main Point
Which one of the following, if true, would provide the most support for the
economists' assertion? - ---Strengthen
The argument is flawed because it - ---Flaw
The dialogue most supports the claim that Tony and Raoul disagree about whether ---Point at Issue
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be false? ---Cannot Be True

The advertisement proceeds by - ---Method


Which one of the following, if assumed, would allow the conclusion to be properly
drawn? - ---Justify
The answer to which one of the following questions would most help in evaluating
the columnist's argument? - ---Evaluate
Sue challenges Anne's reasoning by - ---Method
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following? ---Must Be True
Each of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT - ---Strengthen X
Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument EXCEPT - ---Weaken X
Which one of the following, if all of them are true is LEAST helpful in establishing
that the conclusion above is properly drawn? - ---Strengthen X
Each of the following describes a flaw in the psychologist's reasoning EXCEPT ---Flaw X
Which one of the following, if true, does NOT help to resolve the apparent
discrepancy between the safety report and the city's public safety record? ---Resolve X
If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT ---Cannot Be True
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true? ---Must Be True
If the information above is correct, which one of the following conclusions can be
properly drawn? - ---Must Be True
Which one of the following can be inferred from the statement above? - ---Must Be
True
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage? - ---Must Be
True
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true? ---Must Be True
If the information above is correct, which one of the following conclusions can be
properly drawn on the basis of it? - ---Must Be True
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following? ---Must Be True
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above? ---Must Be True

Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage? - ---Must Be
True
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the statements above, if
they are true? - ---Must Be True
Which one of the following inferences is most supported by the information above? ---Must Be True
If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true? ---Must Be True
Which one of the following can be logically inferred from the passage? - ---Must Be
True
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which of the following? ---Must Be True
Which one of the following logically follows from the statements above? - ---Must Be
True
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above? ---Must Be True
Which one of the following conclusions is most strongly supported by the
information above? - ---Must Be True
Which one of the following inferences is most strongly supported by the information
above? - ---Must Be True
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the
argument? - ---Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the
argument? - ---Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately restates the main point of the passage?
- ---Main Point
The main point of the argument is that - ---Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the
journalist's argument? - ---Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the
argument? - ---Main Point
Which one of the following most logically completes the passage - ---Main Point (fill
in the blank)
The information above provides the LEAST support for which one of the following? ---Must Be True X
Which one of the following most logically completes the argument? - ---Main Point

The educators' reasoning provides grounds for accepting which of the following
statements? - ---Must Be True
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? ---Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the researcher's argument? ---Weaken
Which one of the following, if shown to be a realistic possibility, would undermine
the argument? - ---Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, would most call into question the analysts'
explanation of the price increase? - ---Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard's
rejection of her explanation? - ---Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest logical counter parent P can
make to parent Q's objection? - ---Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, most calls into question the claim above? ---Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion above? ---Weaken
Which one of the following statements, if true, most weakens the speaker's
argument? - ---Weaken
All of the following weakens the politician's argument EXCEPT? - ---Weaken X
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that
the argument - ---Flaw
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly strengthens the argument? ---Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above? ---Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above? ---Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, does most to justify the conclusion above? ---Strengthen
Each of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT: - ---Strengthen X
Which one of the following, if true, LEAST strengthens the argument above? ---Strengthen X
Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT - ---Strengthen
X

Which one of the following discoveries, if it were made, would most support the
above hypothesis about South America and Africa? - ---Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the medical doctor's
argument? - ---Strengthen
Each of the following, if true, strengthens the toxicologist's argument EXCEPT ---Strengthen X
Which one of the following, if true, most supports the argument - ---Strengthen
The conclusion above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed? ---Justify
Which one of the following, if assumed, would allow the conclusion to be properly
drawn? - ---Justify
Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn? ---Justify
Which one of the following, if assumed, enables the argument's conclusion to be
properly inferred? - ---Justify
Which one of the following is an assumption that would serve to justify the
conclusion above? - ---Justify
The environmentalist's conclusion would be properly drawn if it were true that the ---Justify
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed? ---Justify
Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above? ---Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends? ---Assumption
The argument assumes which one of the following? - ---Assumption
The conclusion in the passage above relies on which of the following assumptions? ---Assumption
The argument assumes which one of the following? - ---Assumption
The conclusion in the passage above relies on which one of the following
assumptions? - ---Assumption
The position taken above presupposes which one of the following? - ---Assumption
The conclusion cited does not follow unless - ---Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption that the art historian's argument
requires in order for its conclusion to be properly drawn? - ---Assumption

On which one of the following assumptions does the argument rely? - ---Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the columnist's argument
depends? - ---Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption on which Barnes's argument depends? ---Assumption
Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively resolve the apparent
paradox above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy
in the passage above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the puzzling fact cited
above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the discrepancy indicated
above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent conflict
described above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the safety experts' belief
with the apparently contrary evidence described above? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the finding of the nicotine
study? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain why raisins contain more
iron per calorie than do grapes? - ---Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the behavior of the vervet
monkeys described above? - ---Resolve
The method of the argument is to - ---Method
The argument proceeds by - ---Method
The argument derives its conclusion by - ---Method
Which one of the following describes the technique of reasoning used above? ---Method
Which one of the following is an argumentative strategy employed in the argument?
- ---Method
Which one of the following is an argumentative strategy employed in the argument?
- ---Method
The argument employs which one of the following reasoning techniques? - ---Method
Aiesha responds to Adam's argument by - ---Method

Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between
Jane's argument and Mark's argument? - ---Method
The claim that people have positive or negative responses to many nonsense words
plays which one of the following roles in the argument? - ---Method
Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the
psychologist's argument by the claim that the obligation to express gratitude
cannot be fulfilled anonymously? - ---Method
Ruth responds to Jorge's criticism by - ---Method
Sue challenges Anne's reasoning by - ---Method
Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the
argument by the statement that zooplankton feed upon phytoplankton? - ---Method
The claim that humans are still biologically adapted to a diet of wild foods plays
which one of the following roles in the nutritionist's argument? - ---Method
The phrase, "certain traits like herding ability risk being lost among pedigreed dogs"
serves which one of the following functions in the argument? - ---Method
Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument's
reasoning? - ---Flaw
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
the argument - ---Flaw
The reasoning above is flawed because it fails to recognize that - ---Flaw
A questionable aspect of the reasoning above is that it - ---Flaw
The reasoning in the argument is fallacious because the argument - ---Flaw
Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the reasoning
in the argument above? - ---Parallel
Which one of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to that
exhibited by the argument above? - ---Parallel
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its logical features to the
argument above? - ---Parallel
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to
the argument above? - ---Parallel
The structure of the reasoning in the argument above is most parallel to that in
which one of the following? - ---Parallel
Which one of the following exhibits a flawed pattern of reasoning most similar to
that in the argument above? - ---Parallel Flaw
The flawed pattern of reasoning in the argument above is most similar to that in
which one of the following? - ---Parallel Flaw

The pattern of reasoning displayed in the argument above is most closely paralleled
by that in which one of the following arguments? - ---Parallel Flaw
The questionable reasoning in the argument above is most closely paralleled by
that in which one of the following? - ---Parallel Flaw
Which one fo the following arguments exhibits flawed reasoning most similar to that
exhibited by the argument above? - ---Parallel Flaw
The flawed reasoning in which one of the following is most similar to that in the
commentator's argument? - ---Parallel Flaw
Which one of the following arguments has a flawed pattern of reasoning most like
the flawed reasoning in the argument above? - ---Parallel Flaw
Which one of the following exhibits both of the logical flaws exhibited by the
argument above? - ---Parallel Flaw
The answer to which one of the following questions would contribute most to an
evaluation of the argument? - ---Evaluate
Clarification of which one of the following issues would be most important to an
evaluation of the skeptics' position? - ---Evaluate
Which one of the following would be most important to know in evaluating the
hypothesis in the passage? - ---Evaluate
Which one of the following would it be most relevant to investigate in evaluating the
conclusion of George's argument? - ---Evaluate
Which one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to judge
whether what the scientist subsequently learned calls into question the hypothesis?
- ---Evaluate
If the statements above are true, which one of the following CANNOT be true? ---Cannot Be True
The argument can most reasonably be interpreted as an objection to which one of
the following claims? - ---Cannot Be True
The statements above, if accurate, can best be used as evidence against which one
of the following hypotheses? - ---Cannot Be True
The statements above, if true, most seriously undermine which one of the following
assertions? - ---Cannot Be True
If all of the claims made above are true, then each of the following could be true
EXCEPT: - ---Cannot Be True
If the statements above are true, then which one of the following must be false? ---Cannot Be True
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the point at issue between
Ted and Mary? - ---Point at Issue

Which one of the following most accurately represents what is at issue between
Jorge and Ruth? - ---Point at Issue
The dialogue above lends the most support to claim that Sherrie and Fran disagree
with each other about which one of the following statements? - ---Point at Issue
On the basis of their sentiment, Logan and Mendez are committed to disagreeing
over whether - ---Point at Issue
Which one of the following judgments most closely conforms to the principle above?
- ---Must PR
Which one of the following judgments best illustrates the principle illustrated by the
argument above? - ---Must PR
The principle above, if established, would justify which one of the following
judgments? - ---Must PR
The information above most closely conforms to which one of the following
principles? - ---Strengthen PR
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the principle underlying the
argumentation above? - ---Justify PR
Each of the following principles is logically consistent with the columnist's
conclusion EXCEPT - ---Cannot PR
Which one of the following principles most helps to justify the reasoning above? ---Strengthen PR
Which one of the following propositions most helps to justify the reasoning above? ---Strengthen PR
Each of the following precepts is logically consistent with the columnist's conclusion
EXCEPT - ---Cannot PR
Which one of the following most accurately conforms to the principle above? ---Must PR
The principle above conforms most to which of the following? - ---Strengthen PR
[ A _ B ] ... A in inspected __?__ B - ---before / ahead of
[ A _ B ] ... B is inspected __?__ A - ---after / behind
[ A _ _ _ B ] ... There are exactly three spaces __?__ A and B / A and B are __?__ three
spaces. - ---between / separated by
D is inspected exactly two days before E is inspected. - ---[ D _ E ]
H is inspected exactly two days ahead of when L is inspected. - ---[ H _ L ]
F marches exactly three groups behind G. - ---[ G _ _ F ]
K marches exactly three groups after J. - ---[ J _ _ K ]

R and Q are separated by four spaces, and R is ahead of Q. - ---[ R _ _ _ _ Q ]


There are four spaces between D and H, and D is behind H. - ---[ H _ _ _ _ D ]
First part (*X* --> Y) - ---If / When
Second part (X --> *Y*) - ---Then / Only / Only if / Unless
The "unless" rule - ---1. Changes the other part into the opposite.
2. The part with the unless goes last.
G does not speak fourth unless Q speaks second. - --Unless Q speaks second, G does not speak fourth. - --P sings seventh if G sings fourth. - --P sings seventh only if G sings fourth. - --T dances sixth only if P dances third - --B swims immediately after F only if D does not swim immediately ahead of K. - --Unless P swims immediately after T, J swims immediately after S. - --T dances sixth unless P dances third. - --Unless A eats cake, B cannot eat cake. - --If A sits next to B, then B does not sit next to C. - ---Most people diagram this as AB
--> -B-C-. This is incorrect!
When F dances third, then G dances 7th - --J dances fifth only if M dances second - --R jumps into the pool immediately ahead of P unless Q jumps into the pool after H. --S and T are displayed on consecutive days. - --There are two days between the day Q is inspected and the day R is inspected. - --Q is not inspected the day before R is inspected. - --D is not inspected exactly two days before E is inspected. - --Q is inspected before R is inspected. - ---Q > R
Q is inspected before R is inspected but after H is inspected. - ---H > Q > R
H and Q are both inspected before R is inspected. - --A is inspected before B, C, and D are inspected. - --F is displayed immediately prior to G, and G is displayed at some point before I. - --Either H or J must be inspected on the third day. - ---

H must be inspected on the third day or the fifth day. - --A, B, or C must be displayed on the first day. - --What is a sufficient condition? - ---an event or circumstance whose occurrence
indicates that a necessary condition must also occur.

If a sufficient occurrence occurs, then you automatically know that the necessary
condition also occurs.

If (sufficient), then (necessary)


What is a necessary condition? - ---an event or circumstance whose occurrence is
required in order for a sufficient condition to occur.

If a sufficient occurrence occurs, then you automatically know that the necessary
condition also occurs.

If (sufficient), then (necessary)


SUFFICIENT/NECESSARY CONDITIONS
If you get an A+, then you must have studied. - ---Sufficient: If you get an A +

Necessary: Then you must have studied.

Depicted as: A+ --> Study


If Chris goes fishing with Steve, then Jason will join them as well. - --Terms that introduce the sufficient condition - ---If
When
Terms that introduce the necessary condition - ---Then
Only
Only if
Unless
SUFFICIENT/NECESSARY CONDITIONS
Unless a person studies, he or she will not receive an A+. - ---

Laron performs second only if Nancy performs sixth. - --If V is displayed immediately before W, then S must be displayed third. - --If Kahlil performs first, then Martin performs at some time before Paulo. - --If R is delivered first, then X is delivered fourth. - --If R is inspected on the third day, S is not inspected on the fifth day. - --If F's delivery is earlier than M's, then L's delivery is earlier than H's. - --G is recorded earlier than H - --Z is selected during one of the first two days. - --C must sit 4 chairs behind D, and E must sit 3 chairs before C. - --Either S or T must speak on the third day. - --Tom can sit neither immediately before nor immediately after Pat. - --If J is performed fourth, K is performed sixth. - --A is not shorter than B. - --If A sits next to B, then B does not sit next to C. - --Y is inspected before both X and Z are inspected. - --M and T must be performed on consecutive days. - --R cannot be inspected first. - --Three speakers--F, G, and H--give six consecutive one-hour speeches, two speeches
per speaker. Exactly one speaker speaks during each hour. The speaker that gives
the first speech must also give the second speech. - --K must be played before L.
L must be played before M. - --If Q is displayed fourth, then R must be displayed first.
R and S are displayed consecutively. - --If Q is displayed fourth, then R must be displayed second.
R and S are displayed consecutively. - --W and X cannot speak consecutively.
X must speak third of fifth. - --Six lawyers--H, J, K, L, M, and O--must speak at a convention. The six speeches are
delivered one at a time, consecutively, according to the following restrictions:
K and L must speak consecutively.

O must speak fifth. - --A salesman must visit five families--the Browns, the Chans, the Duartes, the Egohs,
and the Feinsteins--one after another, not necessarily in that order. The visit must
conform to the following restrictions:
The Browns must be visited first or fifth.
The Feinsteins cannot be visited third.
The Chans must be visited fourth. - --A child must play five games--P, Q, R, S, and T--one after another, not necessarily in
that order. The games must be played according to the following conditions:
The child plays exactly two games between playing S and playing T, whether or not
S is played before T.
P is played immediately before Q is played. - --A doctor must see six patients--C, D, E, F, G, and H--one after another, not
necessarily in that order. The patients must be seen according to the following
conditions:
E is seen exactly three patients after C.
D is seen immediately before F is seen.

* If G is seen third, which one of the following must be true? - ---The CE split-block
must be placed into slots 1-4 because if it is placed in slots 2-5 there will be no
room for the DF block.
When M is shown first, then O is shown sixth. - ---M1 --> O6
Each rock classic is immediately preceded on the CD by a new composition. - ---[NR]
is wrong because it doesn't state that each new composition is immediately
followed by a rock classic.
B is not inspected the day before C is inspected.

C cannot be inspected second. - --A tutor is planning a daily schedule of individual tutoring sessions for each of six
students--S, T, W, X, Y, and Z. The tutor will meet with exactly one student at a
time, for exactly one hour each session. The tutor will meet students starting at 1
P.M., for six consecutive hours. - ---This is a 1-1-1-1-1-1 relationship (balanced).
Dr. Saitawa schedules six patients--G, H, L, M, O, and P--for surgery during a single
week on Monday through Friday. Dr. Saitawa will operate on exactly one patient
each day, except for one of the days when Dr. Saitawa will operate on two patients

in separate, non-simultaneous sessions. - ---This is a 2-1-1-1-1 relationship


(overloaded).

One a patient has been assigned a day, it is still possible that another patient could
be assigned to that day and thus the day is not "closed off" from further
consideration.
Seven passengers--G, H, L, M, O, P, and S are assigned to nine seats. - ---This is a 11-1-1-1-1-1-1-1 relationship (underfunded).

The deficit of variables can be countered by creating two "E" placeholder variables
to represent the two empty seats.
Six swimmers--H, J, K, L, N, and P--are assigned to six swimming lanes numbered 1
through 6. Exactly one swimmer is assigned to each lane. The lane assignments
conform to the following conditions:
Swimmer K is assigned a lower-numbered lane than is swimmer J.
Swimmer P is assigned a lower-numbered lane than is swimmer K. - --Five dogs--an Akita, a Bulldog, a Cocker Spaniel, a Doberman, and an English
Settler--compete in the final round of a dog show. Each dog will be shown alone to
the judges exactly once in accordance with the following conditions:
The Doberman can be shown neither immediately before nor immediately after the
English Settler.
The Akita must be shown two places before the Doberman.

Which one of the following must be true?


(A) If the Akita is shown third, the English Settler must be shown second.
(B) If the Bulldog is shown fourth, the Akita must be shown third.
(C) If the Cocker Spaniel is shown third, the English Settler must be shown first.
(D) If the Doberman is shown third, the Bulldog must be shown second.
(E) If the English Settler is shown second, the Cocker Spaniel must be shown fourth.
- --A manager must schedule five meetings--Accounting, Finance, Management,
Resources, and Training--during a single workweek, Monday through Friday. Each
meeting will be scheduled for exactly one day, and exactly one meeting is held per
day. The meeting schedule must observe the following constraints:
The Management meeting is held the day before the Finance meeting.

The Resources meeting is held at some time after the Finance meeting.
The Accounting meeting is held second. - --Six students--T, V, W, X, Y, and Z--are scheduled to speak at a debate contest. Each
student will speak exactly once, and no two speakers will speak at the same time.
The schedule must satisfy the following requirements:
T speaks at some time before W.
X must be the fourth speaker.
V speaks immediately after T. - --A jazz band director is selecting the songs for an evening's performance. Seven
songs--F, G, H, J, Q, R, and S--will be played one after another, not necessarily in
that order. Each song will be played exactly once, according to the following
conditions:
F must be played immediately before or immediately after G.
H must be played immediately before or immediately after J.
S must be played fourth.
G must be played after F.
H must be played before J.

Which one of the following cannot be true?


(A) F and R are played consecutively.
(B) G and Q are played consecutively.
(C) H and R are played consecutively.
(D) J and Q are played consecutively.
(E) Q and R are played consecutively. - --A college dormitory manager must assign five students--P, Q, R, S, and T--to five
different floors of the dormitory--floors 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. The assignments must
comply with the following restrictions:
P must be assigned to the floor directly above Q.
R must be assigned to floor 6. - --Seven attorneys--C, D, F, G, H, J, and K--are scheduled to interview for a position
with a local law firm. The seven interviews are conducted on six different days,
Monday through Saturday. On one of the days two attorneys will be interviewed and
on all other days exactly one attorney will be interviewed. The interview schedule
must conform to the following conditions:

F and K must be interviewed on the same day.


J must be interviewed on Thursday.
F must be interviewed after C but before G.
D and H cannot be interviewed on consecutive days.
K must be interviewed on either Tuesday or Friday.

Which one of the following could be true?


(A) C is interviewed on Wednesday.
(B) C is interviewed on Friday.
(C) D is interviewed on Tuesday.
(D) G is interviewed on Wednesday.
(E) G is interviewed on Friday. - --Each of six patrons--L, M, N, O, P, and Q--will be assigned to exactly one of seven
tables. The tables stand consecutively and are numbered 1 through 7, and each
table is assigned no more than one patron. Table assignments must meet the
following requirements:
N cannot be assigned to table 3, 5, or 7.
P and Q must sit at lower-numbered tables than M.
Tables 5, 6, and 7 must be occupied by a patron.
O sits at a higher-numbered table than M. - --There are exactly seven office buildings numbered 1 through 7 on a street. Each
building is occupied by exactly one of seven companies: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. All
of the buildings are on the same side of the street, which runs from east to west.
Building 1 is the westernmost building. The following restrictions apply:
Company A does not occupy building 1, 3, 5, or 7.
Company C occupies the building immediately to the west of Company D.
Company B occupies one of the three westernmost buildings.
Company F is the third building to the east of Company E.
The easternmost building is not occupied by Company G. - --A dance academy instructor must schedule eight dance classes--a charleston class,
a foxtrot class, a jitterbug class, a limbo class, a polka class, a rumba class, a tango
class, and a waltz class--for a single day. Exactly two classes will be scheduled at a
time, and the scheduling must be made according to the following conditions:

The limbo class and the rumba class are not scheduled for the same time.
The charleston class and the polka class must be scheduled for the same time.
The limbo class is scheduled at some time after the polka class.
The rumba class and the waltz class are not scheduled for the same time.

If the tango class is scheduled for the same time as the foxtrot class, which one of
the following must be true?
(A) The jitterbug class and the limbo class must be scheduled for the same time.
(B) The jitterbug class and the rumba class must be scheduled for the same time.
(C) The jitterbug class and the waltz class must be scheduled for the same time.
(D) The limbo class and the rumba class must be scheduled for the same time.
(E) The rumba class and the waltz class must be scheduled for the same time. ---Answer choice (B) is correct. If F is scheduled with T, then only J remains to be
paired with R.
A driver must pick up exactly eight passengersP, R, S, T, V, X, Y, and Zone at a
time, not necessarily in that order. The pickups must be made in accordance with
the following conditions:
Either T or V must be picked up fifth.
Either Y or Z must be picked up third.
The driver picks up exactly one passenger between picking up T and picking up Z.
S is picked up eighth when Y is picked up third.
Z must be picked up ahead of T.

If V is picked up fifth, which one of the following must be true?


(A) P is picked up first.
(B) R is picked up sixth.
(C) S is picked up eighth.
(D) X is picked up seventh.
(E) Z is picked up sixth. - ---Answer choice (C) is correct. If V is picked up fifth, Y
must be picked up third, and when Y is picked up third then S must be picked up
eighth.

A doctor must schedule nine patientsL, M, O, P, R, S, T, V, and Xduring a given


week, Monday through Sunday. At least one patient must be scheduled for each
day, and the schedule must observe the following constraints:
M and S must be scheduled for the same day.
On the day P is scheduled, P must be the only patient scheduled to see the doctor.
Exactly one patient is scheduled for Wednesday.
T cannot be scheduled for Thursday.
If P is scheduled for Monday, then V and X must be scheduled for Saturday.
R is not scheduled for Thursday unless L is scheduled for Monday.

If L is scheduled for Monday, which one of the following must be true?


(A) R is scheduled for Thursday.
(B) V is scheduled for Saturday.
(C) S is scheduled for Saturday.
(D) P is not scheduled for Monday.
(E) V is not scheduled for Monday.

Which one of the following statements about the doctor's schedule must be true?
(A) The maximum number of patients scheduled for Monday is one.
(B) The maximum number of patients scheduled for Tuesday is two.
(C) The maximum number of patients scheduled for Friday is three.
(D) The minimum number of patients scheduled for Saturday is two.
(E) The minimum number of patients scheduled for Sunday is two. - ---Answer
choice (D) is the correct answer. If L is scheduled for Monday, then according to the
second rule P cannot be scheduled for Monday.

Answer choice (C) is correct since the maximum number of patients that can ever
be scheduled for a single day is three (3-1-1-1-1-1-1).
Opposite of "Cannot Be True" - ---Could Be True
Opposite of "Could Be True" - ---Cannot Be True
Opposite of "Not Necessarily True" - ---Must Be True
Opposite of "Must Be True" - ---Not Necessarily True

[Logical Opposition]
If G is seated second, which one of the following could be true? - ---1 = Could Be
True
4 = Cannot Be True
[Logical Opposition]
Which one of the following cannot be true? - ---1 = Cannot Be True
4 = Could Be True
[Logical Opposition]
If R is selected fifth, which one of the following must be true? - ---1 = Must Be True
4 = Not Necessarily True
[Logical Opposition]
Which one of the following must be true? - ---1 = Must Be True
4 = Not Necessarily True
[Logical Opposition]
Each of the following must be true except: - ---1 = Not Necessarily True
4 = Must Be True
"Must Be False" - ---Cannot Be True
"Not Necessarily False" - ---Could Be True
"Could Be False" - ---Not Necessarily True
"Cannot Be False" - ---Must Be True
an argument vs. a set of facts - ---An argument:

" All professors are ethical (premise). Mason is a professor (premise). So Mason is
ethical (conclusion). "

A set of facts:

" The Jacksonville area has just over one million residents. The Cincinnati area has
almost two million residents. The New York area has almost twenty million residents.
"

(a set of facts does not include a conclusion)


TIP: Always read each of the five answer choices before deciding which answer is
correct. ALWAYS choose the BEST answer. - ---TIP: On average, you have 1 minute
and 25 seconds to complete each question.
What is a premise? - ---A fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is
made.

A premise gives a reason why something should be believed.

"What reasons has the author used to persuade me? Why should I believe this
argument? What evidence exists?"
What is a conclusion? - ---A statement or judgement that follows from one or more
reasons.

A conclusion is the point the author tries to prove by using another statement.

"What is the author driving at? What does the author want me to believe? What
point follows from the others?"
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Humans cannot live on Venus because the surface temperature is too high. - ---P:
because the surface temperature is too high.
C: Humans cannot live on Venus.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The economy is in tatters. Therefore, we must end this war. - ---P: The economy is in
tatters.
C: Therefore, we must end this war.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
We must reduce our budget due to the significant cost overruns we experienced
during production. - ---P: due to the significant cost overruns we experienced during
production.

C: we must reduce our budget.


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Fraud has cost the insurance industry

millions of dollars in lost revenue. Thus, congress will pass a stricter fraud control
bill since the insurance industry has one of the most powerful lobbies. - ---P1: fraud
has cost the insurance industry millions of dollars in lost revenue.

P2: since the insurance industry has one of the most powerful lobbies.

C: thus, congress will pass a stricter fraud control bill.


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The data show that people who eat chocolate are generally happy people. As a
result, more and more people are buying chocolates. - ---P: people who eat
chocolate are generally happy people.

C: more and more people are buying chocolates.


TIP: Always identify the conclusion, if one exists. - ---TIP:
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Therefore, since higher debt has forced consumers to lower their savings, they now
have less money to loan. - ---P: since higher debt has forced consumers to lower
their savings

C: therefore, banks now have less money to loan.


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Given that the price of steel is rising, we will no longer be able to offer discounts on
our car parts. - ---P: given that the price of steel is rising

C: we will no longer be able to offer discounts on our car parts


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The political situation in Somalia is unstable owing to the ability of individual
warlords to maintain powerful armed forces. - ---P: owing to the ability of individual
warlords to maintain powerful armed forces.

C: the political situation in Somalia is unstable.


PREMISE/CONCLUSION

Since we need to have many different interests to sustain us, the scientists' belief
must be incorrect. - ---P: since we need to have many different interests to sustain
us.

C: the scientists' belief must be incorrect.


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
So, as indicated by the newly released data, we should push forward with our efforts
to recolonize the forest with snowy tree crickets. - ---P: as indicated by the newly
released data.

C: so we should push forward with our efforts to recolonize the forest with snowy
tree crickets.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Television has a harmful effect on society. This can be seen from the poor school
performance of children who watch significant amounts of television and from the
fact that children who watch more than six hours of television a day tend to read
less than non-television watching children. - ---P1: This can be seen from the poor
school performance of children who watch significant amounts of television

P2: from the fact that children who watch more than six hours of television a day
tend to read less than non-television watching children.

C: Television has a harmful effect on society.


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The rapid diminishment of the ecosystem of the Amazon threatens the entire
planet. Consequently, we must take immediate steps to convince the Brazilian
government that planned development projects need to be curtailed for the simple
reason that these development projects will greatly accelerate the loss of currently
protected land. - ---P1: The rapid diminishment of the ecosystem of the Amazon
threatens the entire planet.

P2: for the simple reason that these development projects will greatly accelerate
the loss of currently protected land.

C: Consequently, we must take immediate steps to convince the Brazilian


government that planned development projects need to be curtailed

PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Every professor at Fillmore University teaches exactly one class per semester.
Fillmore's Professor Jackson, therefore, is teaching exactly one class this semester.
Moreover, I heard Professor Jackson say she was teaching only a single class. - ---P1:
Every professor at Fillmore University teaches exactly one class per semester.

P2: Moreover, I heard Professor Jackson say she was teaching only a single class.

C: Fillmore's Professor Jackson, therefore, is teaching exactly one class this


semester.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Wine is made by crushing grapes and eventually separating the juice from the
grape skins. However, the separated juice contains impurities and many wineries do
not filter the juice. These wineries claim the unfiltered juice ultimately produces a
more flavorful and intense wine. Since these winemakers are experts, we should
trust their judgement and not shy away from unfiltered wine. - ---P1: Wine is made
by crushing grapes and eventually separating the juice from the grape skins.

P2: These wineries claim the unfiltered juice ultimately produces a more flavorful
and intense wine.

P3: Since these winemakers are experts

CP: However, the separated juice contains impurities and many wineries do not
filter the juice.

C: we should trust their judgement and not shy away from unfiltered wine.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Phenylketonurics are people who cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
There are dangers associated with phenylketonuria, and products containing
phenylalanine must carry a warning label that states, "Phenylketonurics: contains
phenylalanine." In addition, all children in developed societies receive a
phenylketonuria test at birth. Hence, at the moment, we are doing as much as
possible to protect against this condition. - ---P1: Phenylketonurics are people who
cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

P2: There are dangers associated with phenylketonuria, and products containing
phenylalanine must carry a warning label that states, "Phenylketonurics: contains
phenylalanine."

P3: In addition, all children in developed societies receive a phenylketonuria test at


birth.

C: Hence, at the moment, we are doing as much as possible to protect against this
condition.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
During last nights robbery, the thief was unable to open the safe. Thus, last nights
robbery was unsuccessful despite the fact that the thief stole several documents.
After all, nothing in those documents was as valuable as the money in the safe. ---P1: During last nights robbery, the thief was unable to open the safe.

P2: After all, nothing in those documents was as valuable as the money in the safe.

CP: despite the fact that the thief stole several documents.

C: Thus, last nights robbery was unsuccessful


Conclusion Identification Method - ---Because...

We can conclude that...


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The best way of eliminating traffic congestion will not be easily found. There are so
many competing possibilities that it will take millions of dollars to study every
option, and implementation of most options carries an exorbitant price tag. - ---P:
There are so many competing possibilities that it will take millions of dollars to study
every option, and implementation of most options carries an exorbitant price tag.

C: The best way of eliminating traffic congestion will not be easily found.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Because the Vikings have the best quarterback in football, they therefore have the
best offense in football. Because they have the best offense in football, they will win

the Super Bowl next year. - ---P: Because the Vikings have the best quarterback in
football

Sub-C: they therefore have the best offense in football

C: They will win the Super Bowl next year.


PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Anne: Halley's Comet, now in a part of its orbit relatively far from the Sun, recently
flared brightly enough to be seen by telescope. No comet has ever been observed
to flare so far from the Sun before, so such a flare must be highly unusual.

Sue: Nonsense. Usually no one bothers to try to observe comets when they are so
far from the Sun. This flare was observed only because an observatory was tracking
Halley's Comet very carefully. - ---P1: Halley's Comet, now in a part of its orbit
relatively far from the Sun, recently flared brightly enough to be seen by telescope.

P2: No comet has ever been observed to flare so far from the Sun before

C: so such a flare must be highly unusual.

P: Usually no one bothers to try to observe comets when they are so far from the
Sun.

C: This flare was observed only because an observatory was tracking Halley's
Comet very carefully.
because - ---Premise Indicator
since - ---Premise Indicator
for - ---Premise Indicator
for example - ---Premise Indicator
for the reason that - ---Premise Indicator
in that - ---Premise Indicator
given that - ---Premise Indicator
as indicated by - ---Premise Indicator

this can be seen from - ---Premise Indicator


due to - ---Premise Indicator
owing to - ---Premise Indicator
we know this by - ---Premise Indicator
furthermore - ---Additional Premise Indicator
moreover - ---Additional Premise Indicator
besides - ---Additional Premise Indicator
in addition - ---Additional Premise Indicator
what's more - ---Additional Premise Indicator
after all - ---Additional Premise Indicator
thus - ---Conclusion Indicator
therefore - ---Conclusion Indicator
hence - ---Conclusion Indicator
consequently - ---Conclusion Indicator
as a result - ---Conclusion Indicator
so - ---Conclusion Indicator
accordingly - ---Conclusion Indicator
clearly - ---Conclusion Indicator
must be that - ---Conclusion Indicator
shows that - ---Conclusion Indicator
conclude that - ---Conclusion Indicator
follows that - ---Conclusion Indicator
for this reason - ---Conclusion Indicator
but - ---Counter-premise Indicator
yet - ---Counter-premise Indicator
however - ---Counter-premise Indicator
on the other hand - ---Counter-premise Indicator
admittedly - ---Counter-premise Indicator
in contrast - ---Counter-premise Indicator
although - ---Counter-premise Indicator

even though - ---Counter-premise Indicator


still - ---Counter-premise Indicator
whereas - ---Counter-premise Indicator
in spite of - ---Counter-premise Indicator
despite - ---Counter-premise Indicator
What is, "to identify an inference"? - ---It means, to identify something that must be
true.
What is an assumption? - ---An assumption is an unstated premise. It is what must
be true in order for the argument to be true.
What is the difference between an inference and an assumption? - ---inference
(something that must be true) is what follows from an argument (in other words, a
conclusion).

P: People who read a lot of books are smart.


P: David reads a lot of books.
C: David is smart <-- This is an inference.

An assumption (unstated premise) is what is taken for granted while making an


argument.

P: People who read a lot of books are smart.


P: David goes to the library every day.
C: David is smart.

Assumption: David reads books whenever he goes to the library.


What is, the scope of an argument? - ---The scope of an argument is the range to
which the premises and conclusion encompass certain ideas.

For example, consider an argument discussing a new surgical technique. The ideas
of surgery and medicine are within the scope of the argument. The idea of federal
monetary policy, on the other hand, would not be within the scope of the argument.
ad hominem - ---An attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.

"You shouldn't listen to him. He is an uneducated alcoholic."


the fallacy of accident - ---When a general rule is applied to a situation in which it
was not intended to apply.

General rule: Birds normally can fly.


Fact: Penguins are birds.
Therefore, penguins can fly.

General rule: 55 mph speed limit on the road


Fact: It's raining, there's heavy fog, and it's dark out
Should we continue to go 55 mph? NO!
affirming the consequent - ---x->y to y->x

If it's a fish, then it lives under water.


If it lives under water, then it must be a fish.
denying the antecedent - ---x->y to (not y)->(not x)

If it's a fish, then it lives under water.


If it's not a fish, then it doesn't live under water.
amphiboly - ---The fallacy of ambiguous construction. It occurs
whenever the whole meaning of a statement can be taken in more than one way,
and is usually the fault of careless grammar.

I met the ambassador riding his horse. He was snorting and steaming, so I gave him
a lump of sugar.
tu quoque (too-KWO-kwee) - ---AKA the appeal to hypocrisy.
The "you too" argument.

"How can you tell me not to join the military? You did when you were young."

"Why should we listen to Brown's support for the new carpark when only last year
he opposed the whole idea?"

"Nicole identified that Hannah had committed a logical fallacy, but instead of
addressing the substance of her claim, Hannah accused Nicole of committing a
fallacy earlier on in the conversation."
red herring - ---Something that draws attention away from the main issue.

"The police should stop environmental demonstrators from inconveniencing the


general public. We pay our taxes. '"

"Surely global meltdown is infinitely worse than a little inconvenience?"


loaded words - ---Words which are slanted for or against the subject.

Scotland stole a goal in the first half, but England's efforts were well rewarded in the
second half when...

Can you guess which side the reporter comes from?


runaway train - ---When an argument used to support a course of action would also
support more of it.

The state should subsidize opera because it would be too expensive to mount
productions without the extra support from public funds.

(And as the train heads off into the distance, wait for the stations marked son et
lumire concerts, civil war re-enactments, and gladiatorial displays. If opera is
different, we need to know why.)
post hoc fallacy - ---False assumption that because one event occurred before
another event, it must have caused that event.

Bill purchases a new PowerMac and it works fine for months. He then buys and
installs a new piece of software. The next time he starts up his Mac, it freezes. Bill
concludes that the software must be the cause of the freeze.

The Republicans pass a new tax reform law that benefits wealthly Americans.
Shortly thereafter the economy takes a nose dive. The Democrats claim that the the
tax reform caused the economic woes and they push to get rid of it.
slippery slope fallacy - ---*not all slippery slope arguments are fallacious.*
*if A happens, and then Z happens later, it doesn't necessarily mean that A caused
Z to happen. This is a post hoc fallacy.*

You said that if we allow A to happen, then Z will eventually happen too, therefore A
should not happen.

The problem with this reasoning is that it avoids engaging with the issue at hand,
and instead shifts attention to extreme hypotheticals. Because no proof is presented
to show that such extreme hypotheticals will in fact occur, this fallacy has the form
of an appeal to emotion fallacy by leveraging fear. In effect the argument at hand is
unfairly tainted by unsubstantiated conjecture.

e.g. Colin Closet asserts that if we allow same-sex couples to marry, then the next
thing we know we'll be allowing people to marry their parents, their cars and even
monkeys.
deductive reasoning - ---reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause
to effect). "Teenagers cause the most car accidents. You're a teenager, you will get
in a car accident."
inductive reasoning - ---reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.

e.g. All of the ice we have examined so far is cold. Therefore, all ice is cold."
strawman - ---You misrepresented someone's argument to make it easier to attack.

By exaggerating, misrepresenting, or just completely fabricating someone's


argument, it's much easier to present your own position as being reasonable, but
this kind of dishonesty serves to undermine honest rational debate.

e.g. After Will said that we should put more money into health and education,
Warren responded by saying that he was surprised that Will hates our country so
much that he wants to leave it defenceless by cutting military spending.
bandwagon - ---"Everyone is doing it so you should too."

You appealed to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an


attempted form of validation.

The flaw in this argument is that the popularity of an idea has absolutely no bearing
on its validity.
If it did, then the Earth would have made itself flat for most of history to
accommodate this popular belief.

e.g. Shamus pointed a drunken finger at Sean and asked him to explain how so
many people could believe in leprechauns if they're only a silly old superstition.
Sean, however, had had a few too many Guinness himself and fell off his chair.
appeal to authority - ---You said that because an authority thinks something, it must
therefore be true.

It's important to note that this fallacy should not be used to dismiss the claims of
experts, or scientific consensus. Appeals to authority are not valid arguments, but
nor is it reasonable to disregard the claims of experts who have a demonstrated
depth of knowledge unless one has a similar level of understanding and/or access to
empirical evidence. However it is, entirely possible that the opinion of a person or
institution of authority is wrong; therefore the authority that such a person or
institution holds does not have any intrinsic bearing upon whether their claims are
true or not.

e.g. Not able to defend his position that evolution 'isn't true' Bob says that he knows
a scientist who also questions evolution (and presumably isn't a primate).
loaded question - ---You asked a question that had a presumption built into it so that
it couldn't be answered without appearing guilty.

Loaded question fallacies are particularly effective at derailing rational debates


because of their inflammatory nature - the recipient of the loaded question is
compelled to defend themselves and may appear flustered or on the back foot.

e.g. Grace and Helen were both romantically interested in Brad. One day, with Brad
sitting within earshot, Grace asked in an inquisitive tone whether Helen was having
any problems with a drug habit.
begging the question - ---You presented a circular argument in which the conclusion
was included in the premise.

This logically incoherent argument often arises in situations where people have an
assumption that is very ingrained, and therefore taken in their minds as a given.
Circular reasoning is bad mostly because it's not very good.

e.g. The word of Zorbo the Great is flawless and perfect. We know this because it
says so in The Great and Infallible Book of Zorbo's Best and Most Truest Things that
are Definitely True and Should Not Ever Be Questioned.
Since always signals - ---Evidence
Lower case 'since' means - ---That the preceding clause is the conclusion
When the conclusion introduces a term NOT mentioned in the evidence, the
assumption will provide a.. - ---Logical basis for the term
An Assumption is an.. - ---Unstated gap b/w the evidence and conclusion
To help determine what an author's conclusion is, use the - ---One Sentence Test
Because is a key word to signal - ---Evidence
Therefore is a key word to signal - ---Conclusion
In Formal Logic "The only " identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
All' Negated is - ---Not all
When an Assumption stimulus contains formal logicstatements, think about what
can be deduced from each statement. In particular, identify the contrapositive
because... - ---it is likely to be the correct answer
TIP- The same type of wrong answer will show up REPEATEDLY throughout the
Logical Reasoning section the following are examples - ---(A) Most art is shocking ( C
) Art used to be more shocking than it currently is ( E ) Anything that shocks is art
In Formal Logic "Requires " identifies - ---Necessity
None' Negated is - ---Some
How does the Denial Test work - ---Deny the answer choice & see if it makes the
conclusion fall apart
In Formal Logic "All " identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
More' Negated is - ---Less-than or Equal
What key words in a Logical Reasoning QUESTION indicates that you should use the
denial test - ---Necessary, Depends, Required
In Formal Logic "Guarantees " identifies - ---Necessity
Thus is a key word to signal - ---conclusion

Fewer' Negated is - ---More than or Equal


In Formal Logic "Never " identifies - ---Mutually Exclusive
Common Argument Structure
C: We Should/Should not...
E: One reason "X" is good/bad
A:
S:
W: - ---A: There are no other considerations to take into account

S: This reason is particularly IMPORTANT/ Eliminating another possible factor

W:There is another factor that is relevant


Studies suggest' signals - ---Conclusion
Common Argument Structure
C: One caused the other
E: Two things are correlated (Occur Together)
A:
S:
W: - ---A:Correlation wasn't a coincidence, due to third factor, or due to reversed
causation

S:Eliminating the possibility of coincidence, third factor, or reversal; or stregthening


the liklihood that the first really causes the 2nd

W: Evidence that the correlation may really be just a coincidence, due to a third
factor or reversed
Must be' Negated is - ---Need not be
Common Argument Structure
C: The First thing did Cause the Second
E: One thing can cause another
A:

S:
W: - ---A: There is no other possible explanation for the 2nd event to occur

S:Eliminate other possible explanations

W: Suggest an alternative explanation


In Formal Logic " Incapable" identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
For is a key word to signal - ---Evidence
Common Argument Structure
C: The event did not occur at all
E: Something did no occur in a particular way
A:
S:
W: - ---A:The event could not have happened for any other reason

S:Eliminate other possible reasons the event could have occured

W:Give another possible way for the event to have occured


Common Argument Structure
C: The Event WILL occur
E: Reason an event is likely to occur
A:
S:
W: - ---A:The evidence is relevant to the prediction; there isn't some other factor
that's not being taken into account

S: The basis for the prediction is more relevant

W: Some other factor that makes the given basis for the prediction less
important/less relevant
Can be' Negated is - ---Cannot be

This shows' signals - ---Conclusion


In Formal Logic "Must " identifies - ---Necessity
All except Z are Y translats to - ---If ~Y --> Z
It is clear' signals - ---Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Neither....nor " identifies - ---Mutually Exclusive
Either Y or Z translats to - ---If ~Y -->Z
Y needs z translats to - ---If Y --->Z
Z is needed for Y translats to - ---If Y ---> Z
In Formal Logic " If " identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
It follows that' signals - ---Conclusion
Y depends on Z translats to - ---If Y -->Z
Without Z, Y translats to - ---If ~Y --->Z
If ~Z ---> ~Y
From the fact that' signals - ---Evidence
"After all' Signals - ---Evidence
X if, but only if Y translats to - ---X ---> Y
AND
Y---->X
In Formal Logic " Any" identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
C: X-->Z
E: X--> Y
A: ? - ---A: Y --> Z
That is why' signals - ---Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Necessary " identifies - ---Necessity
C: X-->Z
E: Y--> Z
A: ? - ---A: A-->Y
C: X-->W
E: X--> Y
E: Z --> W

A: ? - ---A: Y--> Z
If presented w/ an answer choice that is difficult to comprehend then...? - ---The
more confussing it is , the more likely the answer choice is a distracter
In Formal Logic "None " identifies - ---Mutually Exclusive
Clearly is a key word that signals - ---Conclusion
A is a lower numbered position than B....Scribe as... - ---A...B
So is a key word to signal - ---Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Bound to lead to " identifies - ---Necessity
A gets out at some time after B....Scribe as... - ---B...A
A gets out some time before B....Scribe as... - ---A...B
In Formal Logic "Every " identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
A gets out at some time before B but after C....Scribe as... - ---C...A...B
A gets out immediately before B....Scribe as... - ---AB
Consequently is a key word to signal - ---Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Cannot " identifies - ---Mutually Exclusive
A gets out immediately after B....Scribe as... - ---BA
In Formal Logic "Are destined to " identifies - ---Necessity
Exactly one person gets out after A but before B....Scribe as... - ---A_B
A is exactly two positions before B....Scribe as... - ---A_B
In Formal Logic "Impossible " identifies - ---Mutually Exclusive
At least one person gets out after A but before B ....Scribe as... - ---A_...B
In Formal Logic "Incapable " identifies - ---Mutually Exclusive
Obviously is a key word to signal - ---Conclusion
Exactely one person gets out b/w A and B ....Scribe as... - ---A/B_B/A
It is clear from" signals - ---Evidence
In Formal Logic "Only (if) " identifies - ---Necessity
A is imediately next to B....Scribe as... - ---AB or BA
M got out after either V or G but not both....Scribe as... - ---V...M...G AND G...M...V
or
V//G...M...G/V

In Formal Logic "No " identifies - ---Mutually Exclusive


This proves that' signals - ---Conclusion
A can come neither immediately before nor immediately after B....Scribe as... - ---AB
BA (With line through them)
In Formal Logic "Whenever " identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
A is forth, B is seventh....Scribe as... - ---A --> B
B --> A
In Formal Logic "Results in " identifies - ---Necessity
If A is not seventh, he is fith - ---A --> A
A -->A
In Formal Logic "Always " identifies - ---Necessity
Hence is a key word to signal - ---Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Unless " identifies - ---Necessity
A is in a group with exactly two members ....scribe as... - ---A _ _ (Boxed in)
In Formal Logic "Produces " identifies - ---Necessity
As a result' signals - ---Conclusion
A and B are always in the same group....scribe as... - ---ALWAYS AB
In Formal Logic "Each " identifies - ---Suffucient Condition
If she selects K, she nust select M ...Scribe as ... - ---K --> M
~M ---> ~K
A is not selected unless B is selected....scribe as... - ---A ---> B
~ B ---> ~ A
In Formal Logic "Then " identifies - ---Necessity
If George buys A, then he does not buy B....Scribe as.... - ---A ---> ~ B
B ---> ~ A
If George does not buy A, then he buys B - ---~ A --> B
~ B --> A
This rule says we must have A, or B, or both
In Formal Logic "Sure to " identifies - ---Necessity
If she selects G, she can select neither H nor Y...scribe as... - ---G---> ~H and ~Y

H or Y --> ~G
Either A or B must be selected, but A and B cannot both be selected....scribe as... ---A//B
Abstract Rules & Considerations
J and K have at least one symptom in common...Question you ask yourself? ---What symptom could that be?
Abstract Rules & Considerations
L has greater number of symptoms than K... Question you ask yourself? - ---How
many could L have how many could K have?
Abstract Rules & Considerations
Exactly twice as many people are in group 1 as in group 2. ...Question you ask
yourself? - ---How many people can be in group one?
Abstract Rules & Considerations
Exactly one entity is in every group. ...Question you ask yourself? - ---Which entity
could that be? Must it be? Could it be not?
Section Strategy - ---The most effective and efficient order approach the section:
choose your passage # of questions and degree of difficulty
Read the passage strategically
Identify the Question Type
Research the Relevant Text
Make a Prediction
Evaluate the Answer Choices
Approach - --- Identify the topic
Scope
Purpose
Main idea
Question Types - --- Global
Detail
Inference
Logic Function
Logic Reasoning

Global Questions - --- Identify the question type: "Main idea", "Purpose",
"Organization"
Task: Think big picture, Review T/S/P/MI, Consult you roadmap
You should be able to predict an answer to most Global questions
Do global questions first
Global questions are usually the first and next to last questions
Detail Questions - --- Identify the question type: "According to the author", "The
passage states", "the author mentions"
Task: Research the relevant text
Inference Questions - --- Identify the question type: "the author implies", "the
passage suggests", "likely to agree"
Task: Read between the lines, Perhaps combine statements, Identify what must
follow from the passage
Inference means "must be true". It's a statement that must be true if everything in
the stimulus is true.
Inference questions require you to paraphrase the relevant text or make a
deduction
Common wrong answer choices; 180, faulty use of detail, extreme, out of scope
Answer inference questions after you've already picked up points with Global and
Detail questions
The correct answer to an inference question doesn't require any information that
isn't included in the stimulus
Valid inferences aren't necessarily mind-blowing
Beware of extreme wording in inference answer choices
The correct answer doesn't have to take the entire stimulus into account
Logical Function Questions - --- Identify the question type: "the author...primarily in
order to", "primary purpose of the first passage", "best describes the function of"
Task: Looks at the context of the detail or paragraph and ask why the author put it
there
Common wrong answer choices; 180, distortion, faulty use of detail
Logical Reasoning Questions - --- Identify the question type: Will mimic LR question
types, including
o strengthening / weakening - &quot;supports&quot; / &quot;undermines&quot;
o Principle - &quot;principle&quot;

o Parallel Reasoning - &quot;analogies&quot;


Task: Use the appropriate LR strategy
Common Logical Reasoning & Reading Comp Wrong Answer Types - --- Extreme
Language
Faulty use of detail
Outside of scope
180
Distortion
Half Right, Half Wrong
Irrelevant Comparison
Reading Strategically - ---Whatever strategy you choose, you should give the
passage or pair of passages at least one careful reading before answering the
questions. Try to distinguish main ideas from supporting ideas, and opinions or
attitudes from factual, objective information. Note transitions from one idea to the
next and identify the relationships among the different ideas or parts of a passage,
or between the two passages in Comparative Reading sets. Consider how and why
an author makes points and draws conclusions. Be sensitive to implications of what
the passages say.
Roadmap the Text - ---You may find it helpful to mark key parts of passages. For
example, you might underline main ideas or important arguments, and you might
circle transitional words"although," "nevertheless," "correspondingly," and the like
that will help you map the structure of a passage. Also, you might note descriptive
words that will help you identify an author's attitude toward a particular idea or
person.
Always circle colon
Always circle a question mark
Locate and use keywords - --- Logic - Evidence and Conclusion (Therefore...,
Since...)
Contrast (However...)
Continuation (Moreover...)
Illustration (Examples of...)
Emphasis / Opinion (Critics, Voices, Even)
Sequence / Timing (Frame of reference, Dates, More Recently)
Contrast Keywords - ---But Despite
Yet Although

However Even So
Nevertheless Whereas
On the other hand Conversely
Instead
Emphasis Keywords - ---Remarkable (more / most) important
Compelling Substantial
Even more than
Opinion Keywords - ---Believed by Thought to be
Asserts Some maintain
Argues that According to
As X sees it The astronomers assumed
Contrast Keywords - ---; In addition
Also As well
Similarly Likewise
Illustration Keywords - ---: In contrast to
For example
Temporal Keywords - ---Since Until recently
Recent developments In the past
Historically Traditionally
Numerical Keywords - ---Three possible explanations There are two reasons for this
Abrams describes a fourfold structure
Evidence Keywords - ---Because Since
This is clear from
Conclusion Keywords - ---Thus Clearly as a result
And so
Words that reveal the author's viewpoint - Negative - ---Doubtful Unconvincing
Unlikely Danger
Harmful
Words that reveal the author's viewpoint - Positive - ---Cogent Completing
Promising

Words that reveal the author's viewpoint - Uncertainty / Qualification - ---Seems


Appears
Mysterious
Use the clues - --- Proper Nouns & Names; look for same key word in the text or
margin notes
Line Reference; context is key. Look at the surrounding paragraph (+/- 2
sentences)
Direct Quotes; context is key. Who is quoted (author, critic) Associated Keywords
Paragraph References; consider paragraph in totality. Consider paragraph in
context of larger argument
Content Clues; word or phrase of the text. What paragraph. Look for associated
key words
Comparative Reading - --- Two short passages
6-8 questions
Testing Strategy - --- Expect questions that reward your ability to identify points of
agreement and disagreement between the passages
wiles - ---(n) skill in outwitting "She used her feminine ___ to get everything she
wanted."
diverge - ---(v) to turn aside from a path or course; to move or extend in different
directions from a common point; to become or be different in character or form
cogent - ---(adj) smart; (sharp in the sense of intelligence) having power to compel
or constrain
scheme - ---(n) a crafty plot; (v) creating a crafty plot
dissipate - ---(v) to cause to spread thin or scatter and gradually vanish; to spend or
use up wastefully or foolishly
fractious - ---(adj) tending to be troublesome
apostate - ---(n) one who renounces his/her faith; someone who gives up religion
renounce - ---(v) to give up, refuse, or resign usually by formal declaration ; to
refuse to follow, obey, or recognize any further
effete - ---(adj) weak; having lost character, vitality, or strength
fetter - ---(n/v) a chain for the feet; something that constrains or stops one from
doing things
inveigle - ---(v) to acquire(get) by trickery, ingenuity, or flattery
circuitous - ---(adj) having a circular course; not being direct in language or action

renegade - ---(n) rebel; a deserter from one faith, cause, or allegiance to another
uphold - ---(v) to give support to; to keep in place
lissome - ---(adj) flexible; nimble, quick,
missive - ---(n) a letter (the kind you send to another person through the post)
suffuse - ---(v) to spread over or through in the manner of fluid or light
devious - ---(adj) tricky/underhanded; wandering; not straightfoward "The Joker in
the Batman series is a _____ character."
fiat - ---(n) a command or act of will that creates something without or as if without
further effort
avow - ---(v) to declare openly, bluntly, assuredly, and without shame
connive - ---(v) to pretend ignorance of or fail to take action against something one
ought to oppose; to be indulgent or in secret sympathy
potentate - ---(n) one who holds great power; a king or other supreme leader
saturate - ---(v) to compltely cover/fill; to fill a solid with a liquid to the point where
no more can be absorbed, dissolved, or retained; to cause to combine until there is
no further tendency to combine
diaphanous - ---(adj) see-through (a gown, eg) delicate; letting light through
"Diana's diaphonous gown showed off her lovely legs."
partisan - ---(n) a firm believer in a cause, (or party, person...); a member of a
guerrilla band operating within enemy lines
breach - ---(n/v) infraction or violation of a law, obligation, or physical space
dissemble - ---(v) to hide under a false appearance; to put on the appearance of
wayward - ---(adj) really-super-poorly behaved; following one's own capricious,
wanton, or depraved inclinations; following no clear principle or law
impasse - ---(n) a predicament affording no obvious escape; deadlock
deprecate - ---(v) to put down (with words); to express disapproval of; to pray
against
grandiloquent - ---(adj) a lofty, extravagantly colorful, pompous, or bombastic style,
manner, or quality especially in language
estrangement - ---(n) to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where
there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness
constrain - ---(v) to hold back by force (physical or otherwise)
ingenuous - ---(adj) innocent and showing childlike simplicity; naive and trusting;
young; unsophisticated; candid

trajectory - ---(n) a path, progression, or line of development "The ball followe an


arching ____ that carried it from Hank Aaron's bat and into the bleachers."
posture - ---(n) the position or bearing of the body whether characteristic or
assumed for a special purpose; a conscious mental or outward behavioral attitude
chastened - ---(adj) warned severely
cataclysm - ---(n) a momentous and violent event marked by overwhelming
upheaval and demolition; catastrophe
embroil - ---(v) to throw into disorder or confusion
dissident - ---(n) someone who disagrees (dissents) with the prevailing government;
remorse - ---(n) a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt for past wrongs
accrue - ---(v) to come about as a natural growth, increase, or advantage; to
accumulate or be added periodically
recalcitrant - ---(adj) difficult to manage or operate; obstinately defiant of authority
or restraint
canard - ---(n) a lie; a trick used to deceive someone
reconcile - ---(v) to make consistent or congruous; to restore to friendship or
harmony
inane - ---(adj) lacking significance, meaning, or point
poseur - ---(n) a person who pretends to be what he or she is not
extricate - ---(v) to free or remove from an entanglement or difficulty
pithy - ---(adj) brief, forceful, and meaningful in expression; full of vigor, substance,
or meaning; terse; forcible
caucus - ---(n) a closed meeting of a group of persons belonging to the same
political party or faction usually to select candidates or to decide on policy
chagrin - ---a feeling of vexation, marked by disappointment or humiliation.
foist - ---(v) to force upon or impose fraudulently or unjustifiably
quotidian - ---(adj) daily; usual or customary; everyday
gambit - ---(n) a tricky way to reach one's goal; any maneuver by which one seeks
to gain an advantage.
bestow - ---(v) to give; to present as a gift; to make some use of
abstemious - ---(adj) sparing or moderate in eating and drinking; temperate in diet
maneuver - ---(n) a planned and regulated movement or evolution of troops; (v) to
steer
replicate - ---(v) to copy

pejorative - ---(adj) insulting; having a belittling effect or force


disciple - ---(n) one who follows a religious teacher; one who spreads the teachings
of a teacher
cadge - ---(v) to beg; to borrow without repaying
germane - ---(adj) relevant; closely or significantly related
hedonist - ---(n) a person who spends her/his life in pursuit of happiness -- seeking
only momentary, sensory pleasures
validate - ---(v) to make valid; to give legal purpose; to agree with
trenchant - ---clearly or sharply defined
stalemate - ---(n) to come to a standstill; deadlock
emulate - ---(v) to copy in behavior, style, software...
inimical - ---(adj) unfriendly; hostile
rift - ---fissure; break in friendly relations
imbue - ---(v) to saturate with feelings/ideas/color/moisture
pragmatic - ---(adj) practical;
nullity - ---nothingness; invalidity
grovel - ---(v) to humble oneself or act in an abject manner; to beg
evanescent - ---(adj) vanishing away
supplicant - ---(n) a religious person who prays humbly