Proceedings of the st International Symposium on Naval Architecture and Maritime Hydrodynamics

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Proceedings of the st International Symposium on Naval Architecture and Maritime Hydrodynamics

© All Rights Reserved

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Hydrodynamics

Yavuz Hakan zdemir*, Bar Barlas**, Seyfettin Bayraktar*

*

**

Dept of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, Istanbul

Abstract

In this study, the unsteady turbulent flow around slender ship hulls is investigated. The components of

the flow are computed by solving the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations. In the

turbulent flow calculations, the Reynolds stresses in the momentum equations are modelled in

accordance with the Boussinesq's hypothesis of turbulence viscosity. The relationship between the

turbulence viscosity and the velocities are obtained through the SST (shear stress transport) k-

turbulence model. In the numerical scheme, the velocities, pressure and the turbulent viscosity values

are calculated by using the hexagonal FVM (finite volume method) discretization of the spatial

domain. The validation studies are carried out by comparing the results obtained for a slender hull

form, the Wigley hull with corresponding experimental results available from literature. The resistance

and wave elevation are compared with available experimental results. The comparisons are found to be

satisfactory for turbulent flow regimes.

1. Introduction

For more than a century, scientists carried out many studies to model the flow around ship hulls. Most

of the research was deal with the inviscid flows. This is due to the fact that the Navier-Stokes

equations are complex, compared with the potential theory used for inviscid flows. Because of the

compelxity of the problem both experimental and numerical techniques have been the only practical

way to obtain information on flow around ship hulls. With the recent developments in computers, both

in hardware and software, it has become possible to obtain meaningful numerical results on flow

around ship hulls.

From the open literature it can be reported that ship hydrodynamics computations based on NavierStokes (N-S) solvers were initiated in the 1980s, and since then a number of useful codes have been

developed (Sato et al., 1999). In the recent years, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques

have been incorporated into optimization procedures for hull configuration. In this way CFD

simulation plays an important role in ship design, performance analysis and form optimization, etc. A

flow-simulation method was developed to predict the performance of a sailing boat in unsteady motion

on a free surface by Akimoto and Miyata (2002). The sailing conditions of the boat are virtually

279

realized by combining the simulations of water-flow and the motion of the boat. Skytt (2004) has

given the detailed information about how to get a computer-aided design (CAD) to CFD meshes for

ship geometries. Gorski (2002) and Parolini and Quarteroni (2004) reported recent innovative aspects

of the numerical models used in CFD studies. Successful design and optimization of marine structures

requires information about the flow problem on both integral and field quantity levels.

In this work, the finite volume solution method for the RANS equations is applied to the simulation of

flow field around a Wigley hull. The turbulence model used is the well known SST (shear stress

transport) k- two equation turbulence model. The numerical algorithm is divided into three stages: in

the first stage the velocity components, in the second stage the pressure and in the third stage the

turbulence quantities are calculated. The main goal of this numerical study is to show the capability a

general-purpose CFD code of Star CCM+ for design, analysis and feasibility of such a simulation for

shipping industry.

2. Mathematical Formulation

The governing equations are the RANS equations and the continuity equation for mean velocity of the

unsteady, three-dimensional incompressible flow. The continuity equation and momentum equations

in Cartesian coordinates can be given as;

Ui

(1)

xi

P

xi

xj

Uj

Ui

xj

xi

ui u j

(2)

The well known SST (shear stress transport) k- model has been used to simulate the turbulent flows.

The turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the specific dissipation rate, , are obtained from the following

transport equations:

xi

kui

xj

k

xj

Gk Yk

Sk

(3)

and

xi

ui

xj

xj

280

(4)

and

terms are calculated as described below. Sk and S are user-defined source terms.

The effective diffusivities for the k

(5)

where

and

viscosity,

, is computed by combining

and

and

as follows:

(6)

The use of a k- formulation in the inner parts of the boundary layer makes the model directly usable

all the way down to the wall through the viscous sublayer hence the SST k- model can be used as a

Low-Re turbulence model without any extra damping functions. The SST formulation also switches to

a k- behaviour in the free-stream and thereby avoids the common k- problem that the model is too

sensitive to the inlet free-stream turbulence properties. The SST k- model has good behaviour in

adverse pressure gradients and separating flows like ship boundary layers.

Calculations are made in hexahedral computational domain for the hull of the Wigley hull symmetric

to its centerline. The general view of the computational domain with Wigley hull and the notations of

boundary conditions is depicted in Fig. 1.

To perform turbulent flow computations with the use of a k- formulation, at least one grid point is

required very close to the wall, especially to resolve the viscous sublayer. At the upstream boundary,

281

the uniform flow condition is used, i.e. U=1, V=W=0, P is hydrostatic.At the downstream boundary,

zero derivative condition in x- direction is used, for P, pressure is hydrostatic. At the symmetry plane

boundaries zero derivative condition in the normal directions are utilized.

3. Numerical Method

The governing equations described above are discretized using a node based finite volume method, the

advection terms are discretized using a first-order upwind interpolation scheme. The governing

equations are solved successively. Because the equations are nonlinear, several iterations must be

performed before a converged solution is obtained. First, the initial values of U, V, W, I, t/ , and P

are defined. Then U, V, and W are solved from the momentum equations. The pressure field is solved

by using the well known SIMPLE algorithm . The turbulence quantities are then solved for k and

Since the computations involve certain approximations, an iterative procedure is needed. The solution

is considered converged when the normalized residuals of all the variables is lower than 10 -5. The

computations is made on a 4 CPU workstation with 3.4GHz, on windows XP system.

The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number in the main flow direction, i.e. U t/ x should be less

than 1 for better results. In our computations the CFL number for each node on the Wigley hull is in

the range between 0.3 and 0.6. The hexahedral finite volume discretization of the spatial domain (Fig.

2) is performed with GAMBIT preprocessor package which allows the user to generate the

computational grids. Flow simulations are made by using Star CCM+ code.

Fig. 2. A sketch of the hexahedral finite volume discretization of the spatial domain.

Wigley hull is a mathematically definable ship hull form which is frequently used as a benchmark for

flow computations around ships. As the main purpose of this study is to show the capability of the

general-purpose CFD solver of Star CCM+ code to use at shipping industry, the CFD calculations are

282

compared with experimental data of Sarda (1986) The mathematical formulation of Wigley hull is

given below.

(7)

The hull length is L=6.096m, the breadth is B=L/5, and the draft is T=L/16. The outer boundary is

taken at 1.2xL from the centerline. The upstream starts 2xL from the begining, and the downstream

ends 3xL from the aft end of Wigley hull. A grid improvement study was performed using three

geometrically similar grids. The unsteady flow around Wigley hull is computed at Fn=0.20 using a

coarse grid of 145x32x25 grid system, a medium grid of 150x50x30 grid system, and a fine grid of

180x70x40 grid system (see Table 1). Because of the SST k- turbulence model, some results are

obtained after five days of computer running. The geometry together with a visualization of the free

surface is given in Fig. 3.

The upstream flow velocity is taken as 1.546 m/s which gives a Fn based on ship length of 0.2 and a

Rn of 9.062x106. The time step t is chosen to be 0.15 s.

Table 1: Grid resolution and y+ values

Coarse grid

Medium grid

Fine grid

Number of Nodes

116,000

225,000

504,000

Average y+

26

18

11

Fig. 4 presents the wave elevation contours. Fig. 5 illustrate the computed wave profile along the ship

hull. The comparison with the experimental measures is very good. The results indicate that grid

dependence at the aft end of the ship is small, hence the computed wave profile at the bow of the ship

is less than expected with the coarse grid used. The computed drag for three grid cases is compared in

Table 2.

283

0.010

0.008

Medium grid (225000)

Coarse grid (116000)

Experiment

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.000

-0.002

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

-0.004

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

x/L

As can be seen, results obtained from fine grids are in good agreement with experimental towing test

data. It should be noted here that these CFD results are obtained from fine grids, 504000 hexahedral

mesh elements and all the results including the experiment are calculated for only half-ship hull.

Table 2: Computed drag for different grid sizes for Fn=0.20

Experiment

Coarse grid

Medium grid

Fine grid

12.45

11.07

11.89

11.95

Conclusions

In this work,the finite volume solution method for the RANS equations is applied to the simulation of

flow field around a Wigley hull. The turbulence model used is the SST k-

model. The main goal of this numerical study is to show the capability a general-purpose CFD code of

284

Star CCM+ for design, analysis and feasibility of such a simulation for shipping industry. This work

highlighted the importance that CFD analysis is achieving in the ship resistance calculation process

and the SST k- two equation turbulence model is in good agreement with experimental towing test

data. For the future work, a robust and accurate semi-empirical model for predicting free surface flow

around merchant ship hulls can be developed by using Star CCM+ code.

References

Akimoto, H., Miyata, H., 2002, Finite-volume Simulation Methods to Predict the Performance of a Sailing Boat,

J. Mar. Sci.Tech.7, 31-42.

Gorski, J.J., 2002, PresentState of Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics and Validation Experiments, J. Offshore

Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, vol.1254, Issue 2, pp.74-80.

Parolini, N., Quarteroni, A., 2004, Numerical Simulation for Yacth Design, Proceedings of the 6th Conference

on Informatics and Mathematics, HERCMA 2003, vol.1, pp.38-44.

Sarda,O.P., 1986, Turbulent flows past ship hullsan experimental and computational study. Ph.D. thesis.

University of Iowa, Iowa City

Sato, Y., Miyata, H., Sato, T., 1999, CFD Simulation of 3-Dimensional Motion of a Ship in Waves: Application

to an Advanced Ship in Regular Heading Waves, J. Mar. Sci. Tech.4: 108-116.

Skytt, V., 2005, From CAD to CFD Meshes for Ship Geometries, Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI

2004, Springer, 1 Edition.

285

287

288

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+

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+ =

+ =

+ =

= ( )

=

+

+ + + =

289

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+ =

+ =

( ) =

290

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= =

=

( )

+ + =

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292

293

294

295

Dario Bruzzone, Cristina Gironi

University of Genoa, Italy, bruzzone@dinav.unige.it

Abstract

This paper presents a numerical application of a fully desingularized method for the calculation of wave

induced motions of a marine vehicle in deep water.

In the present approach, the problem is solved in terms of velocity potential in the time domain. The

relevant Green function is obtained distributing desingularized Rankine sources inside the body and

above the calm water surfaces. The amount of the desingularizing length is determined in relation to the

dimensions of flat panels approximating the relevant surfaces. The boundary value problem is linearized

by assuming small motions and small wave amplitudes. The body boundary conditions are satisfied on the

mean body surface while the free-surface conditions are linearized on the calm water level and are

numerically solved and updated at each time step referring to an Eulerian time-stepping integration

scheme.

The results regarding two dimensional and three dimensional cases are presented. They include radiation

forces, added mass, damping, diffraction forces for 2D ship sections and for the S-175 hull with forward

speed. The computed results are compared with experimental data and other numerical solutions.

1. Introduction

A very important criterion to evaluate the quality of a ship hull is its performance in a seaway. Prediction

of ship motions by numerical methods represents a relevant subject of the naval hydrodynamic research,

since an accurate sea keeping prediction corresponds to a good hull design realization. There are several

methodologies able to find a numerical solution for solving problems related to ship motions and they can

be characterized by a different range of complexity.

An important classification of these studies may be given by the option of analyzing the interactions

between hull and fluid in terms of linear, weakly non linear or fully non linear effects. The possibility to

consider non linearity increases the complexity of the calculations and the computational effort, but the

results obtained are more accurate then the linear ones when the wave steepness is increasing.

297

A linear analysis may be considered as a first step for subsequent non linear computations and, in

addition, it can be used to evaluate in a reasonable computer time the influence on the ship behaviour

when hull form or other important parameters are varied. The primary limitation that can be found in this

approach is that the analysis may give excessively approximated or even wrong responses for the cases in

which the amplitude of motions and the wave steepness are not small.

A 3D Rankine source panel method to evaluate ship motions for mono and multi-hull in the frequency

domain (Bruzzone, 2003) has been chosen by the authors as a reference for following developments

including the study here reported.

The introduction of non linearity directly in the frequency domain results difficult and limited. However,

introducing the so called hybrid or blended methods, based on the impulse functions and on the relation

between frequency and time domain through the Fourier transform, some results from frequency domain

can be exploited.

An example of a blended approach can be found in Bruzzone et al. (2010), where radiation and diffraction

forces are calculated in the frequency domain, while non linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces are

evaluated in the time domain. This solution permits to consider some sources of non linearity without

increasing very significantly the computational time.

To move toward a fully non linear approach, a linear panel method completely based in the time domain

has been developed as a first step and is presented in this paper. This choice is related to the future

development in course of realization: the initial linear analysis permits to put the base for the introduction

of non linearity without a significant growth of computational time. In addition, to achieve a further

reduction, a desingularized approach has been adopted. In particular, desingularized sources are

distributed above the panels of the calm water surface and slightly inside the body surface. Using this idea

the singularity problem and the integration over the single panel surfaces can be overcome obtaining an

easier procedure.

After a brief theoretical outline, results dealing with two-dimensional sections and a three dimensional

application for the S-175 hull are here presented.

An inertial right handed orthogonal coordinate system (X,Y,Z) advancing at the body constant speed U0 is

chosen; the XY plane is coincident with the calm water surface, the Z-axis is positive upwards and the Xaxis is chosen as the symmetry axis of the waterplane, positive astern. The motions of the body are

described by the vector

298

The fluid domain is bounded by the free surface S F and by the hull surface S H , the depth is considered

infinite. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid, incompressible and the flow irrotational.

With the previous hypotheses, a velocity potential

conditions:

a) The Laplace equation into the fluid domain:

2

(2)

n VB n

(3)

nx , ny , nz is the normal

c) A kinematic and a dynamic condition on the free surface S F :

t

1

2

where z

(4)

p

t

1

U 02

2

(5)

can be

To simplify the general problem linear assumptions are exploited and the total velocity potential

expressed as the sum of two principal contributions: a steady base flow

a ship advancing with a certain velocity U 0 in calm water, and a perturbation unsteady potential

this unsteady potential can be further decomposed into an incident wave potential

potential

0,

US

a diffraction

As expressed in (6), this decomposition permits, after linearization, to separate the singular potentials as

the outcome of separate problems, therefore the hydrodynamic problem may be divided into a diffraction

problem, implying

and

7,

(6)

So, with the previous decomposition, a set of BVP has been stated for each of the motions ( j

and for wave diffraction ( j

7 ), assuming

1,...,6 )

299

on z

(7)

on z

(8)

j

en j

mj

on SH

(9)

on SH

(10)

where n is the generalized normal vector and m j represents the components of the vector expressed by:

mj

mj

for

j 1,2,3

for

(11)

4,5,6

For the numerical solution, both the body and the free surface are geometrically described using flat

quadrilateral panels: NSH represents the number of panels of the body surface, NSF the number of free

surface panels, for a total of N T

N SH

N SF .

For the body surface, the discretization depends on the complexity of the geometry shapes, therefore the

panel dimensions are decreased for the zones characterized by a complex shapes as, for example, the bow.

For the free surface, the grid dimension depends on the distance of the panel center from the body. In the

zone closed to the hull, the area of the free surface panels is not too different from the area of the adjacent

body panels, in order to maintain a geometrical continuity that gives stability to the numerical solution of

the problem. In the zone of the free surface away from the body, the grid spacing will be increased to

create a sort of numerical beach in order to absorb the outgoing waves.

Whereas in the frequency domain method of Bruzzone (2003) flat panels have been considered upon the

relevant surface as described in Hess and Smith (1964), in this study desingularized sources are used for

the free and for the body surface, in order to reduce the computational amount and to simplify the

influence matrix.

Every panel is identified by two reference points: the panel center xC , that can be assumed as the

collocation point, and the source point xS , placed exactly above the center of the panel at a distance Dd

given by the square root of the local mesh size or panel diagonal.

The velocity potential at any collocation point xC on the boundary of the fluid domain can be expressed

as:

300

xCi

N SH

j 1

xS j G xCi ; xS j

N SF

j 1

xS j G xCi ; xS j

(13)

where the function G xC ; xS is the relevant Rankine source Green functions for the 2D and 3D case.

From expression (13) and from its derivatives the boundary conditions (7-10) may be discretized and a

system of linear equations can be obtained and solved for the unknown source strengths; the resulting

influence matrix Aij is inverted using an LU factorization. Once the source strengths are found, the

potential and its derivatives can be found for every panel of the fluid domain.

In particular, the velocity potential computed on the free surface at a certain time step allow to update the

kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions (7) and (8); the time stepping is obtained using the AdamsBashforth third-order linear method. If T is the period of the oscillation the time-step size

ensure the numerical stability of the method may be assumed as T 100

sufficient to

T 200 , as suggested in

Bandyk (2009).

Once the current value of potential is obtained, the pressure on the hull surface can be calculated using the

Bernullis equation, in which time-derivative of the potential term is directly solved by incremental ratio

and the once related to the forward velocity of the body is considered.

The forces and moments acting on the hull are given by the integration of pressure on the body.

Applications

The fully desingularized approach previously described has been tested on both two dimensional and

three dimensional cases. A half circular section and a rectangular section (B/T=28) have been considered

for the 2D examples. The S-175 hull has been used as a 3D case. The numerical results must be validated

by comparison with adequate and reliable experimental results. It is not always possible to find them in

the open literature so, in order to test the accuracy of a method, in some cases numerical data obtained

from different approaches may be also considered.

For the 2D problem Vugts (1968) offers experimental results for various sections while the 3D outcomes

have been compared with the results from three other numerical approaches, in particular: a strip theory, a

3D Rankine source panel method in the frequency domain (Bruzzone 2003) and the semi-desingularized

3D results found in Zhang et al. (2010).

Figg.1-2 show the comparison between numerical and experimental data regarding added mass and

damping coefficients for the circular section, in sway and heave motions respectively. In Fig.3 the

horizontal and vertical diffraction forces has been reported. The comparison between two different

rectangular sections shown in figg.4-5 points out the influence of the B/T value, in particular for added

301

mass coefficient that assume high values for the low adimensional frequencies tested. The results seem to

exhibit good agreement with the experimental data and thus indirectly confirm also the choice of the

desingularization parameters.

Dealing with the 3D example, figg.68 present the added mass and damping coefficients computed for the

S175 hull in heave and pitch motions. In every condition a forward velocity is considered (Fn=0.275).

Comparisons show a good correspondence between the different methodologies since the coefficients

seem to agree adequately. The results obtained with the fully desingularized approach always stay

between the frequency domain method and the strip theory results, even if in the case of the B55

coefficient the current approach seems to be underestimated with respect to the strip theory values. The

cross-coefficients present a higher spreading and this may be found also in other similar applications

reported in literature. The 3D results obtained from the frequency domain code show limited differences

for added mass coefficients while the damping terms turns out to be more underestimated with respect to

the other approach: this behavior is a critical issue noted also in some previous applications of the

frequency code.

Fig.9 presents the ship responses for heave and pitch motions in head sea. The results has been compared

with experimental data available from Fonseca and Guedes Soares (2005) and with the numerical results

obtained from the frequency domain method. The RAO values seem to well agree for both cases, except

around the heave peak frequency, where the results from the 3D frequency domain method appear to be

higher, probably due to the previous described damping underestimation. The fully desingularized

approach gives a good approximation respect to the experimental data.

Conclusions

A linear method in the time domain for evaluating ship motions in waves has been presented. A fully

desingularization has been adopted in order to reduce computing time.

The method has been applied to two dimensional and three dimensional cases in regular waves including

the well known S175 containership. The obtained numerical results evidence a satisfactory correlation

when compared with experiments. Added mass and damping for the S175 hull, where experimental results

are not available, exhibit a behavior similar to other numerical methods. Further steps will regard the

inclusion of non linear effects and the transition toward a fully non linear approach.

References

Bandyk P., (2009). A body-exact strip theory approach to ship motions computations, PhD Thesis, Department of Naval

Architecture and Marine Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

302

Bruzzone, D., (2003). Application of a Rankine source method to the evaluation of motions of high speed marine vehicles,

Proceeding of the 8th International Marine Design Conference, Athens, Vol. II, pp. 69-79.

Bruzzone D., Grasso A., Zotti I., (2008). Nonlinear seakeeping analysis of catamarans with central bulb, Proc. Of the 6th

conference of high-speed performance marine vehicles, Naples, pp. 47-61.

Bruzzone D., Grasso A., (2009). Weakly nonlinear analysis of wave induced motions and load in head seas, Proceedings of

NAV09.

Bruzzone D., Gironi C., Grasso A., (2010). Nonlinear effects on motions and loads using an iterative time-frequency solver,

Proceeding of ITTC Workshop on Seakeeping, Seoul, Vol. I, pp. 17-27.

Fonseca N., Guedes Soares C., (2005). Comparison between experimental and numerical results of the nonlinear

vertical ship motions and loads on a containership in regular waves. Int. Shipbuilding Prog., 52, n. 1, pp. 57-89.

Hess J.L., Smith A.M.O., (1964). Calculation of non-lifting potential flow about arbitrary three-dimensional bodies. Journal of

Ship Research, Vol. 8, N.2, pp. 22-44.

Vugts J.H., (1968). The hydrodynamic coefficients for swaying, heaving and rolling cylinders in a free surface. International

Shipbuilding Progress 15, 251276.

Zhang X., Bandyk P., Beck R., (2010). Nonlinear Time-domain simulations of radiation and diffraction forces, Journal of Ship

Research, Vol. 54, N.2, June 2010, pp. 79-94.

303

Fig. 1. 2D added mass and damping coefficients in swaying for a circular section.

Fig. 2. 2D added mass and damping coefficients in heaving for a circular section.

304

Fig. 4. 2D added mass and damping coefficients in swaying for a circular and a box section (B/T=28).

Fig. 5. 2D added mass and damping coefficients in heaving for a circular and a box section (B/T=28).

Fig. 6. S 175 added mass and damping coefficients of heave due to heave for Fn=0.275

305

Fig. 7. S 175 added mass and damping coefficients of pitch due to pitch for Fn=0.275

Fig. 8. S 175 added mass and damping coefficients pitch due to heave for Fn=0.275

Fig. 9. S 175 OdR for heave and pitch motions for Fn=0.25

306

Element Method to Cavitating Marine Current Turbines

D. Usar, . Bal

stanbul Technical University, Turkey, usar@itu.edu.tr, sbal@itu.edu.tr

Abstract

In this study, both the classical blade element momentum (BEM) theory and a boundary element method

are applied to optimize a cavitating marine current turbine (MCT). The classical BEM theory refers to the

determination of optimal blade shape for any MCT by combining the equations of momentum theory and

blade element theory. These equations are basically developed for wind turbines which are very similar to

MCTs except cavity characteristics on blades. In addition, the tip speed ratios on MCTs are lower than

those of wind turbines due to the strength and cavitation requirements. On the other hand, a boundary

element method for cavitating 2-D hydrofoil sections is applied along the radius of blades to calculate the

section lift and cavity drag coefficients. The pressure is set to be equal to constant vaporize pressure of

water on the cavity surface and normal dipole and source panels are used on the cavity surfaces. The

cavity length and volume is solved in terms of cavitation number which can be computed for each

hydrofoil section along the blades of MCT. The application of the model is illustrated in a simple design

example and the results are discussed.

Keywords: Marine Current Turbine, Blade or Boundary Element Momentum Method, Cavitation, Hydrofoil

1. Introduction

In recent years, electricity energy generation from renewable sources such as wind, sun, marine and tidal

currents etc. has increased very rapidly than before. Their potential is very high to meet the worlds future

energy demand safely, cleanly and economically. The marine current turbines (MCT) that exploit

underwater currents for power generation are one of the renewable sources in oceans and seas. It is noted

in (Fraenkel, 2002) that MCTs are technically feasible and current resource is large enough to have the

potential to make a major contribution towards meeting the future energy demand. They provide also with

the regular and predictable energy as mentioned in (Charlier, 2003) and (Blunden and Bahaj, 2007). It is

very well-known that the MCT is basically very similar to the wind turbine in terms of its working

mechanism and its principle (Khan et.al, 2009). One of the main differences between MCT and wind

turbine is the cavitation which is an avoidable physical phenomenon. As is also very well-known that

307

cavitation is defined as the formation of vapor regions inside of a flowing liquid due to a decrease in the

local pressure. It appears in most of the blades of MCTs and should be included into the calculations.

In the past, a methodology for the hydrodynamic characteristics of MCT was presented in (Batten et.al,

2006). The turbine was modeled using the blade element momentum (BEM) theory. It was noted that

suitable section performance data, which also included the cavitation characteristics, were required for the

detailed design of the MCT blades. This investigation demonstrated how blade pitch angle or changes in

camber altered the stall performance and delayed the possibility of cavitation for MCTs. However, levels

of acceptance of cavitation are currently not yet clear (Batten et.al, 2006). On the other hand, in (Batten

et.al, 2008), the BEM theory was further developed for the design of MCTs. The theory included routines

for interpolation of 2-D section data and extrapolation for stall delay. Experimental verifications of

numerical predictions for hydrodynamic performance of MCTs were also presented in (Bahaj et.al,

2007a). It was indicated that two developed codes demonstrated similar trends in the results and provided

a satisfactory representation of experimental turbine performance (Bahaj et.al, 2007a). In addition, some

measurements from cavitation tunnel and a towing tank were given in (Bahaj et.al, 2007b). The results of

this experimental investigation provided an insight into the effect on performance of changes in the tip

immersion of the rotor and possible areas of cavitation inception. An experimental investigation on

cavitation, noise and slipstream characteristics of MCTs was conducted in (Wang et.al, 2007). The section

(foil) characteristics are also very important to design the blades of MCTs. Some measurements and

predictions of forces, pressures and cavitation characteristics on 2-D sections suitabe for MCTs were

given in (Molland et.al, 2004). An experimentally validated and developed BEM method was presented in

(Batten et.al, 2007) and some results (in terms of power, thrust and cavitation) were given for a model

turbine. Wake studies, on the other hand, for a model MCT could also be found in (Myers and Bahaj,

2007).

In the present study, however, the flow pattern and flow characteristics around a marine current turbine

(including cavity characteristics) are modeled by a BEM method. The blades of the marine current turbine

are divided into strips along the radius for the BEM method. The blade element analysis uses two

dimensional hydrofoil (section) characteristics and the coupling between momentum analysis and blade

element analysis allows the performance at a given tip speed ratio and a given radius to be calculated. In

order to compute the cavitating characteristics of flow around two dimensional sections, a potential based

panel method is used. This panel method discretizes with panels the exact surface of blade sections. The

method is inherently non-linear with either the thickness or the angle of attack that are very important to

308

model the proper cavity surface on the surface of blade section, since it makes no assumption about the

magnitude of these quantities. The panels are located on the exact cavity surface of which the shape is

determined iteratively, until the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions are both satisfied on that

surface. In the first iteration, the cavity panels are located on the wetted foil surface. Cavity shapes are

predicted from applying the dynamic cavity condition as the last iteration of the panel method. A cavity

closure condition is also applied to require the sum of the sources to be equal to zero. It should be

mentioned that it is determined the corresponding cavitation number and cavity shape for a given cavity

length which can be extended up to a given point. After computing the flow characteristics (including

cavity) of foil sections of blades, a span-wise integration produces the total torque, thrust and power. The

method is also very suitable for blade optimization. The results of blade element momentum method with

the corresponding panel method to include the cavity characteristics are compared with those of

experiments and other numerical methods given in literature. The strip-independence study is also

performed to get the converged results.

2. BEM Method

The hydrodynamic performance of a MCT, similar to wind turbine (Burton et.al, 2001), (Manwell et.al,

2002) and (Hansen, 2008), can be modeled by BEM method (Batten et.al, 2008). The BEM theory couples

the momentum theory with the blade element theory for which local events take place at the actual blades.

The stream tube introduced in the 1-D momentum theory is discretized into N annular elements of height

dr. It is assumed that there is no flow across the elements. The momentum theory is used to derive the

axial and circumferential inflow factors (a and a', respectively), with the introduction of a tip loss factor

(F), including the effect of finite number of rotor blades. The momentum solution for the differential

thrust and torque can be given as,

dT

4 r V 2 a (1 a) F dr

(1)

dQ

4 r 3V a (1 a) F dr

(2)

The blade element theory, on the other hand, is used to model the section drag and torque by dividing the

rotor blade into a number of strips along its span-wise direction. By the combination of these theories, at

each blade radius (strip), the rotor thrust loadings and power loadings are determined by matching the

fluid momentum changes to blade forces based on lift and drag coefficients (CL and CD) at the angles of

attack of the blade sections. The integration of the loadings across the blade allows the derivation of

torque, drag, and power coefficients for the blade. Since the details of BEM theory can be found in

(Hansen, 2008) and (Batten et.al, 2008), it is not repeated here.

309

Consider a cavitating 2-D hydrofoil (section) surface subject to a uniform inflow, as shown in Fig. 1, for

section cavity model.

The x axis is positive in the direction of uniform inflow and the z axis is positive upwards. S c, Sh and Sw

are the cavity, hydrofoil and wake surfaces, respectively. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid,

incompressible, and irrotational. Then the flow field can be expressed in terms of the total velocity

potential, , or the perturbation potential, , as follows:

( x, z)

( x, z) Vx

(3)

where, V is the velocity of incoming flow. The perturbation potential , and the total potential, , should

satisfy Laplaces equation in the fluid domain:

2

(4)

i. The kinematic boundary condition: The flow should be tangent to the surface of the hydrofoil and cavity

V n

(5)

where n is the unit normal vector to the hydrofoil or cavity surface directed into the fluid domain.

ii. The dynamic boundary condition on the cavity surface: The pressure is constant and equal to pv (pv :

vapor pressure) on the cavity surface. By applying Bernoullis equation, the total velocity on the cavity, q c

, can be given as (Kinnas and Fine 1993)

qc

V (1

(6)

310

p

1

pv

2

(7)

V2

iii. The Kutta condition: The velocity at the trailing edge of the hydrofoil is finite,

finite

(8)

iv. Cavity closure condition: The cavity closes at its trailing edge. The complicated physical phenomena

occurring at the cavity trailing edge are ignored and the region is represented by a termination model.

Please refer to (Kinnas and Fine 1993) for details. The cavity detachment point is assumed to be known

and in this study the leading edge of the hydrofoil is chosen as the cavity detachment point.

By applying Greens third identity to the governing equation (4) in the fluid domain, the following integral

equation for the perturbation potential on the hydrofoil surface and the cavity surface can be written,

SH

ln r

n

ln r dS

W

SW

ln r

dS

n

(9)

where, SH and SW are the boundaries of the hydrofoil (including the cavity surface) and the wake surface,

respectively. r is the distance between source point and field point.

wake surface, and n+ is the unit vector normal to the wake surface pointing upwards. After applying the

kinematic boundary condition (5) to equation (9), the following integral equation can be written for the

hydrofoil part, including cavity surface Sc,

SH

ln r

n

(V n ) ln r dS

W

SW

ln r

dS

n

(10)

Here, the hydrofoil and the cavity boundaries are discretized into straight panels with piecewise constant

source and dipole distributions. The discretized integral equation provides a matrix of equations with

respect to the unknown potential values and can be solved by any matrix solver. This is called a boundary

element method (panel method) for cavitating hydrofoils. Please refer to (Kinnas and Fine, 1993) and (Bal

and Kinnas, 2002) for details.

Then the coupling between BEM method and the cavity model which is solved by a boundary element

method is carried out by the following methodology. First, the cavitation numbers at different blade angles

are calculated by equation (7) for each section (strip) and then the above cavity model is applied to get the

311

lift value, drag value and cavity shape. The computed lift coefficients and drag coefficients (viscous drag

(from (Abbott and Doenhoff, 1959) + cavity drag) are now the input values for BEM method. After

applying BEM method (integrating the 2-D sectional characteristics), the thrust and power values versus

current speed can be found.

4. A Numerical Example

A three bladed MCT is chosen to compare the results of present methodology with those of given in

(Batten et.al, 2006). The chord radius ratio (c/R) is changing linearly from 0.125 at r=0.2R (at the hub) to

0.05 at r=R (at the tip). The twist along the span (radius) of blade is defined as

a tan(

r

)

4R

2 .

The blade sections (hydrofoils) are selected as NACA 0012 profiles. The chord/radius ratio and incidence

angles are shown in Fig. 2 and Fig.3, respectively.

312

The lift coefficient and drag coefficient (viscous drag + cavity drag (viscous drag values are taken from

(Abbott and Doenhoff, 1959))) values of each strip versus angle of attack and computed cavitation

numbers are given in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, respectively.

Moreover, the cavity shapes for each strip are shown in Fig. 6. The BEM method can now be applied

easily using Figs. 4 and 5.

313

In Fig. 7, the comparison of calculated power coefficient and thrust coefficient values with and without

blade cavitation versus tip speed ratio is presented.

Note that although the differences between the power coefficient values without cavitation and with

cavitation are small for higher tip speed ratios (higher than 5), the power coefficient with cavitation is

lower than that of without cavitation for small tip speed ratios (smaller than 5). The possible reason for

this is that the cavitation induces higher drag values for small tip speed ratios. Note also that thrust

314

coefficient values with cavitation are higher than those of without cavitation, since the cavitation surface

behaves like an added camber effect (cavity increases the lift coefficient of the section).

In Fig. 8 the calculated power coefficient values are compared with those of (Batten et.al, 2006).

The possible reason for the differences between the results of (Batten et.al, 2006) and those of present

methodology is that NACA 63-212 sections are used in the work of (Batten et.al, 2006). On the other hand

NACA 0012 sections are applied in the present calculations.

Conclusions

In this study, the classical BEM theory and a boundary element method for cavitating blade sections are

coupled to analyze a MCT. The followings are found:

1. The power coefficient, CP, has been reduced under the working condition with cavity, especially for tip

speed ratios considered to be relatively low at which the cavitation inception is more likely to occur. In

addition the difference between the power coefficient with and without cavitation is very small for higher

tip speed ratios.

2. The thrust coefficient, CT, has not been influenced significantly from cavity characteristics. CT values

are slightly increased due to the additional camber effect of cavitation (additional chamber means an extra

lift and thrust value).

315

3. There are differences between the power coefficient values of (Batten et.al, 2006) and the present

results since NACA 0012 sections are used instead of NACA 63-212 which are applied in (Batten et.al,

2006). This problem will be tackled in near future.

References

Abbott IH, von Doenhoff AE, (1959), Theory of Wing Sections, Dover Publ., NY, USA.

Bahaj AS, Batten WMJ, McCann G, (2007a), Experimental verifications of numerical predictions for the

hydrodynamic performance of horizontal axis Marine Current Turbines, Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, pp: 24792490.

Bahaj AS, Molland AF, Chaplin JR, Batten WMJ, (2007b), Power and thrust measurements of Marine Current

Turbines under various hydrodynamic flow conditions in a cavitation tunnel and a towing tank, Renewable Energy,

Vol. 32, pp: 407-426.

Bal S, Kinnas SA, (2002), A BEM for the prediction of free surface effect on cavitating hydrofoils, Computational

Mechanics, Vol. 28, pp: 260-274.

Batten WMJ, Bahaj AS, Molland AF, Chaplin JR, (2006), Hydrodynamics of Marine Current Turbines,

Renewable Energy, Vol. 31, pp: 249-256.

Batten WMJ, Bahaj AS, Molland AF, Chaplin JR, (2007), Experimentally Validated Numerical Method for the

Hydrodynamic Design of Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbines, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 34, pp: 1013-1020.

Batten WMJ, Bahaj AS, Molland AF, Chaplin JR, (2008), The prediction of Hydrodynamic performance of Marine

Current Turbines, Renewable Energy, Vol. 33, pp: 1085-1096.

Blunden LS, Bahaj AS, (2007), Tidal energy resource assessment for tidal stream generators, Proc. Inst. Mech.

Eng., Part A, Journal of Power and Energy, Vol. 221, No:2, pp: 137146.

Burton T, Sharpe D, Jenkins N, Bossanyi E, (2001), Wind Energy Handbook, John Wiley and Sons Inc., NY, USA.

Charlier RH, (2003), A sleeper awakes: tidal current power, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.

7, Issue 6, pp: 515-529.

Fraenkel PL, (2002), Power from marine currents, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, Journal of Power and Energy,

Vol. 216, Special Issue, pp: 114.

Hansen, MOL, (2008), Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, 2nd edition, Earthscan, London, UK.

Khan MJ, Bhuyan G, Iqbal MT, Quaicoe JE, (2009), Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion Systems and Assessment of

Horizontal and Vertical Axis Turbines for River and Tidal Applications: A Technology Status Review, Applied

Energy, Vol. 86, pp: 1823-1835.

Kinnas SA, Fine NE, (1993), A Numerical Nonlinear Analysis of the Flow around Two- and Three-Dimensional

Partially Cavitating Hydrofoils, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 254, pp: 151-181.

Manwell JF, McGowan JG, Rogers AL, (2002), Wind Energy Explained Theory, Design and Application, John

Wiley and Sons Inc,NY, USA.

Molland AF, Bahaj AS, Chaplin JR, Batten WMJ, (2004), Measurements and predictions of forces, pressures and

cavitation on 2-D sections suitable for marine current turbines, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part M, Journal of

Engineeing for Marine Environment, Vol. 218, No: 2, pp:127138.

Myers L, Bahaj AS, (2007), Wake Studies of a 1/30th Scale Horizontal Axis Marine Current Turbine, Ocean

Engineering, Vol. 34, pp: 758-762.

316

Tahsin Tezdoan, Ali Ihsan Aldogan

Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering., Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey,

tezdogan@itu.edu.tr

Abstract

A successfully designed ship is expected to fulfill her mission in almost all weather and sea states without

compromising her safety. This is particularly important for a warship and crew onboard to be able to

perform their complex tasks in good physical and mental state.

This paper presents comparative seakeeping performance analysis of a warship operating in Turkish

waters, which include Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea and Black Sea, for varying sea states, wave

headings and ship speeds.

The comparative analysis was conducted by using a commercial seakeeping package (ShipmoPC), which

is a strip theory based software, for the 6 degrees of freedom motion responses as well as the vertical

accelerations, and added wave resistance. The effect of active fins on the roll motion responses was also

explored. The analysis results were compared with the NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG

4154) criteria. The results were presented in standard graphical format and polar diagrams, and discussed

in details in the paper.

1. Introduction

The overall performance of a ship depends on the seakeeping performance in specified sea areas where the

vessel operates. She is supposed to perform her duties even in severe sea conditions. Therefore, prediction

of ship motions and seakeeping performance are very important for a ship in the preliminary design stage.

In this paper, some seakeeping analyses were conducted for a warship operating in Turkish waters for

varying sea states, wave headings and ship speeds. The results of analysis were presented in graphical

format.

The factors which lead to restrict performance of a warship in a seaway may be listed as follows:

Severe ship motions due to waves

Motion induced interruptions

High accelerations

Slamming

Deck wetness

Propeller emergence

317

In order to assess of seakeeping performance of a warship in a specified sea environment, these inputs

must be identified completely:

Type of a warship and her missions

Principal dimensions and hull geometry

Mass distribution

Coordinates of critical points for the vessel such as helipad, bridge deck, combat operations center

Sea areas where the ship operates and sea states

Seakeeping criteria which is determined in accordance with her type, her mission, and her

armament

After the determination of foregoing inputs, seakeeping analysis of a warship was carried out by the aid of

a commercial seakeeping package, ShipmoPC, which is a 2-D strip theory based software (BMT, 2001).

These calculations include ship responses in regular and irregular seas, added resistance due to waves,

vertical acceleration, and slamming. In addition, the effect of active fins on the roll motion responses was

also explored.

1.1. Basic properties of the sample warship

The sample warship studied in this paper is a landing ship, which is a form of amphibious warship

designed to support amphibious operations. These amphibious assault ships transport and launch

amphibious craft and vehicles with their crews and embarked personnel (Web 1).

Principal dimensions of the vessel are given in table 1. Ship geometry is divided into 20 stations and 0.

station is regarded as aft perpendicular. At the same time, mass properties related to these stations are

entered into the software. Besides, bilge keel, skeg, rudder, shaft brackets and active roll fins are modeled

in the software.

Table 1. Principal dimensions of the warship

LBP

k yy

208 m.

52 m.

7 m.

CB

25,430 ton

0.540

Ship responses in regular seas are calculated in order to obtain ship responses in irregular seas using the

linear superposition principle.

Ship motions in regular seas can be predicted experimentally, but this may not be appropriate in

preliminary design stage because data of the ship may be changed frequently. Therefore, it is really

expensive and laborious to conduct experiments for every changing situation.

318

It may be noted that warships with slender geometry are very suitable for 2-D linear strip theory

application. ShipmoPC provides motion predictions using a frequency domain strip theory of Salvesen

et al. (1970). For lateral plane motions, appendage and viscous forces are highly important, so their

effects are computed using Schmitkes method (1978).

In ShipmoPC, two dimensional sectional hydrodynamic coefficients are determined using either Lewis

form method (1929) or boundary element method (Sclavounos and Lee, 1985). In this paper, the

boundary element method is chosen to compute sectional hydrodynamic properties.

Heave and pitch responses of the warship for varying headings are presented in figure 1 and 2. In these

graphics, wave frequency is given in the apsis (rad/sec), whereas the ordinate represents response

amplitude operator (RAO). These values are computed for 22 knot ship speed.

Linear motion amplitudes are non-dimensionalised by dividing by the wave amplitude ( a) for

translation motions (surge, sway, heave), and by dividing by the wave slope amplitude (k a) for angular

motions (roll, pitch, yaw).

As seen in fig. 1 and 2, heave amplitudes reach maximum values in beam seas; on the other hand the

highest pitch amplitudes are occurred in head waves.

319

The resistance of a ship in a seaway is known to be greater than the ship resistance in calm water. The

difference between these two values is called the added resistance. Added resistance due to the waves is

predicted not only experimentally but also analytically from the ship motions using the strip theory. The

added resistance prediction in ShipmoPC is executed using the near-field method given by Faltinsen et al.

(1980).

The added wave resistance of the warship for varying speeds is shown in figure 3. Horizontal axis of the

graphic is non-dimensional encounter frequency coefficient, and the vertical axis is non-dimensional

added resistance coefficient. These coefficients are derived as given in equation 1 and 2:

Non-dimensional encounter frequency coefficient: e=e(L/g)0.5

Non-dimensional added resistance coefficient:

RAW

g a2 ( B 2 / L)

AW

(1)

(2)

The maximum added resistance is to be expected in head waves, so the added resistance prediction in

figure 3 is computed for regular head waves. It is obvious from figure 3 that added resistance increases

with increasing ship speed.

320

Fig. 3. Added resistance curves of the warship for varying ship speeds in regular head waves

The regular waves are seldom found in nature and hence the RAOs are of little consequence on their own.

The natural seaway in which a ship operates can only be described by means of a statistical model. The

spectrum or spectral density function is the primary device used for representing the seaway and the

oscillatory response of the vessel to the seaway. The wave characteristics of an area must be known in

terms of the distribution of wave energy with respect to frequency and direction, as well as the severity of

seas as indicated by the wave height probability distributions. The wave energy distribution within various

wave height bands can be represented through the use of a wave spectral family, Sarioz and Narli (2005).

The most used mathematical sea spectrum model is two-parameter ITTC spectrum (ITTC, 1978).

A

5

exp

(3)

A 173

2

H1/3

and B

T

691

T14

(4)

where T1 is mean wave period and modal wave period equals Tm=1.2958T1.

In this paper, two-parameter ITTC spectrum is used to model Turkish waters including Mediterranean

Sea, Aegean Sea and Black Sea. Significant wave heights and modal wave periods to represent Turkish

waters are given in table 2.

321

Table 2. Significant wave heights and modal periods for varying sea states for Turkish waters (Tezdoan, 2011)

Sea State

Significant Wave

Height (m)

1

2

3

4

5

6

0.05

0.30

0.88

1.88

3.25

5.00

Black sea

Mediterranean

3.53

4.14

5.41

7.28

9.1

10.19

4.42

5.00

6.25

8.15

10.16

11.74

Aegean sea

3.63

4.01

4.86

6.25

7.96

9.81

Ship responses in a seaway are obtained by superposition of the transfer functions with the wave spectral

family (Sarioz and Narli, 2005).

Szz=SRAO2

(5)

According to Lloyd, for ship design purposes the most common practise is to use short crested sea with

90 spreading angle (1989), so all calculations in this paper are carried out accordingly.

Fig. 4. Comparison of RMS heave amplitudes in Turkish waters with 22 knot ship speed (sea state: 6)

Fig. 5. Comparison of RMS pitch amplitudes in Turkish waters with 22 knot ship speed (sea state: 6)

322

RMS heave and pitch displacements in irregular seas are shown in figure 4 and 5, respectively. In these

calculations, significant wave height and modal period values are chosen at sea state 6 given in table 2.

According to these graphics, blue curves represent Mediterranean Sea, red curves represent Black Sea, and

green ones present Aegean Sea. As shown in figure 4 and 5, heave and pitch amplitudes reach maximum

values in Mediterranean among the other seas.

4.1. Rolling analysis

Rolling has a remarkable importance on human comfort and safety of the cargo. Hence, it should be

predicted with enough accuracy. Despite the great impact of rolling on ship operations, it is the most

difficult motion to predict because of the viscous effects. According to McTaggart, ShipmoPC uses the

Schmitkes method to include viscous effects in lateral motions (1997).

The polar diagram showing RMS roll amplitudes of the warship for different ship speeds in Mediterranean

(sea state: 6) is given in figure 6. It can be said that the most severe roll amplitude is predicted for zero

speed in beam seas (approx. 4). Roll motion is decreasing with the increasing ship speed between 0-22

knots speed interval.

Fig. 6. Polar diagram shows RMS roll amplitudes for different ship speeds (Mediterranean, sea state: 6)

Active roll stabiliser fins are usually mounted on rotatable stocks at the turn of the bilge near the middle of

the ship. The angle of incidence of the fins is continually adjusted by a control system which is sensitive

to the rolling motion of the ship. The fins develop lift forces which exert roll moments about the centre of

323

gravity of the ships. There roll moments are arranged to oppose the moment applied by the waves and the

roll motion is reduced, Lloyd (1989).

The warship has active roll fin besides bilge keel. Some properties of the active fin are given in table 3.

In this part, performance of the active roll fin is assessed. For this purpose, rms roll amplitudes are

calculated considering the effect of roll fin firstly, and then the same analysis is carried out without roll fin

in the same sea conditions. Analysis of roll motion is performed in Mediterranean (sea state: 6) for 22

knots ship speed. In all circumstances, the contribution of the bilge keel to roll motion is included to the

calculations. The comparative graphic is shown in figure 7.

Table 3. Properties of the active roll fin (Tezdoan, 2011)

Properties

Roll acceleration gain

Roll velocity gain

Control system natural frequency

Control system damping ratio

Values

4.130 sec2

4.070 sec

0.492 rad/sec

0.076 (-)

Fig. 7. The effect of active roll fin on roll amplitudes for 22 knots ship speed (Mediterranean, sea state: 6)

It is stated that the active roll fin reduces maximum roll amplitudes by approx. 44% according to figure 7.

The vessel should purpose to minimize roll amplitudes to carry on her tasks safely.

4.3. Vertical acceleration analysis

The amplitude of vertical acceleration ( z )a at any point along the ship length is given by (Bhattacharyya,

1978):

( z )2a

( z )2a

xb2 ( )a2

2( z )a ( )a xb cos

(6)

where ( z )a is the amplitude of heaving acceleration at the CG, and ( ) a is the amplitude of pitching

acceleration at the CG.

324

Figure 8 shows the effect of changing severity of the sea on vertical acceleration. The calculations are done in

head seas for different vessel speeds.

The analyses are conducted at a point on the bridge deck. The ordinate of the figure 8 is given as significant

vertical acceleration, whereas the x-axis represents varying sea states. As seen in figure 8, the significant

vertical acceleration values are increasing as the severity of the sea goes up. As expected, vertical acceleration

increases with ascending ship speed.

Figure 9 illustrates the effect of changing longitudinal location on vertical acceleration in sea state 6 in

Mediterranean at 16 and 22 knots. The calculations are done on the centerline of the warship at the same height

as the vertical center of gravity (VCG). It may be noted that there is a strong dependence on longitudinal

location, and RMS vertical acceleration is 3.75 times greater at forward perpendicular than at Station 8 (at 22

knots).

Fig. 8. Effect of severity of the sea on vertical acceleration for varying ship speeds in head seas (Black Sea)

Fig. 9. Effect of longitudinal location on vertical acceleration in head seas (Mediterranean, sea state: 6)

325

5. Seakeeping Criteria

Sarioz and Narli point out that in order to assess the effect of seakeeping performance on the mission

capability of the vessel the mission requirements need to be translated into seakeeping performance

requirements (Sarioz and Narli, 2005).

Criterions for seakeeping performance are different for all vessels with respect to their types, missions and

armament. Also, most of criterions can vary depending on the location and region. Every mission has its

own special limit value that makes seakeeping criteria a complex issue.

Some limit values for a warship which has transit and patrol missions are given in table 3. These values

may be appropriate for the warship discussed in this paper.

Table 3. Seakeeping criteria: transit and patrol mission (NATO, 2000)

Parameter

Limit Value

Roll angle

Pitch angle

Vertical acceleration

0.2 RMS g

30 per hour

20 per hour

Conclusions

Examining analyses results, it is appeared that the highest values of ship motions, added resistance, and

vertical acceleration are occurred in Mediterranean Sea, and then it is followed by Black Sea and Aegean

Sea.

The motions in regular seas are computed in order to calculate ship responses in irregular seaways using

the linear superposition principle. The challenging part of predicting ship responses in irregular seas is to

model real sea waves adequately. To do this, some mathematical sea spectrums are derived and

consequently they simplify the calculations.

In this paper, two-parameter ITTC spectrum has been used to model Turkish waters. All the analyses have

been done according to this.

The effect of active roll fin has been evaluated and it may be noted that it reduces maximum roll

amplitudes by approx. 44%.

326

In the next part, vertical accelerations have been computed and the effect of longitudinal position on

vertical acceleration has been assessed. It may be concluded that the influence of longitudinal location is

very significant and RMS vertical acceleration is 3.75 times greater at forward perpendicular than at

Station 8.

Finally, seakeeping criteria is explained briefly. Seakeeping performance of a warship enormously

depends on the chosen limit values. Sample seakeeping criterions taken from STANAG 4154 have been

given in the paper.

Acknowledgements

This paper has been dedicated in the memory of Prof. Dr. Ali Ihsan ALDOAN, who passed away on 11th

of February, 2011.

I wish to thank to Prof. Dr. Mehmet ATLAR who gave me his support at Newcastle University. I am

really grateful to him for his assistance. I would like to also thank to my thesis advisor, Prof. Dr. Metin

TAYLAN, who shared all his experience and knowledge with me.

References

Bhattacharyya, R., (1978). Dynamics of Marine Vehicles. McCormick, M. E. (Ed.), Wiley, New York.

British Maritime Technology (BMT), (2001). ShipmoPC Version 3 User Manual. Revision 10, BMT Fleet

Technology Limited, Canada, pp. 107.

Faltinsen, O. M., Minsaas, K. J., Liapis, N. and Skjordal, S. O., (1980). Prediction of resistance and propulsion of a

ship in seaway. 13th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Tokyo, 505-529.

ITTC Seakeeping Committee Report, (1978). 15th International Towing Tank Conference, The Hague, 1, 55-114.

Lewis, F. M., (1929). The inertia of water surrounding a vibrating ship. Transactions of SNAME 37, 1-20.

Lloyd, A. R. J. M., (1989). Seakeeping: Ship Behaviour in Rough Weather. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK.

McTaggart, K. A., (1997). Shipmo7: An Updated Strip Theory Program for Predicting Ship Motions and Sea Loads

in Waves. Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, Technical Memorandum 96/243.

NATO, (2000). Common Procedures for Seakeeping in the Ship Design Process. Standardization Agreement

(STANAG 4154).

Salvesen N., Tuck E. O. and Faltinsen O., (1970). Ship motions and sea loads. Transactions of SNAME 78, 250-287.

Sarioz, K. and Narli, E., (2005). Effect of criteria on seakeeping performance assessment.Ocean Eng.32, 1161-1173.

Schmitke, R. T., (1978). Ship sway, roll, and yaw motions in oblique seas. Transactions of SNAME 86, 26-46.

Sclavounos, P. D. and Lee, C., (1985). Topics on boundary element solutions of wave radiation-diffraction problems.

4th International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, Washington.

Tezdoan, T., (2011). Investigation of ship motions and application to ships (in Turkish) (master thesis). Istanbul

Technical University Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology.

Web 1, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dock_landing_ship

327

Tahsin Tezdoan, Metin Taylan

Dept. of Naval Architetcure and Marine Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey,

tezdogan@itu.edu.tr, taylan@itu.edu.tr

Abstract

The best way of validating theory on ship motions is to compare the outcome with that of the experimental

analysis. In this work, a commercial seakeeping package, which is based on the strip theory, has been

utilized. The software provides motion predictions and sea loads using 2-D linear strip theory of Salvesen

et al. (1970).

This paper presents the comparative study of theoretical ship motions with experimental work. Detailed

analyses were performed for a series 60 ship having block coefficient of 0.70 and a cargo ship in regular

head waves using the software, and then the results were compared with the experimental data. For a

series 60 ship form, experimental results are available in the literature, whereas for the cargo ship, the

model experiments were conducted at ITU Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory.

The results were presented in graphical form, and discussed in details. Comparing the output of the

software with the experimental results for both vessels, it may be said that there is a considerable

correlation between them.

Keywords: Seakeeping, Strip Theory, Ship Motions, Experiment

1. Introduction

In this paper, comparison of theoretical ship motions with experiment is expressed. Two different ships

were taken into the consideration for this purpose. Transfer functions of ship responses in regular seas

were obtained by the aid of the software for varying ship speeds, headings and wave frequencies. The

results were compared with model experiments for both ship types.

First of all, transfer functions for series 60 form with in regular head waves at zero speed are computed

and compared with experimental data found in literature. In the following section, motions of a cargo ship

with transom stern is examined. These results are compared with experiments data obtained in model ship

laboratory of ITU.

329

Under the assumptions that the responses are linear and harmonic, the equations of motion for a ship

advancing at constant forward speed with arbitrary heading in regular sinusoidal waves can be written in

the following form:

6

k 1

M jk

Ajk

B jk

C jk

Fj ei et , j 1, 2,3,..., 6

(1)

where Mjk are the components of the generalized mass matrix, Ajk and Bjk are the added mass and damping

coefficients, Cjk are the hydrostatic restoring coefficients, and Fj are the complex amplitudes of the

exciting force and moment. j=1,2,3,,6 refer to the surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch, and yaw motion,

respectively. The dots stand for time derivatives (Sarioz et al, 2000).

2.1 Series 60 CB=0.70 form

The general characteristics of sample Series 60 ship studied in this paper is given in table 1. The body plan

of the ship form is illustrated in figure 1.

Table 1. Principal dimensions of the series 60 CB=0.70 form

LBP

LCB

CB

121.920

17.417

6.857

0.700

Fig. 1. Body plan of the series 60 CB=0.70 form (Sarioz et al, 2000)

Heave and pitch RAOs for series 60 CB=0.70 form are calculated by using the software, and the outputs of

the software are compared with experimental results, extracted from reports of Gerritsma and Beukelman

(1966). The experiments were conducted for different model speeds corresponding to Fn=0.15, 0.20, 0.25,

and 0.30 in regular head waves. Heave and pitch amplitudes and phases in head seas were measured in

regular waves with two different wave height to wave length ratio, namely 1/50 and 1/40 (Sarioz et al.,

2000)

330

All these comparisons in head sea conditions are shown between figures 2 and 9 for the Series 60 hull

having CB=0.70.

As given between figure 2 and figure 9, it may be said that the outputs of the software are quite

compatible with the experimental results even in high Froude numbers. These results may indicate that the

software is successful at application of linear strip theory to series 60 forms in regular head seas.

331

Some seakeeping experiments have been conducted in ITU Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory for

a cargo ship with transom stern for varying model speeds corresponding to Fn=0.0, 0.089, 0.1425, and

0.2138 in regular head waves. Heave and pitch RAOs for the ship and added resistance due to waves are

computed in consequence of the experiments. The analytical analyses for the same conditions are made

by the aid of the software. All analyses values are illustrated in the same graphic in order to see the

difference and make a clear comparison.

The principal properties of the ship form are given in table 2. Strip theory is actually very suitable for

slender ship forms. The cargo ship has a fuller hull form (CB=0.80), so it may not be appropriate for linear

strip theory application. Besides she has a transom stern which makes end effects correction mandatory.

This is a correction to the hydrodynamic coefficients for the effects at the aftermost station (BMT,

2001). Classic strip linear theory does not include these corrections, since it assumes that ship sectional

area varies gradually along the ship length (McTaggart, 1997). However, this is not applicable to a

transom stern ship. End effect correction is applied to the cargo ship int.

Due to these reasons, the correlation between experimental results and the outputs of the software has a

great importance to detect reliability of the software.

Table 1. Principal dimensions of the cargo ship (Tezdogan, 2011)

LBP

B/T

CB

Vs

84.94 m.

2.44

0.800

12 kn.

5906 t.

Heave and pitch RAOs for the cargo ship at zero ship speed are given in Figure 10. Heave and pitch RAOs

for the cargo ship at Fn=0.089, 0.1425, and Fn=0.2138 are given in Figure 11, Figure 12 and Figure 13,

respectively. Blue points on the graphics symbolize experimental results, and green lines present outputs

332

of the software. According to these graphics, it may be noted that there is a strong concordance between

experiments and the software.

Fig. 10. Comparison of a) heave RAO, b) pitch RAO for the cargo ship (Fn=0.00, head waves)

Fig. 11. Comparison of a) heave RAO, b) pitch RAO for the cargo ship (Fn=0.089, head waves)

Fig. 12. Comparison of a) heave RAO, b) pitch RAO for the cargo ship (Fn=0.1425, head waves)

Fig. 13. Comparison of a) heave RAO, b) pitch RAO for the cargo ship (Fn=0.2138, head waves)

333

the cargo ship for varying Froude numbers

in regular head waves

a)Fn=0.089, b)Fn=0.1425, c)Fn=0.2138

The added resistance prediction in the software is performed using the near-field method given by

Faltinsen et al. (1980). The added wave resistances of the cargo ship for varying Froude numbers are

shown in figure 13. Horizontal axis of the graphic is wave length to ship length ratio, and the vertical axis

is non-dimensional added resistance coefficient. This coefficient is given in equation 2:

Non-dimensional added resistance coefficient:

AW

RAW

g a2 ( B 2 / L)

(2)

As seen in figure 13, there is a good agreement between added resistance analyses and experimental

results for the cargo ship model in regular head seas. Peaks in the software curves (green lines) are higher

than the experimental data.

Conclusions

A comparative study of ship motions between the theory and experiment has been presented in this study.

Basic ship motions, derived responses such as vertical and lateral accelerations, added resistance, motion

induced interruption, slamming, propeller emergence, deck wetness, and sea loads, as well are computed

for ships in regular and irregular seas in the software for varying ship speeds, headings and wave

frequencies. However, only heave and pitch regular wave responses, i.e. the transfer functions or response

amplitude operators (RAO) have been calculated and compared to experimental results within the scope of

334

this paper. In addition, prediction of added resistance due to waves in regular head seas have been made

by using the software and compared to the experimental data conducted in in ITU Ata Nutku Laboratory.

Seakeeping analyses have been performed for two different ship types: a series with 60 CB=0.70 form and

a cargo ship which has a fuller form. All the results given in a comparative form were shown in details in

the paper. The intrinsic approach of the software provides fair agreement with experimental results with

respect to all graphics. Finally, reliability of the software to predict the ship motions was tried to present in

the paper.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Prof. Kadir Sarioz, who shared views and some documents and also Assoc.

Prof. Emin Korkut for his contribution in the experiments.

References

British Maritime Technology (BMT), 2001. ShipmoPC Version 3 User Manual. Revision 10, BMT Fleet Technology

Limited, Canada, pp. 107.

Faltinsen, O. M., Minsaas, K. J., Liapis, N. and Skjordal, S. O., 1980. Prediction of resistance and propulsion of a

ship in seaway. 13th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Tokyo, 505-529.

Gerritsma, J. ve Beukelman, W., 1966. Comparison of calculated and measured heaving and pitching motions of a

Series 60 ship model in regular longitudinal waves. Laboratorium voor Scheepsbouwkunde, Technische Hogeschool

Delft, Report No 139.

McTaggart, K. A., 1997. Shipmo7: An Updated Strip Theory Program for Predicting Ship Motions and Sea Loads in

Waves. Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, Technical Memorandum 96/243.

Salvesen N., Tuck E. O. and Faltinsen O., 1970. Ship motions and sea loads. Transactions of SNAME 78, 250-287.

Sarioz, K., Kukner, A. and Narli, E., 2000. Validation of a strip theory based ship motion prediction program. ITU

Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering Department of Ocean Engineering, 31-37.

Tezdogan, T., 2011. Investigation of ship motions and application to ships (master thesis, in Turkish)., Istanbul

Technical University Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology.

335

Emre PEMAN, Metin TAYLAN

stanbul Technical University, Turkey, pesman@itu.edu.tr, taylan@itu.edu.tr

Abstract

This paper examines the influence of encounter angle on parametric roll motion of ships in regular

longitudinal and quartering waves. Parametric roll is known as a dangerous phenomenon typically occurs

in longitudinal waves where wave length is approximately equal to the ship length at an encounter

frequency twice and equal that of the roll natural frequency. A nonlinear roll motion model was set up and

solved by a numerical method in time domain. Maximum roll amplitudes of various sample ships were

calculated with respect to ship speed and encounter angle by using a singledegreeoffreedom model

incorporating heave and pitch effects by means of restoring moment variations. On the other hand,

restoring moment variations in waves with respect to time and instantaneous roll angle was modeled

analytically between the righting moment curves for the wave crest and wave trough conditions. Effect of

encounter angle was also introduced to the model by using a simple function in restoring moment term. It

was shown that the effect of encounter angle strongly depends on encounter frequency and ship hull form.

Results for several ship forms are presented in terms of polar diagrams which may guide ship operators

and designers in order to avoid the dangerous zones where parametric resonance is likely to occur.

Keywords: Parametric resonance, following and quartering waves, encounter angle.

1. Introduction

The phenomenon of parametrically excited roll motion has been known for a long time (Kempf, 1938).

Parametric roll motion have been studied by a number of researchers including Graff, Heckscher (1941),

Kerwin (1955), Paulling and Rosenberg (1959). The first experimental observation of parametric roll was

done by Paulling et al (1972) in SanFrancisco Bay. Although its theoretical existence has been known for

a long time, parametric roll attracted a great deal of interest in recent years because of the incidents that

resulted in loss of lives and money.

encountered extreme weather and sustained extensive loss and damage to deck stowed containers (France

et al, 2003). These casualties urged designers, researchers and regulatory authorities to initiate further

research and investigations. In further studies, researchers such as Spyrou (2000), Neves, Rodrigues

(2006) and Bulian et al (2004) focused on nonlinear aspects and effect of changing frequency range on

337

parametric roll motion. In another aspect, some researchers focused on probabilistic properties of

parametric roll (Shin et al, 2004; Belenky, 2004; Hashimoto et al, 2006; Bulian et al, 2006). Besides

researchers, regulatory and classification societies have also been studying parametric roll. Current IMO

intact stability code has been mainly formed with the static and quasistatic stability rules. The need to

develop stability criteria with the latest achievements in the research of dynamic intact stability physical

mechanisms has been indicated. The IMO working group proposed the framework for the development of

the new criteria on the meetings in 2007 (SLF 50/WP.2, 2007). ABS presented a guide to predict

parametric roll resonance in preliminary design (Shin et al., 2004). The state of the art in methodology

development and regulations for assessment of ship intact stability can be found in Francescutto (2007).

This paper examines the influence of encounter angle on parametric roll motion of ships in regular

longitudinal and quartering waves. For this purpose, various hull forms having different geometries were

investigated for numerous wave conditions. In the present study, parametrically excited roll motion is

modeled as a single degree of freedom system incorporating heave and pitch effects by means of restoring

moment variations. Bulian (2006) approximated GZ surface with polynomial coefficients and Fourier

series. The model presented in this study may be considered as simplified version of the earlier work.

Restoring moment variations in waves with respect to time and instantaneous roll angle was modeled

analytically between the righting moment curves for the wave crest and wave trough conditions. Simply,

the polynomial coefficients of wave crest and wave trough GZ curves and sinusoidal function were

utilized unlike the previous approach. Effect of encounter angle was also introduced to the model by using

a simple function in restoring moment term. Model was set up and solved by DormandPrince Method in

time domain (Dormand & Prince, 1980).

2. Mathematical Model

In general, the equation of roll motion in regular longitudinal waves can be written as follows:

(I xx + I xx ) + B(, ) + GZ ( , t ) = 0

(1)

where:

(I xx + I xx )

: Moment of inertia,

: Roll angle,

B (, )

: Damping function,

GZ ( , t )

: Restoring function.

338

+ b(, ) +

0 2

GM 0

GZ ( , t ) = 0

(2)

In the above equation, GZ ( , t ) may be approximated by the following expression neglecting surge and

FroudeKrylov forces. In this study, the restoring moment variation is modeled by using only wave crest

and wave trough restoring moment curves.

N

2 n 1

(3)

n =1

The coefficients m and k in Eq. (3) are obtained from righting lever curves in wave crest and wave

trough conditions.

m2 n1 =

k 2 n 1 =

c2 n 1,trough + c2 n 1,crest

(4)

c2 n 1,trough c2 n1,crest

(5)

( )

b , = 2 + + 3

(6)

In Eq. (4) and (5), c2n1,crest and c2n1,trough show the coefficients of polynomials fitted to restoring lever

curves in wave trough and wave crest conditions. When the ship is in upright position, she is usually

symmetrically loaded, so the even terms of the polynomial approximation of the righting lever curve

disappear. In this work, seventh degree polynomials are utilized for developing the restoring lever

surfaces. The nonlinear damping term is used and is given in Eq. (6). Coefficients of the damping function

were addressed by Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka (1978).

Substitution of Eq. (6) and Eq. (3) in Eq. (2) leads to the following differential equation:

+ 2 + + 3 + 0 2

2 n 1

N

(m 2 n 1 + k 2 n 1 cos( e t ) )

n =1

=0

(7)

GM 0

339

Restoring moment term of Eq. (7) was developed to take into account encounter angle by using a simple

function in front of k2n1 coefficient. Restoring moment values in various encounter angles were calculated

by a standard stability program. Results showed that Cos() function is applicable to identify variation of

restoring moment value related to encounter angle (Fig. 1).

By adding excitation term and function of encounter angle, the model was generated as follows;

+ 2 + + 3 +

0 2

GM0

n=1

2n 1

H 2

= 0 sin( ) cos(e t )

(8)

3. Sample Ships

In this paper, 8 different ship forms were used. Ships were named as C1, RR1, RR2, F1, D2, D1F, D1W

and D1T. C1 is a PostPanamax C11class containership (France et al., 2003). RR1 is a RoRo ship whose

experimental tests were carried out at the towing tank of DINMA (Bullian, 2006) and INSEAN

Laboratory (Bullian, 2006). RR2 is also a RoRo ship smaller than RR1. Experimental tests of RR2, F1

(frigate) and D2 (destroyer) were carried out at the towing tank of DINMA (Bullian, 2006). D1F, D1W

and D1T are destroyers whose underbodies are similar in size and characteristics as DDG51 but above

water shapes are different. D1F has 10 flare, D1W has a parallel body and D1T has 10 tumblehome

abovewater forms (McCue et al., 2007). Main characteristics and forms of sample ships are given in

Table 1 and Figure 2, respectively.

340

C1

D1F

Type

Container

Destroyer Flared

LBP

262.00

154.00

B

40.00

18.80

T

12.360

5.500

KG

17.550

8.200

D1W

Destroyer Wallsided

154.00

18.80

5.500

8.200

D1T

D2

F1

RR1

RR2

Destroyer Tumblehome

Destroyer

Frigate

RoRo

RoRo

154.00

126.60

120.00

132.22

52.55

18.80

13.65

14.25

19.00

10.00

5.500

3.985

4.060

5.875

2.100

8.200

5.800

6.557

8.660

4.558

C1

RR1

RR2

F1

D2

D1F

D1W

D1T

4. Results

The analyses were carried out for 1/30 wave slope for 8 sample ship forms. Roll amplitudes are given in

Fig. 3 as polar diagrams with respect to ship speed and encounter angle.

C1

D2

341

RR1

D1F

D1W

RR2

F1

D1T

Fig. 3. Roll amplitudes with respect to ship speed and encounter angle (H/L: 1/30).

It is observed that risky conditions regarding ships mainly depend upon their geometry and natural

frequency. As it can be seen from Fig. 3; C1, RR1 and F1 forms have large amplitudes; more than 30 in

head waves. These ships encounter parametric resonance in head waves at low speeds for encounter

angles between 0 and 60. C1, RR1 and F1 ship forms also experience parametric resonance in following

waves, but roll amplitudes which occur in higher speeds for encounter angles between 120 and 175, do

not exceed 20. However, an adverse behavior is observed for ship forms, D2, D1F and D1W. These

ships experience parametric resonance in quartering waves between the encounter angles of 100 and

150. Besides, roll amplitudes in head waves do not exceed 15. On the other hand, large amplitude

parametric roll motion is observed in both head waves and quartering waves for RR2 and D1T ship forms.

By using Mathieu equation, stability of the trivial solution, in other words, minimum and maximum

342

critical ship speeds can be determined practically (Mathieu, 1868; Hayashi, 1964; Nayfeh & Mook, 1979).

Stability of the trivial solution of Eq. (8) can be found as follows:

Let, f(t) be a small perturbation of the upright condition 0 . Substituting f(t) in Eq. (8) leads to the

following differential equation governing the evolution of the perturbation:

f + 2f + [ 1 + 1 cos( )] f = 0

(9)

In Eq. (9), since f(t) is supposed to be small, only the linear terms are kept. Eq. (9) can be recognized as a

form of the Mathieu equation. By transforming Eq. (9) into the standard form of the Mathieu equation and

utilizing known characteristics of Mathieu equation, stability of the upright condition in other words

minimum and maximum critical ship speeds are obtained. Following transformation is used to obtain the

standard Mathieu equation.

(10)

After substituting of Eq. (10) into Eq. (9) and dividing both side of equation by , the following equation

is obtained:

d2 f

+ 2

( )]

df

+ 1 + 1 cos f = 0

d

(11)

; 1 = 12 ; 1 = 12

e

(12)

( ))

f + 2 f + p + q cos f = 0

(13)

() ()

f = x .e

d2x

d

(14)

( )]

+ p + q cos x = 0 (15)

p = 1

);

q = 1

(16)

InceStrutt diagram is plotted in Fig. 4 by utilizing Floquet method (Floquet, 1883). Risky speeds of first

parametric resonance region (e=2 o) and second parametric resonance region (e=o) are determined by

using InceStrutt diagram and plotted in Fig. 3 for longitudinal waves and nondamped condition. Results

show that parametric roll motion occurs in two regions which are being encounter frequency twice of the

natural frequency (e=2 o) and equal to the natural frequency (e=o). Results also reveal that parametric

roll motion generally occurs in head waves in the neighborhood of e=2 o and occurs in quartering

343

waves in the neighborhood of e=o. Fig. 3 clearly shows that results of nonlinear model and Mathieu

equation agree with each other. In addition, results of nonlinear model are bounded by the results of

Mathieu equation. Without the necessity of solving nonlinear model, critic ship speeds with respect to

encounter angle can be determined by obtaining risky speeds in longitudinal waves by using InceStrutt

diagram as indicated in Eq. (17) and Eq. (18).

V critic , following

V critic ,longitudin al

Cos ( )

0 0 < 60 0 head

(17)

waves

(18)

Conclusions

Parametric roll motion is a phenomenon that has to be considered in the preliminary design stage. In the

preliminary design stage, several precautions may be taken to avoid large roll amplitudes caused by

parametric excitation. These precautions are form optimization, increasing damping capability (bilge

keels, etc.), limiting sea state that ship serviced in and choosing service speed out of the critical ship speed

range. In the present study, potential risk regions of parametric roll motion were determined based on the

relationship between ship speed and encounter angle. It is concluded that parametric roll motion occurs in

two regions which are being encounter frequency twice of the natural frequency

(e=2 o) and equal to

the natural frequency (e=o). It is observed that parametric roll motion generally occurs in head waves in

the neighborhood of e=2 o and occurs in quartering waves in the neighborhood of e=o. The most

practical outcome of this study is capability of estimating critical ship speeds by using Eq. (17), Eq. (18)

and critical ship speeds in longitudinal waves which are determined by utilizing InceStrutt diagram.

Finally, using the procedure outlined in this paper may help designers and operators to avoid large roll

amplitudes caused by parametric excitation.

344

References

Belenky, V.L., (2004). On Risk Evaluation at Extreme Seas, Proc. of the 7th Int. Stability Workshop, 188202,

Shanghai, China.

Bullian G., (2006). Development of Analytical Nonlinear Models for Parametric Roll and Hydrostatic Restoring

Variations in Regular and Irregular Waves. University of Trieste Ph. D. Thesis, Trieste.

Bullian,G., Francescutto, A., Lugni, C., (2004). On the nonlinear modeling of parametric rolling in regular and

irregular waves, International Shipbuilding Progress, 51, 205220.

Bullian,G., Francescutto, A., Lugni, C., (2006). Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental Study on the Problem of

Ergodicity and Practical Ergodicity with an Application to Parametric Roll in Longitudianl Long Crested Irregular

Sea, Ocean Engineering, 33: 10071043.

Dormand, J. R.; Prince, P. J., (1980). A family of embedded RungeKutta formulae, Journal of Computational and

Applied Mathematics, 6 (1), 1926

Floquet, G., (1883). Sur les quations diffrentielles linaires coefficients priodiques, Ann. cole Norm. Sup., 12,

4788

France, W.N., Levaduo, M., Treakle, T.W., Paulling, J.R.,Michel, R.K. and Moore, C., (2003). An Investigation of

HeadSea Parametric Rolling and its influence on Container Lashing Systems. Marine Techn,. 40(1), 119.

Francescutto, A., (2007). Intact Stability of Ships Recent Developments and Trends, Proc. of 10th International

Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures PRADS07, 1, 487496, Houston.

Graff, W. and E. Heckscher, (1941). Widerstand und Stabilitt Versuche mit Drei Fischdampfer Modellen, Werft

Reederei Hafen, 22: 115120

Hashimoto, H., Umeda N., and Matsuda A., (2006). Experimental and Numerical Study on Parametric Roll of a Post

Panamax Container Ship in Irregual Wave, Proc. of STAB06 9th Int. Conf. on Stability of Ships and Ocean

Vechicles, 181190, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Hayashi, C., (1964). Nonlinear Oscillations in Physical Systems, McGraw Hill, New York.

Ikeda, Y., Himeno, Y. and Tanaka, N., (1978). A Prediction Method for Ship Roll Damping, Report No. 00405 of

Department of Naval Architecture, University of Osaka Prefecture.

IMO SLF 50/4/12, (2007). Review of the IS Code

Kempf, G., (1938). Die Stabilitt Beanspruchung der Schiffe Durch Wellen und Schwingungen, Werft Reederei

Hafen, 19, 200202.

Kerwin, J.E., (1955). Not on Rolling in Longitudinal Waves, Int. Shipbuilding Progress, 2(16), 597614.

Mathieu, E., (1868). Mmoire sur Le Mouvement Vibratoire dune Membrane de forme Elliptique, Journal des

Mathmatiques Pures et Appliques, 137203.

McCue, L.S., Campbell, B.L. and Belknap, W.F., (2007). On the Parametric Resonance of Tumblehome Hullforms

in a Longitudinal Seaway, American Society of Naval Engineers Journal, 3, 3544.

Nayfeh, A.H., Mook, D.T., (1979). Nonlinear Oscillations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Neves, M.A.S. and Rodriguez, C.A., (2006). Influence of nonlinearities on the limits of stability of ships rolling in

head seas, Ocean Engineering, 34, 16181630.

Paulling, J.R. and R.M. Rosenberg, (1959). On unstable ship motions resulting from nonlinear coupling, Journal of

Ship Research, 3, 3646

Paulling, J. R., S. Kastner, and S. Schaffran, (1972). Experimental Studies of Capsizing of Intact Ships in Heavy

Seas. U.S. Coast Guard Technical Report (also IMO Doc. STAB/7, 1973).

Shin,Y.S., Belenky,V.L., Paulling,J.R., Weems,K.M. and Lin,W.M., (2004). Assesment of Parametric Roll

Resonance in the Design of Container Carriers, ABS, 4162.

Spyrou, K.J., (2000). Designing against parametric instability in following seas, Ocean Engineering, 27, 625 653.

345

In this study, the transverse stability of ships in beam seas is analyzed by using both numeric safe

basin concept and Lyapunovs direct method. In the first part, the ultimate stability of ships is

determined by Lyapunovs direct method. In the second part, safe basin of nonlinear rolling motion is

obtained numerically. The nonlinear rolling motion equation is integrated for each initial condition by

using stiff ODE solver till to roll angle exceeds capsizing criterion or to the end of simulation time. If

the roll angle exceeds capsizing criterion, the initial condition is named as unsafe or capsizing initial

condition else it is named as safe initial condition. From the comparisons of analytically and

numerically obtained safe basins, it is observed that they are coherent with each other. It is concluded

that both the numeric safe basin concept and Lyapunovs direct method are useful to analyze the

stability of ships in beam seas.

Ultimate stability, rolling motion, safe basin

Stability against capsizing in beam seas is always popular subject of the researchers due to its major

importance on designing a ship in heavy seas. Different techniques and methods to determine the

stability against capsizing in beam seas are used by researchers in last fifty years. For example,

conditions of stability against capsizing are determined by scaled model tests (Wright and Marshfield,

1980, Grochowalski, 1989 and Cotton and Spyrou, 2001), the approximate solution are obtained by

multiple scale method (Nayfeh and Khdeir, 1986), harmonic balance method (Senjanovic, 1996) and

Bogoulibov Mitropolsky asymptotic method (Cardo, Francescutto and Nabergoj, 1981). The

conditions of stability against capsize of the ships are determined by using the concept of numeric safe

basin (Thompson 1989, Thompson and Soliman, 1991, Ucer and Odabasi, 2008 and Long, Lee and

Kim, 2010), Melnikov Method (Falzarano, 1990), Lyapunov Exponents (McCue, 2004) and Lyapunov

Direct Method (Odabasi, 1978, Ozkan, 1981 and CaldeiraSariava 1986).

A model of ship capsizing based on the application of exciting moment to a rolling ship in beam

irregular seas, due to a group of high waves, applied to the ship at some time instant is developed by

Blocki (1994). In that study, it is shown that the ship performed linear roll motions until the excitation

moment occurred. Probability density function for the initial conditions is then well established,

347

assuming that the two variables are independent one of another, and have Gaussian distributions. Since the

occurrence of a group of high waves, the ship motions are described by a nonlinear SDF equation of

motion. Despite irregular waves, a group of high waves are treated as a regular wave of known circular

frequency, equal to the average frequency, with a determinate excitation.

In this paper, the concepts of numeric and analytic safe basins are used to determine the capsizing

behaviors of BSRA Trawlers in heavy and moderate seas. In the first part, the ultimately bounded safe

basins of roll motion are obtained by using Lyapunov Direct Method (La Salle and Lefschetz, 1961)

for different excitation amplitudes. In the second part, the safe basins of rolling motion are determined

numerically and compared with the analytically obtained safe basins. It is concluded that both numeric

and analytic safe basins are coherent with each other.

In beam seas, rolling motion of the ship has a greater influence on ship stability rather than the other

modes of ship motion. Due to the difficulty of accurately determining the complete hydrodynamic

forces, a rolling model which de couples the six degrees of freedom is generally assumed. In most of

the literature, only roll and sway are considered for the purpose of ship stability analysis (Jiang, 1995).

The two degree of freedom roll and sway model can be reduced to a 1DOF rolling model if a virtual

roll centre is introduced (Hutchison 1991, Jiang 1995 and Balcer 2004).

In this paper, while the rolling motion of the ship is being modeled, interactions between rolling and

other modes of motion are ignored by defining virtual roll centre and the ship is considered to have a

rigid body and seawater is ideal and incompressible. Under these assumptions, rolling motion of a ship

is written as in Eq. (1).

()

I + B + M R () = E(t ) + M sw

(1)

where

is rolling angle with respect to calm sea surface (rad)

is roll angular velocity (rad/s)

I , Virtual moment of inertia (I=Jxx+m44) corresponds to a virtual (physical) axis of rotation, located at

the virtual ship mass centre (the mass centre of the ship along with the added mass in sway), as

discussed by Balcer (2004). The virtual axis of rotation lies commonly below the ship centre of

gravity. Consequently, the added moment of inertia m44 should correspond to the virtual axis of

rotation. Virtual moment of Inertia can be easily obtained from free roll tests.

B( ) is the nonlinear damping moment. It is approximated as follows:

Be=BF+BE+BL+BW+BBK

where Be is equivalent linear damping, BF is friction damping, BE is eddy damping, BL is lift damping

and BBK is bilge keel damping coefficient. These coefficients are determined by semiempirical

348

formulas given by Himeno (1981), BW is wave damping coefficient determined by SHIPMO program

(Beck and Troesch, 1990). Although these coefficients are seemingly linear, their values may vary

with the roll amplitude and the wave frequency (Himeno, 1981) and also the interactions among these

damping components are ignored. For brevity the effect of appendages except for rudder and bilge

keels, is not considered.

MR() is righting moment in calm water and can be represented as follows:

MR()= GZ()

where is the buoyancy force and GZ is the righting arm as a function of the roll angle. GZ can be

approximated by odd polynomials and best fit can be obtained by a seventh order odd polynomial

(Pawlowski, 1987). Therefore, seventh order polynomial is used to fit GZ curve:

GZ() = GM ( + c3 3 + c5 5 + c7 7 )

where is the angle of roll and GM is the initial metacetric height.

E(t) , roll exciting moment is the hydrodynamic moment due to a regular wave. This moment is

calculated according to the linear theory, in which the ship is in an upright position and can be

approximated as follows (Senjanovic et al., 2000).

E(t) = K0 [( k12 m44)2 + ( N44)2]1/2 cost

where is the reduction coefficient for the effective wave slope, k1 stands for the initial metacentric

height GM, K=2/w is the wave number, 0=1/2 hw is the wave amplitude, and is the wave circular

frequency. Assuming that N44 is negligible in relation to k12 m44 and k1=02 I , the above

equation takes the form E(t)=E0 cost, where E 0 = (h w w ) 02 I 2 m 44 is the amplitude of

wave excitation. The wave slope ( hw / w) is taken smaller than 12 due to the real harmonic waves

cannot be arbitrarily steep and high.

Msw, is the steady wind moment defined as follows:

Msw=a Vw2 A Z w /2

where a is the air density, Vw is the velocity of the wind, A is the lateral area including erections and

rigging exposed to the wind (m2), Z is the vertical distance between the centre of wind pressure and the

centre of water pressure: in practice it is taken as the vertical distance between the centre of exposed

area and a point at half draught (m) and w is the wind pressure coefficient; according to full scale

experiments about 1.3 (Wendel, 1967).

In the light of these assumptions and dividing both left and right hand sides of Eq. (1) with virtual

mass moment of inertia, the following equation of nonlinear rolling is obtained:

+ b( ) + g() = E 0 cos t + M sw

I

I

()

(2)

4

GZ() = c 2i 1 2i 1

I

I i =1

349

The nonlinear stochastic rolling motion equation, Eq. (2) is written by assuming x1= and x2= as

follows:

x 1 = x 2

x 2 = b e x 2 g(x 1 ) +

(3a)

E0

M

cos t + sw

I

I

(3b)

In Figure 1, M is a closed but otherwise quite arbitrary set of points in n space. For any positive

number r, Mr denotes the set of all points whose distance from M is less than r. Mrc denotes the set of

points outside Mr. If M is the set defined by x R , then Mr is the set R< x <R+r and MrC is the set

In this study, it assumed that the fundamental system is in the form of x = X(x , t ) t 0 and the

following lemmas and theorems (Lasalle and Lefschetz, 1961) are satisfied:

Lemma 1:

V(x,t) is a scaler function with continuous first partials for all x and all t0, and M is a closed set in n

(x , t ) 0 for all x in Mc and if V(x1,t1)<V(x2,t2) for all t2t10, all x1 in M and all x2 in

space. If V

MrC, then each solution of the fundamental system which at some time t00 is in M can never

thereafter leave Mr.

Lemma 2:

(x , t ) < 0 for all t0 and all x in Mc,

If, in addition to the conditions of Lemma 1, V(x,t)0 and V

then each solution of the fundamental system is defined in the future s ultimately inside Mr. (That is,

if x(t) is a solution of the fundamental system defined in the future, then there exists a T such that x(t)

is in Mr, for all tT.

350

Theorem 1:

If in addition to the conditions of Lemma 2 the set M is bounded and V(x,t) uniformly for t>0 as

x then the fundamental system is ultimately bounded.

Theorem 2:

Let V(x) be a scalar function which for all x has continuous first partial derivatives with the property

(x ) for all x outside some closed and bounded set M, then the

that V(x) as x . If V

fundamental system is ultimately bounded.

In order to determine safe basins of nonlinear stochastic rolling motion, Eq. (3a) and Eq. (3b) are

written as Eq. (4a) and (4b) due to the fact that E 0 cos(t ) / I E 0 I (Caldeira Sarieva, 1986 and

Ozkan, 1981).

x 1 = x 2

(4a)

x 2 = b e x 2 g (x 1 ) +

E 0 + M sw

I

(4b)

The dynamic system is assumed to be consisted of two parts. For the positive values of roll angular

velocity (x2), the Lyaponov function shown in Eq. (5a) is used whereas for the negative values Eq.

(5b) is used. Both Lyapunov functions are valid till to the absolute value of the angle of vanishing

stability.

V (x 1 , x 2 ) =

x 22

E + M sw

x 1 F(x 1 )

+ G (x 1 ) c 0

2

I

(5a)

V (x 1 , x 2 ) =

x 22

+ G (x 1 ) d F(x 1 )

2

(5b)

where c and d are positive constant, G(x1) = g(x1) dx1 and F(x1)= be dx1

If constants c and d are taken 2 and roll angle dependency of the damping moment f(x1) is ignored,

Lyapunov functions and their derivatives respect to time become as follows:

x 2 0, V (x 1 , x 2 ) =

x 22

E + M sw

+ G (x 1 ) 2 0

b e x1

2

I

(6a)

x 2 < 0, V (x 1 , x 2 ) =

x 22

+ G (x 1 ) 2 b e x 1

2

(6b)

(x , x ) = 2b E 0 + M sw x b x 2

x 2 0, V

1

2

e

2

e 2

I

(7a)

(x , x ) = 2b + E 0 + M sw x b x 2

x 2 < 0, V

1

2

e

2

e 2

I

(7b)

351

Analytic safe basins are determined by using Lyapunov functions and their derivatives with the

constraints of Lemma 12 and Theorem 12. In figure 1, variation of analytical safe basins of BSRA

trawler (Pattullo and Thomson, 1967) due to F=(E0+Ewind / I) is shown for the ratio of equivalent linear

damping coefficient (Be) to the total mass of inertia (I) is equal to 0.03365. The ratio (Be/I) is

determined by using SHIPMO.BM (Troesch and Beck, 2011) and semiempirical formulas (Himeno,

1981).

2

E + E wind

0, V , =

+ G () 2 0

0.03365

2

I

(8a)

2

< 0, V , =

+ G () 0.0673

2

(8b)

( )

( )

Derivatives of these Lyapunov functions are shown in Eq. (9a) and Eq. (9b) respectively.

( )

, = 0.0673 E 0 + E wind

0, V

I

0.03365 2

< 0, V

I

( )

(9a)

(9b)

From these equations, it can be concluded that the ratio F=(E0+Msw/I) cannot be greater than 0.0673. In

other words, there is not any closed and bounded set M above 0.0673.

The stability of nonlinear dynamic systems is very sensitive to the variations of initial conditions. For

example, the small increment of initial roll angular velocity can change the stability of the ship (Ucer

and Helvacolu, 2008). Therefore, thousands of initial conditions should be examined to determine

the stability of the dynamic system (ship). In the numeric safe basin method (Thompson, 1989), the

safe and unsafe initial conditions are represented by white and black points respectively and the effects

of thousands of initial conditions on the stability of the dynamic system (ship) can be shown by using

just one graphic.

352

Safe basin is a set of safe initial conditions defined in the roll angle and roll angular velocity phase

space. In Figure 3, analytic and numeric safe basins of BSRA trawler (GM=0.39m and L/B=5.8) are

presented for F=0.04 and F=0.05 respectively. As can be seen from Figure 3 analytically and

numerically obtained safe basins are coherent with each other.

Comparison of analytic and numeric safe basin (F=0.04 left, F=0.05 right)

The aim of this study is to determine safe basins of nonlinear rolling motion both analytically and

numerically. From the results of this study, the following conclusions are attained:

The analytical safe basins of nonlinear rolling motion are coherent with numerically obtained safe

basins but beside this coherency analytically obtained safe basins are more conservative.

When the sum of magnitude of wind and wave excitation force is greater than 0.0673, there is not

any closed and bounded set of safe initial conditions for sample BSRA trawler.

Both increment of wave and wind force decrease the size of safe basin. In other words it increases

the capsizing probability of the trawler.

Both numeric and analytic method can be used to determine the safe basins of rolling motion and to

develop an intact stability criterion.

Balcer, L., 2004. Location of ship rolling axis. Polish Maritime Research 11(1), 37.

Beck, R.F., Troesch, A.W., 1990. Students documentation and users manual for the computer program

SHIPMO.BM., Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

CaldeiraSariava, F., The boundedness of solutions of a Leinard Equation arising in the theory of ship rolling,

IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics, Vol 36, 126139, 1986.

Cotton, B. ve Spyrou, K. J., 2001. An experimental study of nonlinear behavior in roll and capsize. International

Shipbuilding Progress, 481, 518.

353

Falzarano, J. M., 1999. Predicting complicated dynamics leading to vessel capsize. PhD Thesis, University of

Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Grochowalski, S., 1989. Investigation into the Physics of Ship Capsizing by Combined Captive and Free running

Model Tests. Trans. SNAME, 97, 169212.

Himeno, Y., 1981. Prediction of ship roll dampingstate of the art. The University of Michigan, College of

Engineering, Report No. 239.

Hutchison, B.L., 1991. The transverse plane motions of ships. SNAME Marine Technology, 282, 5572.

Hsieh, S.R. et al., A nonlinear probabilistic method for predicting vessel capsizing in random beam seas,

Proceedings of Royal Society London, Vol A446, 117, 1994.

Jiang, C., 1995. Highly Nonlinear Rolling Motion Leading to Capsize. PhD. Thesis, University of Michigan,

Ann Arbor.

Jiang, C. et al., 1996. Highly nonlinear rolling motion of biased ships in random beam seas. Journal of Ship

Research, Vol 40, No 2, 125135.

Lasalle J., Lefschetz, S., 1961. Stability by Liapunovs Direct Method with applications. Academic Press, USA.

Long, Z.Z., Lee, S.K., Kim, J.Y., 2010. Estimation of survival probability for a ship in beam seas using the safe

basin. Ocean Engineering, 37, 418424.

Odabasi, A. Y., 1976. Ultimate stability of ships, Trans. RINA, Vol 118, 237262, 1976.

Odabasi, A. Y., 1978. Conceptual understanding of the stability theory of ships. Schiffstechnik, 25, 118.

Ozkan, I. R., Total practical Stability of ships, Ocean Engineering, Vol 8, 551598, 1981.

Pattullo, A., Thomson, K., 1965. BSRA trawler series (Part 1). Trans. RINA, 107, 215241.

Rainey, R.C.T., Thompson J.M.T., 1991. The transient capsize diagrama new method of quantifying stability

analysis. Journal of Ship Research, 351, 5892.

Soliman, M. S., Thompson J.M.T., 1991. Transient and steady state analysis of capsize phenomena. Applied

Ocean Research, 132, 8292.

Thompson, J.M.T., 1989. Loss of engineering integrity due to the erosion of absolute and transient basin

boundaries. Proceedings of IUTAM Symposium on the Dynamics of Marine Vehicles and Structures in Waves,

313320.

Ucer, E., Odabasi, A.Y., 2008. Significance of roll damping on weather criteria. Trans. RINA International

Journal of Maritime Engineering, 150A1, 18.

er, E., Helvacioglu, I.H., 2008. Methods of safe basins and integrity curves for the nonlinear systems.

Symposium of modern methods in science, Osmangazi University, Eskiehir, pp. 489500, 1517 October.

Wendel, K., 1967. Safety from capsizing in Traung, J.O. Eds., Fishing Boats of the World, USA, pp. 496504.

Wright, J.H.G., Marshfield, W.B, 1980. Ship roll response and capsize behavior in beam seas. Trans. RINA, 122,

129149.

354

Fast NPL Catamarans at Large Drift Angles

Max Haase, Stefan Winkler, Robert Bronsart, Nikolai Kornev

University of Rostock, Germany, mhaase@utas.edu.au, mail@winkst.de, robert.bronsart@unirostock.de, nikolai.kornev@uni-rostock.de

Abstract

Simulation of ship manoeuvres is one of the most important problems of ship hydrodynamics. The

reliability of manoeuvring prediction depends substantially on the accuracy of the hydrodynamic

models. At present the existing hydrodynamic models are based mostly on approximations of

empirical data obtained for a special series of ships with variation of main geometric parameters.

However, the development of more general tools like CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is

becoming very important, because lately the design of non-standard ships became common business of

the European shipbuilding industry. The focus of the present paper is the validation of viscous flow

computations using RANS-equations (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) performed for catamarans

with NPL hull forms. Steady single-phase computations utilizing a double body concept and unsteady

flow simulations considering a free surface have been conducted at moderate Froude numbers and

large drift angles. To validate these predictions, numerous captive model tests using a twin hull

configuration of NPL hull forms have been undertaken. The computational results have been

experimentally proven being capable of reliably predicting the hydrodynamic forces and moments on

the hull for a wide range of drift angles.

Keywords: Hydrodynamics, captive model tests, RANSE simulation, static drift, twin-hull ships

1. Introduction

One of the major tasks in the manoeuvring theory is to determine the hydrodynamic force and moment

coefficients of ships in oblique flow. Usually a variety of captive and free sailing model tests have to

be conducted to prove the ships manoeuvring abilities. It is known, that model test are time and cost

consuming, and the geometry cannot easily be changed, once the model has been manufactured.

Several empirical approximations are available to estimate the side force and yaw moment coefficients

as a function of geometric ship parameters in dependence on the effective yaw angle. These

approaches developed originally for monohull ships can be extended to catamarans using a correction

factor depending on the distance between two demi-hulls (Mastushkin, 1976). Haase et al. (2010)

showed good agreements between free sailing manoeuvres and predictions using empirical

approximation methods. However, the application of empirical approximations is restricted to hull

forms used in serial measurements. Forces on ships with specific geometry and appendages cannot be

355

predicted with desirable accuracy using existing approximations. The development of more general

tools like CFD is becoming very important, because nowadays design of non-standard ships is getting

usual business of the European shipbuilding industry. The focus of the present paper is the validation

of an universal numerical tool based on RANS-equations. The test calculations are performed for a

fast catamaran with a NPL hull form at large drift angles. Numerical simulations are compared with

measurements done at the Seoul National University Towing Tank (SNUTT).

The work has been done within the joint research project AGAPAS (Autonomously acting Rescue

Robot for Persons in Distress at Sea) aiming at the development of a novel rescue boat using a

catamaran configuration with the total length of L = 4.5 m. The boat has to operate in heavy seas under

conditions of strong wave induced flow motion with velocities comparable with boat speed. Large

effective drift angles are expected to be the common case in operation. Development of the

methodology for estimation of forces under these conditions was the motivation for the present study.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Experiments

Several experiments have been made to investigate force and moment coefficients of ships in steady

oblique motion. Sharma and Zimmermann (1982) investigated the dependency of the lateral force and

yaw moment on the drift angle and the yaw rate for all four quadrants of the horizontal plane, i.e.

= 0 to 180 . They conducted captive Computerised Planar Motion Carriage model tests with a

tanker. As a result they presented the lateral force and yaw moment decomposed in three components

utilizing the potential theory, cross ow drag concept and the wing theory.

Kobayashi and Asai (1987) developed a mathematical model for the prediction of the manoeuvring of

ships at low speeds. The simulated hydrodynamic lateral force and yaw moment at large drift angles,

i.e. = 0 to 180 , have shown a good agreement with measurements for a VLCC tanker model.

Karasuno et al. (1988) proposed a mathematical model for describing the hydrodynamic lateral force

and yaw moment within a wide range of drift angles, i.e. = 0 to 180 . The mathematical

representation for the external hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the bare hull consists of

three major components. A linear lift force, dominant at small drift angles, a cross flow drag force,

dominant at very large drift angles and a non-linear lift force, dominant at moderate drift angles. The

results for the lateral force and the yaw moment were verified with oblique towing tests of two

monohull fishing vessels at large drift angles. The presented results of the mathematical model showed

an adequate agreement with the model tests.

Umeda and Yamakoshi (1989) conducted circular motion tests with a stern trawler manoeuvring at low

speeds with large drift angles. The developed mathematical model was valid for both, longitudinal

symmetric and non-symmetric ships. They investigated the cross ow and lift forces affected by stall.

356

The derivatives based on measurements at 0 , 90 and 180 showed a good agreement with the

theoretical derivatives derived from slender body theory.

Since the 1980s the scientific attention has more and more shifted towards the motion and wave loads,

e.g. slamming, whipping and springing, and the resistance of high-speed displacement catamarans.

Only a few scientists conducted research on manoeuvrability of fast displacement catamarans, e.g.

Ishiguro et al. (1993), Voulon and Wesselnik (1995), Dand et al. (1999). In these investigations the

manoeuvring problem has been treated as that of 3DOF.

Kaplan (1994) investigated the manoeuvrability and stability of surface effect ships (SES) and

catamarans vessels. He drew attention towards the influence of roll motion and suggested to use a

6DOF mathematical model. Unfortunately, his study mainly focused on small to moderate drift angles.

Among others, Sutulo and Guedes Soares (2005) stated that the manoeuvring motion of displacement

catamarans at high service speeds, generally described only in the horizontal plane (3DOF), depends

on the vertical degrees of freedom, namely sinkage, trim and heel. Based on Computerized Planar

Motion Carriage captive model tests, a relatively complete 6DOF mathematical model for the

manoeuvring of a river-going catamaran equipped with steered waterjets was developed. Standard

manoeuvres were simulated with a 3DOF and the 6DOF mathematical model. The results were

compared with the available full-scale data (Guedes Soares et al. 1999) and showed a clear trend that

the 6DOF model becomes more adequate to use at higher service speeds. Most comprehensive review

of hydrodynamics and the controllability theory of catamarans is presented by Dubrovsky and

Lyakhovitsky (2001).

2.2 Literature Review CFD

First viscous CFD calculations of manoeuvring forces have been done by the end of the 1990's.

Ohmori (1998) developed a finite-volume method to compute viscous flow around a ship in

manoeuvring motion. Both steady conditions such as static drift and steady turning and unsteady

PMM motion were simulated. A block-structured grid was used to discritise the domain, the ReynoldsAverages Navier-Stokes Equation was solved in a transient manner. Two ships were computed for drift

angles of < 10 : fist having U-shaped, the second having V-shaped frames in the aft section.

Convincing results were obtained for the yaw moment. While the V-shaped model shows acceptable

agreement for the transverse force, the U-shaped type shows a significant discrepancy between

experiment and computation.

Alessandrini and Delhommeau (1998) presented a method to compute the viscous flow around a

Series 60 model in steady drift and circular motion. A k- turbulence model and circular block-

357

structured grids have been utilised. Free surface simulation at Fn = 0.32 and drift angle of 5 showed

very good agreement with experimental data.

Maki and Wilson (2008) performed unsteady simulation of the naval combatant DTMB 5415 in

oblique flow motion and presented results in the SIMMAN workshop (Stern and Agdrup, 2008). The

commercial code FLUENT with polyhedral-hexaedral, unstructured grids and the k- turbulence

model was used. The free surface computation were carried out at Fn = 0.28 and drift angle of =

10.Simulations were successfully verified using experiments from the IIHR (Iowa Institute of

Hydraulic Research).

The same ship has been simulated by Miller (2008) using a piso-solver of the CFD code CFDShipIowa. A very fine overset grid with 4.5 106 points for the bare hull and 8.7 106 points for the

appended ship had been used. The turbulence was modelled using Menter's blended k- / k- model.

The simulation had been validated with model experiments from FORCE and IIHR at different model

scales for Fn = 0.28 and the drift angle = 10 . While the bare hull computations reached relative

errors compared to the experiments of up to 10 %, the relative error for the appended ship was

between 13% and 24%. The discrepancy was ascribed to very complex flow field around the

appendages.

Also Sakamoto et al. (2008) calculated the bare hull of DTMB 5415 at Fn = 0,28 and at drift angle of

= 10 and = 20 with the unsteady multi-phase solver of CFDShip-Iowa code. An isotropic

blended k- / k- turbulence model, single-phase level-set free surface modelling and dynamic overset

grid technology had been used. The static drift forces and moments overestimate the measurement data

provided by FORCE, IIHR and INSEAN up to 30%. The discrepancy was explained by complexity of

the flow at large drift angles and the uncertainty of the experimental data.

An interesting study combining numerical simulations and captive model tests had been performed by

Hua-ming et al. (2008) for the Tanker KVLCC2. The experiments were conducted at the towing tank

at SJTU (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) and at NMRI (National Maritime Research Institute). The

simulation had been done using FLUENT with a block-structured grid and SST k- (shear stress

transport) turbulence model. They obtained satisfactory agreement for Fn = 0.06 and Fn = 0.14 for

drift angles up to = 12 . The increase of the Froude number results in better agreement between

numeric and experiments. Also a scattering of experimental data between results obtained on the two

different model test basins was documented.

358

3 Experiments

The model tests have been conducted at the towing tank of the Seoul National University, Republic of

Korea. The particulars of the tank can be taken from table 1.

During static drift experiments the model was travelling, at a constant speed, through the tank in an

oblique flow due to a given drift angle . The towing device can be seen in figure Figure 11. The static

drift angle could be changed from 0 to 180 in increments of one degree. The measurements from

the static runs were used to determine the hydrodynamic derivatives depending on the lateral velocity,

i.e. Xvv, Yv, Yvvv, Nv and Nvvv.

Prior testing the model was ballasted to a given displacement and to zero trim. The forces and

moments were obtained by using a three-component loadcell, located at midships between the ships

deck and the towing device.

All forces and moments have been made dimensionless by density, squared velocity, length and draft.

Parameters

Length

[m]

110

Breadth

[m]

Depth

[m]

3,5

[m/s]

3,5

359

Parameter

Design length between perpendiculars

Lpp

[m]

1,6

Design breadth

[m] 0,15

Design draft

[m] 0,10

Block coefficient

CB

0,40

Prismatic coefficient

CP

0,67

Midship coefficient

CM

0,56

Sw

[m] 0,34

LCB

[m] 0,69

The NPL 4a with a representative length of 1,6 m was selected for investigations. Main particulars and

a lines plan can be seen in table 2 and figure 2.

A series of 23 static drift tests with carriage speeds of U = 1.189 m/s and U = 1.585 m/s have been

conducted at drift angles between -20 < < 45 , this correlates with a Froude number of Fn = 0,3

and Fn = 0,4. Table 3 shows the matrix of tests presented in this paper.

Figures (3-5) show hydrodynamic force and moment coefficients for all test cases. Considering the

longitudinal force coefficient, one would expect a graph which is symmetrical with respect to the

ordinate axis. Surprisingly this was not the case, because a positive roll moment appeared at negative

drift angles. That is why only the values corresponding to positive drift angles should be considered

for validation purposes. For the lateral force coefficient a symmetrical graph with respect to the origin

was obtained. After a non-linear growth at moderate drift angles, the increase becomes almost linear

at > 10 . As seen, the lateral force coefficient is independent of the Froude number at drift angles

360

versus the drift angle for Fn = 0.3 and Fn = 0.4.

drift angle for Fn = 0.3 and Fn = 0.4.

Figure 3: Experimentally determined yaw moment coefficient versus the drift angle for Fn = 0,3 and 0.4.

less than 20 . At large drift angles the increase of the Froude number results in the decrease of the

lateral force. Similar results were observed for the yaw moment coefficient (Fig.5): a non-linear raise

is followed by almost linear increase of the moment coefficient. Again, values for > 20 are

becoming smaller with increasing Froude number.

Table 3: Test matrix for experimental investigations.

Test

Velocity

[Fn]

Static

Drift

0,3

0,4

Since no significant surface deformation is expected it is advantageous to model the ship flow using

the double body concept according which the submerged body is mirrored with respect to the

unperturbed water surface. The calculation is then performed for the double body in an unbounded

fluid. Generally the double body concept is valid for small Froude numbers Fn < 0.1 0.15. However

this simplification can be quite acceptable for slender body at moderate Froude numbers around 0.3.

361

Calculations were carried out using solver simpleFoam within the open source code OpenFOAM

1.7.1. The solver utilizes pressure correction SIMPLE algorithm (Semi-Implicit Method for PressureLinked Equations) (see Peric and Ferzinger (2001)). The SST k- turbulence model was used.

computation.

computation.

computation.

A grid (figure 6) has been created using OpenFOAM tools, such as blockMesh, snappyHexMesh, or

snapEdge. A coarse resolution in the far field, combined with fine resolution close to the hull has

shown good results using only about 100,000 cells.

Generally, as can be seen in figure 8-10, the experiments and numerical computations agree quite well.

The resistance force agrees quite well for drift angles up to 20 . However, the non-linear character of

the resistance increase observed in measurements was not reproduced numerically at very large drift

angles. The relative discrepancy between experiment and computation is between 5% and 10% for all

cases and forces excepting the longitudinal force at drift angles larger than 30 . Also it is obvious,

that the results for the transverse force agree with measurements better than these for the yaw moment

coefficient. While experimental values for the yaw moment coefficients are generally larger than the

computational one, experimental side force coefficients are slightly smaller compared to the

computation. An exception is the transverse force at a drift angle of 30 . The computations at = 30

362

has been conducted for two velocities corresponding to Froude numbers Fn = 0.3 and Fn = 0.4. There

has been no noticeable difference between the two velocities regarding force and moment coefficients.

Computational results for the drift angle of = 45 diviate significantly from the experiment due to,

perhaps, increasing gravitational (Froude number) effects.

Figu

Fi

re 8: Comparison between experiments and double

gure

9:

Comparison

between

experiments

and

double

body computation for longitudinal force coefficient of

NPL catamaran at different drift angles, V = 1.19 m/s. body computation for lateral force coefficient of NPL

catamaran at different drift angles , V = 1.19 m/s.

Figure 10: Comparison between experiments and double body computation for yaw moment coefficient

of NPL catamaran at different drift angles, V = 1.19 m/s.

To prove the effect of the Froude number on manoeuvring forces the calculations have also been

carried out with modelling the free surface. The computations have been performed with a multi-phase

solver interFoam of the OpenFOAM in unsteady mode. For a grid considering the free surface, also

the emerged part of the ship and the domain needs to be modelled. To resolve the free surface

elevation a vertical refinement around the expected free surface has been done. The commercial tool

HexPress (Kleinsorge and Bronsart 2011) has been used to generate the grid consisting of 500,000

cells, as shown in figure 7.

363

surface flow computation for the longitudinal force

coefficient of NPL catamaran at different drift angles

and Froude numbers.

surface flow computation for lateral force coefficient of

NPL catamaran at different drift angles and Froude

numbers.

Figure 13: Comparison between experiments and free surface flow computation for the yaw moment

coefficient at different drift angles and Froude numbers.

In figure 11 it can be seen, that longitudinal force is well estimated using the free surface computation for

moderate drift angles. At large drift angles the longitudinal force seems to be overestimated. Surprisingly,

the results for the high Froude number of 0.4 agree with measurements better than these for Fn = 0.3

although the strong free surface effects are more pronounced at large Froude numbers and therefore the

modelling errors are more probable.

The discrepancy with measurement for the transverse force given in figure 12 is acceptable at moderate

drift angles and not satisfactory for the large ones. Even the tendency of the force decrease with growing

Froude number is not reproduced. For the yaw moment (figure 13), the agreement between simulations and

experiments is quite good at = 15 at both Froude numbers and for = 30 at the slower speed, while the

results for = 20 and for = 30 at Fn = 0.4 show a significant deviation from experimental ones.

However, for drift angles = 15 the computations considering free surface effects better correlate with

measurements then double body flow simulation.

364

Figure 14 shows the free surface deformation caused by the catamaran. The bow wave is well pronounced

and its appearance agrees well with observations done during the model tests. Figure 15 demonstrates a

strong vortex shedding from the bow section as well as the ventilation of the fore ship section.

at = 15 and Fn = 0.4.

sections of each demi-hull at = 30 and Fn = 0,4.

Conclusion

PMM model tests of a NPL 4a catamaran with separation ratio of s/L = 0.15 have been undertaken at

Fn = 0.3 and Fn = 0.4. Selected results have been used to validate single-phase and multi-phase CFD

calculations. Numerical simulations of ships in oblique motion show good agreement with

theexperiments for drift angles up to = 20 , which can be considered as a large one for conventional

ships. While computations using the double body concept deliver quite reliable results at moderate

costs, relatively high computational resources are needed for free surface computations. Consideration

of free surface effects results in the improvement of numerical results at the drift angle = 15

especially for the longitudinal force and yaw moment. A large discrepancy at large drift angles is due

to significant free surface deformations which is known to be not properly modelled in CFD. In the

future work, the investigations presented in this paper will be continued for the cases of large drift

angles and high Froude numbers. Special attention will be paid to study of grid dependency and

influence of turbulence models.

Acknowledgements

This research has been performed within the framework of the interdisciplinary project AGAPAS,

funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). The authors express

their special thank to Prof. Dr. Eng. Key-Pyo Rhee from the Ship Controllability Laboratory (SCL) at

Seoul National University (SNU) in the Republic of Korea for his outstanding support. Also all staff

members of the Seoul National University Towing Tank (SNUTT) are thanked for the successful

accomplishments of the experimental model tests.

365

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Twenty-Second Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Washington, D.C., August 914,

Bronsart, R. and Kleinsorge, L. 2011. CFD Meshing Tools and Their Integration into the Ship CAD Process, Proc. of

RINA ICCAS, Trieste, Italy

Dand, I. W., Dinham-Peren, T. A. and King, L. 1999. Hydrodynamic aspects of a fast catamaran operating in shallow

water, in Proc. International Conference Hydordynamics of High-Speed Craft, RINA, London, UK, p. 17.

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of America.

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manoeuvring capabilities of a catamaran, in Proc. Hydrodynamics of High-Speed Craft, RINA, London, UK, p. 17.

Haase, M., Bronsart, R., Kornev, N. and Nikolakis, D. 2010. Simulation of the dynamics of an autonomously acting

small catamaran for search and rescue process, in Proc. IFAC CAMS, Rostock, Germany

Hua-ming, W., Xi-min, T., Zao-jian, Z. and Bao-shan, W.2008. Experimental and Numerical Researches on the

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F69, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Kaplan, P. 1994. Maneuverability and stability of surface effect ships SES and catamaran vessels, in Trans. RINA,

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on a hull in manoeuvring motion at slow speed and oblique direction in Japanese, Journal of the Kansai Society of

Naval Architects, Japan, Vol. 209, pp. 111122.

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SIMMAN workshop, p. F34, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Miller, R. W. 2008. PMM Calculations for the Bare and Appended DTMB 5415 Using RANS Solver CFDShip-Iowa,

in Proc of SIMMAN workshop, p. F40, Copenhagen, Denmark

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366

367

As the exact evaluation of vertical relative motions at the bow is of utmost importance for deck

wetness predictions, detailed measurements at theoretical cross sections of no. 18, 19 and 20 have

been implemented at wide range of sea states and speeds of advance.

The models used in the series are listed in Table 1. In selection of ship models for compiling the

test series, variety in hull geometry was intentionally sought. Both U and V bow forms were

included, with or without bulb.

able 1 Vessel features (lengths in meters)

No

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Vessel Type

Motor Yacht

70 m Motor Yacht

Container Ship

Container Ship (S175)

19000-20000 tdw Bulk Carrier

Trawler

Patrol Vessel

Frigate

13900 tdw Bulk Carrier

Abbrev.

MY829

MY335

CS

S175

BC640

TR

PV

FR

BC724

Lpp

62.10

66.00

195.40

175.00

159.00

72.60

40.00

122.00

133.00

Scale

1:16.5

1:17.8

1:55.0

1:50.0

1:38.8

1:16.5

1:12.0

1:27.0

1:35.8

Model Lpp

3.764

3.712

3.553

3.500

4.098

4.400

3.333

4.518

3.712

The entrance angle of waterline as well as knuckle angle with reference to water surface are

given in Table 2:

able 2 Bow features of the vessels (angles in degrees)

No

Abbrev.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

MY829

MY335

CS

S175

BC640

TR

PV

FR

BC724

WL angle of

enterance

17.5

14.2

14.8

8.5

37.7

16.6

13.6

11.2

26.6

Knuckle angle

Bow form

39.2

42.5

52.1

67.5

61.1

48.4

45.0

41.0

65.4

bulbous

no bulb

bulbous

bulbous

no bulb

bulbous

no bulb

Bulbous

Bulbous

The board flare angles at the bow of considered vessels measured with reference to the center

plane are systematized in Table 3 and Fig. 1.

able 3 Frame definitions

heoretical Frame

20

19

18

V - type Frames

46 - 66

47 - 65

52 - 64

368

U - type Frames

51 71

47 64

58 74

The local geometry of considered cross sections are consequently given in Table 3:

Table 3 Local geometric features

Type of Ships

MY829

MY335

CS

S175

BC640

TR

PV

FR

BC724

Frame

Type

V

V

U

U

U

U

V

V

U

C p 20th TF

C p 19th TF

C p 18th TF

C b 20-18th TF

0.695

0.000

0.673

0.498

0.000

0.558

0.000

0.265

0.512

0.820

0.520

0.848

0.751

0.685

0.730

0.495

0.663

0.796

0.620

0.635

0.667

0.681

0.858

0.671

0.501

0.585

0.747

0.3795

0.2894

0.3204

0.4247

0.4185

0.4590

0.1301

0.4674

0.3520

Water surface distortion at the bow strongly depends on the local form. The relationship between

local geometry and the statical swell-up has been profoundly investigated in models and

regression dependence drawn, further used for proper evaluation of the effective freeboard.

3. Test Program

All models have been tested fully loaded, heading with three different speeds (see Table 4) in

irregular head seas of three different intensities. Significant wave heights have been chosen so

that deck wetness process to be firmly manifested. For uniformity, wave heights have been taken

as percentage of geometrical free board (GFB) at Frame 19, as follows:

- Low rate of deck wetness expected at Hs = 50 % GFB;

- Intensive deck wetness expected at Hs = 65 % GFB,

- Extreme deck wetness expected at Hs = 80 % GFB.

Pierson-Moskovitz 2-D wave spectrum has been assumed.

369

able 4 The test program envisaged measurements of heave and pitch motions, relative vertical

motions at three bow cross sections, effective freeboard, as well as visual observations of deck

wetness process development, in order to get statistics of exceeding.

Table 4. Vessel speeds in full scale

Vessel type

Hs1

Hs2

Hs3

Vs, [kn]

Fn

Vs, [kn]

Fn

Vs, [kn]

Fn

MY

829

MY

335

0.000

0.000

10.00

0.208

12.50

0.260

0.000

0.000

10.00

0.202

14.00

0.282

BC

640

FULL SCALE SHIP SPEEDS

14.89

0.000

9.00

0.175

0.000

0.117

18.09

15.50

10.00

0.212

0.193

0.130

21.28

22.20

12.50

0.250

0.275

0.163

CS

S 175

TR

PV

FR

BC

724

6.785

0.131

8.321

0.160

9.715

0.187

11.92

0.309

14.46

0.375

17.04

0.442

16.86

0.250

20.46

0.304

24.01

0.357

0.00

0.00

11.0

0.17

13.7

0.16

4. Theoretical Approach

The common probability approach for deck wetness assessment is suitable for compiling general

seakeeping prediction procedures, but is not sensitive to the whole group of bow geometry

parameters influencing the process most, as shown in (Kondrikov, 1989). Analysis of a number of

published data about deck wetness shows considerable differences between numerically predicted

number of green water chancing on deck and values obtained by model or full scale tests (Kishev

and Sirakov, 1987), (Rakitin et al., 1993).

Theoretical procedure applied in this study for deck wetness estimation is based on a modified

probabilistic approach described in details in (ishev and Rakitin, 1997) and (Kishev et al.,

1997). It combines probability of exceeding of effective freeboard with the duration time of

exceeding by introducing a threshold period:

Exp{-*/ }= Nobs / Np

(1)

where Nobs is the number of observed freeboard exceeding; Np is the number of predicted

exceeding.

To increase the accuracy of prediction, effective freeboard is evaluated directly by model tests or

using approximations of systematic model test data. Among all observed evidences of water

chancing on deck, only these with high intensity have been considered.

5. Comments on Results

5.1 Static Swell-up at the Bow

The static swell-up raised around the bow at speed strongly depends on bow geometry. It reduces

370

actual freeboard thus bringing more intensive deck wetness. This phenomenon was thoroughly

investigated by calm water towing of models at various speeds. The water surface elevation along

the board was measured by wire probes and simultaneously filmed, data being compared also

with existing data base.

Sample illustrations of the static swell-up distribution along the bow length in case of V-shaped

or U-shaped bow cross sections are given in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Sample results for freeboard alteration by the static swell-up, including the influence of the

running trim and sinkage, are shown in Figs. 4 and 5 for the case of tested patrol vessel (PV) and

trawler (TR).

As already mentioned, special attention has been paid to relative motion assessment. Theoretical

predictions have been drawn using linear strip theory and linear spectral theory. Generally good

371

agreement has been found between measured and calculated values, as illustrated in Fig. 6,

showing significant amplitudes of relative vertical motions at 19-th cross section for the trawler

form considered.

For all ship models considered, comparative analysis has been made of theoretically predicted

frequency of deck line exceeding and that observed by model tests or full scale, separating

counts of real water chancing on deck from the total number of exceeding. Sample illustration

of the results is given in Fig. 7.

Further, time durations of exceeding at every count have been directly estimated from the time

series of relative motions, extracting the effective freeboard at location. It has been shown, that

statistical distribution of time intervals of water presence on board follows Rayleigh law and is

statistically related to the relative motion amplitudes, as shown on Figs. 8 and 9 for the case of the

372

frigate.

For each ship model, the critical time parameter * (threshold period) has been evaluated on the

basis of experimental observations and calculations. For two of the vessels, comparison has been

made with full scale observations as well. Then, regression analysis has been made of the results

as a function of sensitive geometry parameters. A sample relationship between the threshold

period and the ship length is shown in Fig. 10.

Similar relations have been drawn for threshold period as a function of local form parameters.

More statistics is however needed for detailed validation and generalization, though reverse self

assessment of the rate of deck wetness occurrence for the ships in consideration shows principal

correctness of the approach.

373

6. Conclusions

Based on analysis of collected experimental data, following conclusions about the influence of

bow forms on spray generation and deck wetness could be made:

- The sharp V-like bow forms characteristic for naval ships (like the frigate and patrol vessel

tested) inflict significant number of deck line exceeding even at low sea states and it increase

with speed and sea intensity. However, real chancing of water on deck is rare even at high

speeds, intensive spray generation is only observed.

- At forms typical for high-speed motor yachts, with large flare angles, the number of exceeding

is considerably less, deck wetness is rare and spray generation is low even at high waves.

- For ships with typical U-shaped bow forms, the number of deck wetness occurrences grows

evenly with the frequency of exceeding. Deck wetness intensity is moderate at operational

speeds and waves of high expectance, but sharply increases in extreme waves.

- The threshold period approach reveals more reliable picture of the deck wetness process and

makes predictions compatible to operational routines. Collection of more data is necessary for

drawing complete relationship of the process to local bow geometry.

References

Kishev R., Sirakov A., 1987, Criteria for Good Seakeeping - a Look from the Bridge, IMAEM 1987.

ishev R., Rakitin V., 1997, Bringing Deck Wetness Predictions in Conformity with Operational Practice - IMAM

1997, Istanbul, Turkey.

Kishev R., Rakitin V., Chalakov V., Maron A., 2005, Experimental Verification Of An Advanced Deck Wetness

Prediction Method - IMAM 05, Lisbon, Portugal.

Kondrikov D., 1989, Slamming Evaluation by Limiting Acceleration of Impact - Annual CMRDI, Leningrad.

Rakitin V., Kishev R. et. al., 1993, Full Scale Observations on Board two 19000 tdw Bulkcarrier Sister Ship IMAM93, Varna.

Rakitin V., Nachev R., 1995, Seakeeping Model Tests of 14000TDW Bulkcarrier - BSHC KP0724 Report, Varna.

Rakitin V., Kishev R., 2005, Development of An Advanced Deck Wetness Prediction Method -BSHC B051105 Report,

Varna.

ITTC 23rd-Recommended Procedures, 2002,Section 7.5-02-02-02; Section 7.5-02-03-01,2; Section 7.5-02-03-02,2.

374

Serkan Trkmen*, Dimitrios Mylonas*, Nurten Vardar**

*

Department of Naval Arch. and Marine Eng., University of Strathclyde, UK, serkan.turkmen@strath,ac,uk,

dimitrios.mylonas@strath.ac.uk

**

Department of Naval Arch and Marine Eng., Yldz Technical University, TR, vardar@yildiz.edu.tr

Abstract

The current paper investigates the effect of vortex generators placed in front of a cavity-like opening

representing a structure such as a bow thruster and examines through parameterisation the effect of the

dimensions of the VG on the flow. Initial stages of the study are presented in this paper, focusing on

incompressible flow over a 2D section of a cavity opening, in view of later on performing 3D

simulations extended to a fore section of a ship. A CFD approach based on the Navier-Stokes

equations is used in the study. Typical results are presented in the form of streamlines and vorticity

contours. The results reveal complex 3D like vertical structures when the vortex generators are

introduced that influence the flow past the cavity.

1. Introduction

The flow past a ship is a complex and challenging problem because of its nature and characteristics. In

the bow region, breaking waves are generated which influence the free-surface effects and the flow

regime further down the ship. In the stern region, surface tension effects become more important and

the turbulent boundary layer represents a challenge for any design, as the propeller has to operate in a

non-uniform flow behind the ship.

On one hand, improving the wake into the propeller will reduce cavitation, and increase the ships

efficiency; on the other, lengthening the range of laminar regime along the ships boundary layer will

give more streamlining effect thus benefiting the resistance.

In addition, the presence of open-type cavities such as bow thrusters or sea chest, and the appendages

behind the propeller increase the complexity of the problem. The existence of a cavity usually

generates unsteady velocities and pressure fluctuations that can extend further downstream of the hull.

High Reynolds Number incurs flow separation on the surface and oscillations in the shear layer of a

cavity.

Pressure and velocity oscillations due to eddies generated in the shear layer of bow thrusters and sea

chests induce noise and vibration at low speeds, separation in the tunnel, resistance increase to forward

375

motion and cavitation. Current solutions include proper fairing aft of the tunnel apertures and

installation of a protective grillage.

There are a number of devices that can be fitted to the hull of a ship to improve the flow. They are

usually retrofitted or they can be included in the initial design. One of these devices is the vortex

generator (VG). The use of VGs as a way to control the flow is a well-known solution, widely used in

the aircraft and automotive industries mostly for external flows. VGs prevent the flow separation on

the leeward side of an airplanes wing, the vortices introduced to the boundary layer are attaching to

the wing surface. By influencing the boundary layer of the flow, the target of achieving drag reduction

can be obtained.

The application of vortex generators on ships and marine-like bodies is not new and has been studied

over the past decades, focusing mainly on aspects of after body flow realignment and separation. Their

purpose in ship hydrodynamics is to improve the propulsion efficiency of the hull, by increasing the

average flow velocity in the propeller disc, reducing the boundary layer thickness in the stern and

improving the uniformity of the wake flow.

Experimental studies appeared through work from Matheson (1980) on a cargo ship and a bulk carrier,

both at model scale, to look at the effects of VGs on flow field, vibration and manoeuvrability. Both

cases reported improvements in wake flow uniformity and velocity field, helping vibration and

steering issues.

Oledal (1997) carried out an experimental study of VGs for hydraulic-related inlet flows applications

such as waterjets or other propulsive systems. The focus was mainly on cavitation by effects induced

by three different VGs designs through tank observations. A wise choice in the design could lead to

advantages at the inlet flow of the systems.

Brandner and Walker (2003) and Brandner et al. (2010) also investigated the hydrodynamic

performance of VGs through experimental measurements and analysis initially in a cavitation tunnel

then with further application to a waterjet inlet. It was found that the influence of cavitation from the

VGs was not significant at moderate cavitation numbers for the first study and the VGs were found to

have little effect on pressures in the water-jet; though cavitation occurrence on the VGs was found to

present potential performance limitations at low cavitation numbers for the second study.

Johnannsen (2006) reported on the advantages of vortex generators in reducing propeller induced hull

pressure pulses by improving the wake flow into the propeller. It was found that reductions greater

than 50% in all the first four harmonics, both at model scale and full scale could be achieved.

Schmde (2008) looked at numerical RANS-based computations to assess the effectiveness of VGs on

a container ship, both at full and model scale. Computations using several turbulence models showed

that VGs reduce the boundary layer thickness and the areas of separated flows in the propeller disc

region. Carlton (2009) showed by using a system of vortex generators that the flow around the after

body of a container ship could be modified to resolve propeller cavitation induced vibrations.

376

Dymarski and Kraskowski (2010) stepped up from experimental approach and performed numerical

simulations using CFD to look at VGs as part of the propulsive efficiency and improvement of wake

flow of the stern of merchant ships (car-carrier and bulk carrier). It was found that improvement of the

wake flow was obtained for both vessels, but also that resistance largely increased for the car carrier

case. The same authors continued their work (2011) by looking at the optimisation of the configuration

of VGs developed in their previous study. The results showed positive outcome in forming improved

wake flow by vortex generators, but also that there were no gains in propulsion efficiency achieved.

Heinke and Hellwig-Rieck (2011) looked at the scale effects (Reynolds number) of retrofitting

technologies, including VGs fins, on the flow around the appendages and into the propeller of a

container ship. The study highlighted the importance of full-scale simulations when using such

devices, to predict wake field and propeller flow, which can be compromised at model-scale.

Although the presence of VGs can cause some additional drag, they have the potential to control the

flow separation hence reducing the total resistance and pressures on the surface of the hull. Therefore,

as can be seen, the benefits of VGs on ships are numerous.

The scope of this new research initiative is the application of vortex generators in the vicinity of bow

thruster tunnels (laminar region) and sea chest cavities (turbulent region), in order to investigate their

influence on the flow. The aim of the research is to find out if VGs are beneficial to the bow thruster

tunnels, in the same way as protective grids and fairing/scallops of the thruster are. Though only early

stages of the research are presented here, future developments will include influence on acoustic noise

and vibration, resistance and flow characteristics.

The current paper investigates the effect of vortex generators placed in front of a cavity-like opening

representing a structure such as a bow thruster and examines through parameterisation the effect of the

dimensions of the VG on the flow. Initial stages of the study are presented in this paper, focusing on

flow over a 2D section of a thruster opening, in view of later on performing 3D simulations extended

to a fore section of a ship. A CFD approach based on the Navier-Stokes equations is used in the study.

Typical results are presented in the form of pathlines and vorticity contours. The results reveal

complex 3D like vertical structures when the vortex generators are introduced.

2. Numerical Simulations

2.1. Overview of the Simulations

To validate the calculation, the study of Pereira and Sousa (1994, 1995) was used. They performed an

experimental and numerical investigation of the unsteady, incompressible, laminar flow past a

rectangular cavity. The computational domain considered in the current work is similar to that of the

water tunnel experiments performed in their study. To reduce the computational time, a 2D approach

is used. Future developments will involve a more complex 3D computational analysis. Fig. 1 shows

the geometrical configuration of the domain.

377

The cavity has a length L, a height h and the domain a total height of H from the bottom of the cavity

to the top of the domain. The aspect ratio of the cavity is L/h = 2 and the Reynolds number based on

the cavitys height is Reh = 3360. The Reynolds number based on the total height of the domain is ReH

= 23800. the ratio of cavity to total domain height is h/H = 0.142 which is small enough to neglect the

effects of the top wall of the domain. A Cartesian coordinate system is used to define the problem,

with x defining the longitudinal direction and y the vertical direction. The free stream velocity is

defined as U0.

The second stage of the numerical simulations involves the introduction of a vortex generator to the

domain, located in the top left corner of the cavity. The main parameterisation study involved

modifying the VG height and observing its influence on the flow pathlines and vorticity. A semicircular shape for the design of the VGs is used. The height of the VG is linked to the cavity height h

in a manner that the different VGs investigated have a radius of h/4, h/5, h/8, h/10 and h/20

respectively.

2.2. Governing Equations

The flows considered in the current study are assumed to be 2D, fully incompressible with constant

viscosity. Calculation of the flows for the validation case are performed in both steady and unsteady

conditions in the laminar regime. Calculations for the VGs are carried out in unsteady conditions.

A finite volume method approach is used based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations

(RANS) solved in the domain. The governing equations can be expressed, assuming incompressible

flow, as follows:

For Continuity:

(1)

378

For Momentum:

(2)

Where is the characteristic velocity vector, F is any external body forces (e.g. gravity) applied to

the system, p is the pressure, is the kinematic viscosity and is the fluid density. A pressure Poisson

equation is used to couple the changes in the velocity field with the changes in the pressure field and

satisfying the continuity equation.

2.3. Numerical Model

The computation domain extended to 6h in the longitudinal direction from each side of the cavity and

in the vertical direction. The total height of the domain was set as 7h to reduce the influence of the top

wall in the numerical computations. For the validation study, a coarse, medium and fine mesh were

developed, with a size of 9 400, 27 000 and 78 000 cells respectively. A very fine mesh of 300 000

cells was also created to investigate any potential differences arising in the flow due to increase in

clustered cells. For the unsteady calculations, a Courant number of 0.1 was set to keep a small timestep size. For the VGs calculations, only the coarse mesh runs are presented (9 400 cells). All grids

were generated with clustering of nodes near walls and in the shear layer region. These clustered

nodes account for greater gradients in velocity and pressure expected in these regions.

The inlet of the domain was treated as a velocity input, where are the outflow was defined as a

pressure outlet. The initial pressure is set to its free stream value. The cavity and bottom walls were

treated as non-slip surfaces, whereas the top wall was assumed to have a slip condition as it was found

that it did not influence the flow in the domain.

boundary layer is developed on the fore bottom wall and at the entrance of the cavity. The entire flow

field above the cavity is initialized with the in-flow condition, and the flow field within the cavity is

initialized to zero. A second-order upwind scheme for the convective terms is used along with a

standard pressure interpolation scheme using an implicit SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling for the

discretization of the problem. Fig. 2 shows the coarse (a) and fine (b) meshes for the normal case and

the mesh used for the VG simulations.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 2. coarse (a) and fine (b) mesh for the validity runs

379

Fig. 3 shows the mean pathlines corresponding to the simulations for the coarse and fine mesh

compared to the ones obtained from the experiments of Pereira & Sousa (1994). Two large

recirculation eddies can be observed in all simulations. The size and position of the eddies inside the

cavity are in good agreement with the equivalent from the mean flow streamlines of the experiments.

The CFD computations depict well the elongated contour of the main recirculation eddy in the upper

upstream region of the cavity.

Fig.3. Mean flow streamlines (left: exp., middle: coarse, right: fine mesh)

Fig.4 shows the mean pathlines for the very fine mesh in steady (left) and unsteady (right) laminar

flow. We can observe a much more complex pattern of large and small eddies inside the cavity. The

steady calculation exhibits the main eddy in good agreement with the experiments, and the second

larger eddy is correctly represented in the lower part of the cavity whereas near the top edge of the

opening there seem to be another vortex developing. For the unsteady run the we observe small eddies

appearing near the opposite corners of the cavity and at the bottom between the two main eddies. The

main vortices are not properly represented compared to the experiments.

Fig.4. Mean flow streamlines for the very fine mesh; left: steady, right: unsteady

Fig. 5 depicts the instantaneous contours of vorticity at three different times for the cavity without and

with the vortex generators, for each of the different parameterised structures. The simulations were

performed for the unsteady laminar conditions. The unsteady nature of the flow is illustrated, showing the

separation that can occur when the flow is passing the VGs and the edge of the cavity in the shear-layer.

380

t= 3.5 sec

t= 5.25 sec

t= 7.0 sec

No VG

VG h/4

VG h/5

VG h/8

VG h/10

VG h/20

Fig.5. instantaneous contours of vorticity of flow without and with the Vortex Generators.

381

The figure clearly shows the free shear layer oscillations above the cavity and in the downstream

boundary layer. There is a noticeable link between the recirculating flow and the shear layer for all the

VGs. The oscillations are propagated downstream of the cavity for the largest VGs, shear stresses

cause flow instability. For the smallest VGs, the flow inside the cavity is the closest to the original

case, the largest vortex is accurately represented and does not seem to be influence by the presence of

the VGs.

4. Conclusions

In this paper, the initial results of the effects of vortex generators on the laminar, incompressible flow

past open cavities are numerically investigated. Results are compared to experimental studies of

Pereira and Sousa (1994, 1995). The simulations are performed using a 2D CFD approach based on

the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, in view of extending them to a 3D case. The flow past the

vortex generators exhibit strong three-dimensional nature with complex vertical structures in the shear

layer.

References

Brandner, P.A. and Walker, G. J., 2003, Hydrodynamic Performance of a Vortex Generator, Exp. Therm. Flu.

Sci., Vol. 27, pp. 573-582.

Carlton, J.S., 2009, Ship hydrodynamic propulsion: some contemporary issues of propulsive efficiency,

cavitation and erosion, Lloyds Register Technology Day Proceedings, February 2009.

Brander, P.A., Dawson, E.C. and Walker, G.J., 2010, An Experimental Investigation into the Influence of RampMounted Vortex Generators on the Performance of a Flush Waterjet Inlet, JSR, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 209-223.

Dymarski, P. and Kraskowski, M., 2010, Using the vortex generators for improving the wake flow of large ships

preliminary results of CFD analyses, 18th International Conference on Hydrodynamics in Ship Design, Safety

and Operation, Gdansk, Poland.

Dymarski, P. and Kraskowski, M., 2011, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Possibility of

Forming the Wake Flow of Large Ships by Using the Vortex Generators, Second International Symposium on

Marine Propulsors, Hamburg, Germany.

Heinke, H-J. and Hellwig-Rieck, K., 2011, Investigation of Scale Effects on Ships with a Wake Equalizing Duct

or with Vortex Generator Fins, Second International Symposium on Marine Propulsors, Hamburg, Germany.

Johannsen, C., 2006, HSVA Prediction confirmed: vortex generator fins reduced the vibration excitation level in

full scale, HSVA NewsWave, the Hamburg Ship Model Basin Newsletter.

Matheson, N., 1980, Experimental Studies to Modify the Velocity in the Wake of Ships Hulls, seventh

Australian Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Conference, Brisbane, Australia.

Oledal, M., 1997, Applications of vortex generators is ship propulsion system design, Transactions of the Built

Environment, Vol. 24.

Pereira, J.C.F., Sousa, J.M.M., 1994, Influence of Impingement Edge Geometry on Cavity Flow Oscillations,

AIAA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp. 1737-1740.

Pereira, J.C.F., Sousa, J.M.M., 1995, Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Flow Oscillations in a

Rectangular Cavity, ASME J. of Flu. Eng., Vol. 117, pp. 68-74.

Schmde, D., 2008, RANS computations for wake improving vortex generators, Proceedings of 11th Numerical

Towing Tank Symposium (NuTTS), Brest, France.

382

Cihan Emre Uzunoglu, Srgio Ribeiro e Silva, Jos Luis Mantari, Carlos Guedes Soares

Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), IST, TU Lisbon, Lisboa, Portugal,

ceuzunoglu@gmail.com, guedess@mar.ist.utl.pt

Abstract

The proneness of a fishing vessel to the occurrence of parametric rolling when sailing in longitudinal

waves is discussed. The susceptibility is addressed based on recently proposed design criteria. The

application is taken further by the introduction of different wave length to ships length ratios. The

vessel is then studied for the severity of the roll motion by means of extended numerical simulations.

These preliminary numerical results are relevant to the development of an assessment tool of a fishing

vessels susceptibility to parametric rolling, which could be used in the preliminary design stage.

Keywords: Parametric rolling, fishing vessel, stability variations in longitudinal waves, GZ curves,

design criteria

1. Introduction

The operational environments of fishing vessels impose considerable difficulties to the crew onboard.

If these conditions are made even more severe by further dynamic instabilities, serious problems that

endanger safety onboard may arise. These consequences underline the need for certain design criteria

with the aim of preventing parametric rolling onboard fishing vessels.

The problem of parametric rolling in fishing vessels was noted by Neves et al (1999) and further

studied by Bulian and Francescutto, (2006). Parametric rolling is a phenomenon that has been studied

more intensively in the recent past and an overview of the existing approaches can be found in Turk et

al (2010).

To avoid the consequence of parametric roll, design measures need to be taken and their effect on the

ship design can be ascertained with existing codes. This can be complemented by decision support

systems that provide advice to the ship master (Rodrigues et al, 2011).

An initial indication of the susceptibility to parametric rolling can be obtained from the variations of

dynamic transverse intact stability of the fishing vessels under longitudinal waves in transit conditions

(Mantari et al 2011a).

This paper considers one of the fishing vessels whose dynamic behavior during fishing operations was

studied by Tello et al. (2011) and (Mantari et al 2011b) aims to study a fishing vessel against the

susceptibility and severity criteria. Two wavelengths to ships length ratios and three loading

383

conditions were studied in order to evaluate reactions of vessel in head seas, under different scenarios.

Firstly, the vessel is checked against the susceptibility criteria similar to the one developed by the

American Bureau of Shipping (ABS, 2008). Then, further examination is carried out to obtain the

severity of the motion by means of numerical simulations.

Ribeiro e Silva and Guedes Soares (2000) have demonstrated that both linear and nonlinear theories

could be used to predict parametric rolling. The linear model is in form of a Mathieu equation and

utilizes the stability variations that were evaluated from the linearised righting arm curves. However

this model has proved to be limited in estimating the ships roll resonance magnitudes since deck

submergence effect could not be included in the calculations. Therefore, a nonlinear model having

three degrees of freedom (DoF) was proposed by the same authors as a replacement. While the new

model has obtained better results, the implicit 3 DoF limitation did not allow calculations for irregular

waves.

To simulate unidirectional long crested irregular wave reactions of the vessel in the time domain, a

more recent model with five degrees of freedom was proposed by Ribeiro e Silva et al. (2005). The

model has been extended to six degrees of freedom to include the surge motion using a semi-empirical

formulation. The code has lately been enhanced to use different models for roll damping estimation to

give refined values of maximum roll amplitudes (Ribeiro e Silva and Guedes Soares, 2008).

As in this study the vessel will first be checked against the susceptibility criteria, the method of

calculation regarding the susceptibility is introduced next.

2.1. Susceptibility Criteria for Parametric Rolling in Regular Waves

The equations that describe the nonlinear dynamics of ship motions, which can be used to study

parametric rolling, are given by;

M 44

A44

in which (M 44

B44

B44

C44

,t

F4 cos

(1)

A44 ) are the added inertia terms (structural + added mass) in respect to the x axis;

is the damping term considering the viscous and wave-making components; C44

, t is

the restoring term, including the wave induced time dependent variations and F4 is the roll exciting

moment.

In the particular case of longitudinal waves, if the starboard and port symmetry of the hull is

considered, it is clear that there will be no external excitation and the condition F4

Considering the time-dependent roll restoring moment, due to the instantaneous righting arm, equation

1 may be rewritten as follows:

384

M 44

A44

B44

.g.GZ ( 3 , 4 , 5 ,

a

w

) 0

(2)

a

w

, 5,

a

w

) is the

G

is the

The righting arm GZ in the equation number (2) can be used to represent the GM values using

available methodologies. This value of GM will change due to different loading conditions and due to

waves and may lead to parametric resonance. In order to check if this will be the case, the roll

equation should first be expressed in form of a Mathieu equation. Then the Ince-Strutt diagram may be

utilized to represent the results. A set of assumptions are required for this process. If the fluctuation of

the wave position along the vessels length is assumed sinusoidal:

(3)

where:

is the mean value of the metacentric height and

is the amplitude of GM change in waves.

Using commertial software for stability calculations, the maximum and minimum GM values included

in equation 3 may be determined for a number of wavelengths and positions. As a result, the following

formulation may be used for the estimation of roll motion:

d2 4

dt 2

d 4

dt

2

( mean )

2

( amp )

cos( et )

(4)

The terms that have been introduced in this equation are as follows:

= linear

44 ( mean )

44 ( amp )

gGM ( mean )

M 44

A44

gGM ( amp )

M 44

A44

= amplitude

Equation 4 can be transformed into the standard form of the Mathieu equation by the introduction of

non-dimensional coefficients:

e

m

e

m

e

Furthermore, the damping term may be eliminated through the following formulation:

385

a

e

( )e(

( )

(5)

After these calculations, the roll motion in form a Mathieu equation is obtained:

d2

d 2

( p q cos )

(6)

Solution of Mathieu equation may be found in many references and depends on the values of p and q

and its solution can be periodic, increasing or decreasing in nature. The value of p depends on the

square ratio of natural frequency and the excitation frequency and q dictates the amplitude of the

motion:

2

m

(7)

2

a

(8)

On the bounded and unbounded periodic solutions of the Mathieu equation, Shin et al. (2004) stated

that here is a threshold roll damping value for each pair of these Mathieu parameters p and q.

Although this solution is difficult to express in terms of elementary functions, Hayashi (1953) has

suggested the following threshold value:

qk1 1 k32

THayashi

(9)

In this formulation, the coefficients k1 and k3 are calculated utilizing the following formulae:

k1

k3

(10)

1 0.1875q 2

q 2 16

q4

352q 2 1024 p

16q

(11)

The resulting susceptibility criteria are utilized to check the vessels vulnerability to parametric

rolling. It imposes two conditions: a frequency condition formulated in terms of the Mathieu

parameters p and q, and a damping threshold condition.

2.1.1. Frequency Condition

Depending on the p parameters that lead to instabilities of the of the Mathieu equation, the vessel

will be found susceptible to parametric rolling if the parameter is between the limit values of the given

inequality:

LB

RB

LB

1

4

q

2

RB

1

4

q

2

(12)

q2

8

q3 q 4

32 384

(13)

(14)

386

Based on the calculations for containerships Shin et al. (2004) have concluded that the damping was

underestimated in Hayashis formulations. They have found another solution by setting the damping

equal to the threshold according to Hayashi (equation 9) and then increasing it until the solution

became bounded. The same procedure can be repeated for fishing vessels and this paper presents the

resulting damping threshold:

( ABS )

qk1k2 1 k32

(15)

In this formulation, a new coefficient, k 2 , is introduced apart from the k1 and k3 coefficients

that have been presented before:

k2

1.002 p

0.16 q

0.759

(16)

Once the vessel is found to be vulnerable to parametric rolling, the severity of the motion should be

determined by using an appropriate numerical model. The mathematical code that has been developed

by Ribeiro e Silva and Guedes Soares, (2008) has been used to evaluate the severity of the roll motion

in this work. The approach utilizes quasi-static hydrodynamic coefficients of added mass and damping

for heave and pitch motions. In calculation of the restoring forces, the submerged body of the vessel is

taken into account and the instantaneous restoring forces as well as the Froude-Krylov forces are

evaluated on each time step. The program utilizes an interface which has been developed by Uzunoglu

(2011) for ease of operation and iteratively estimating the roll damping values.

3. Results

3.1. The Fishing Vessel

The fishing vessel proposed is a Portuguese fishing vessel with the length between perpendiculars of

20 meters. The beam of the vessel is 7.4 meters while the depth is 5.5 meters. The draught of the

vessel is 3.03 meters at design conditions. The vessel has a rounded hull form and lacks a chine.

3.2. The Critical Loading Condition

Previously it was shown that vessels can be very sensitive to the change of wave profiles and large

variations of roll restoring energy as far as partial or total stability failures are concerned (Mantari, et

al 2011a). Taking this into account, this paper utilizes the most critical condition defined as where the

maximum variations occur in the metacentric height. There are three loading conditions that have been

examined in this work. The first condition, designated C1, is the port departure condition with cargo

holds empty (0%) and the consumables full at 100%. The second condition is the C2 condition, the

387

Figure 1 Ince-Strutt diagram showing linear and higher order instability zones

fishing ground departure, with full cargo (100%) and 35 to 50 percent of consumables. The port arrival

condition is the last condition at 100% cargo and 10-20% consumables. The maximum variation of

GM and their respective loading conditions are presented in table1. For this particular fishing vessel,

the critical condition turns out to be the port arrival condition; although the fishing ground departure

condition is also very similar.

Table 1 Maximum variation of GM at different loading conditions (m)

Condition

GM Variation (m)

0.096

0.180

0.185

The fishing vessel was studied for the most critical ratios of wave length to ships length which were

suggested by Bulian and Francescutto (2006), to be 1 and 1.6. This differs from the ABS criteria

which suggest a ratio of unity. After the calculation of the limit values that are formed using the p and

q pairs, the results are presented in an Ince-Strutt diagram. The zones inside the boundaries are the

instable zones, therefore if the vessel ends up being in that zone for a wavelength to ships length

ratio, it may be defined as prone to parametric rolling due to the frequency condition. Figure 1

presents such instability zones for the ratios of 1 and 1.6. From this figure, it can be seen that the

vessel is far from the danger zone for the wavelength to ships length ratio of 1 but the ratio 1.6 places

the vessel in danger as it is clearly inside the instability zone far from the borders. The wave steepness

in both cases is 1/20.

In the case that the vessel fails the frequency criteria, the procedure is taken one step forward and it is

checked against the damping criteria. Therefore the damping criteria were considered for the

wavelength to ships length ratio of 1.6. Table 2 presents the complete results for the vessel and shows

that it also fails the suggested damping criteria as the damping value is lower than the threshold value.

388

Table 2 The results of the ABS susceptibility criteria for the fishing vessel

Frequency criteria

Damping criteria

/Lpp

LB

RB

Fail/Pass

k1

k2

k3

Threshold

(ABS)

Fail/Pass

1.0

0.23

0.27

0.25

0.05

Pass

1.0

0.94

-4.77

N/A

0.047

N/A

1.6

0.23

0.27

0.17

0.04

Fail

1.0

1.03

0.37

0.045

0.018

Fail

The results presented in here are the numerical simulations in critical loading condition and the

wavelength to ships length ratio that the vessel failed to pass the above mentioned criteria. As a

reminder, the wavelength to ships length ratio was 1.6 while the vessel is in port arrival loading

condition. The vessel has failed both the frequency condition and the damping condition in this case.

Apart from the vessel being prone to parametric roll, the severity of the motion is an important factor

in parametric rolling especially for fishing vessels. Due to nature of the onboard equipment, relatively

smaller roll angles that normally would not lead to dire consequences in other types of vessels may

lead serious injuries to the crew in fishing vessels apart from damaging the vessel itself.

used 1utilizes

close-fit

method

and therefore

the modeling

ResultsFranks

of the parametric

rolling

simulations

for the fishing

vessel of the vessel

can be quickly done by defining around 20 points per section. After the definition of the geometry and

389

introduction of several structural and geometrical properties of the vessel, results describing the

severity of the motion are obtained for a given frequency and speed.

Figure 1 shows these results at 8 knots. The heave and pitch motions are presented to show that the

period of roll motion is two times as long as the period of heave and pitch, demonstrating the

eminence of parametric rolling. The amplitude of the roll motion reaches 30 degrees, indicating severe

danger for the crew if such a scenario is encountered. It develops to its maximum under 2 minutes,

which may not allow enough time to react and take necessary measures.

4. Conclusions

The availability of dependable criteria that will allow early assessment of a vessels proneness to

parametric rolling is important for safety measures. While such criteria have been studied for container

vessels, fishing vessels still need to be more studied. However, due to the nature of their operation,

large roll angles onboard fishing vessels may lead to serious damage to the vessel or injuries to the

crew. For that reason, this paper has applied such criteria to fishing vessels with the addition of

different wave length to ships length ratios. The severity criteria were introduced by means of

numerical simulations. The two different wavelength to ships length ratios that were focused on have

been 1.0 and 1.6 and the results have shown the ratio of 1.6 to be critical as opposed to the ratio of

unity suggested by the ABS criteria for container vessels. This information outlines the importance of

considering different criteria depending on the hull form. The findings of the susceptibility criteria

have been compatible with the numerical code outcome that provided the severity criteria for the

fishing vessel. While both checks indicate a dangerous scenario for the vessel, if would be important

to confirm these results experimentally, in order to validate these results.

5. Acknowledgment

This work has been performed within the project SADEP-Decision support system for the safety of

fishing vessels subjected to waves. The project has been financed by the Foundation for Science and

Technology (Fundao para a Cincia e a Tecnologia), from the Portuguese Ministry of Science and

Technology, under contract PTDC/EME-MFE/75233/2006.

6. References

ABS (American Bureau of Shipping), 2008, Guide for the Assessment of Parametric Roll Resonance in the

Design of Container Carriers, ABS Publications

Bulian, G., Francescutto, A., 2006, Safety and operability of fishing vessels in beam and longitudinal waves

International Journal of Small Craft Technology, London, UK: RINA

Hayashi, Ch., 1953, Forced oscillations in nonlinear systems, Nippon Printing and Publishing Company,

Osaka

390

Mantari, J.L., Ribeiro e Silva, S., Guedes Soares, C., (2011a), Loss of fishing vessels intact stability in

longitudinal waves International Journal of Small Craft Technology, (RINA Transactions Part B) Vol. 153, pp.

23-37.

Mantari, J. L.; Ribeiro e Silva, S., and Guedes Soares, C. (2011b) Intact Stability of Fishing Vessel under Action

of Fishing Gear and Wind, Ocean Engineering, (accepted for publication)

Neves, M. A. S., Perez, N. A., Valerio, L., (1999), Stability of Small Fishing Vessels In Longitudinal Waves,

Ocean Engineering, 26(12):1389-1419.

Ribeiro e Silva, S., Santos, T. and Guedes Soares, C., (2005), Parametrically Excited Roll in Regular and

Irregular Head Seas, International Shipbuilding Progress, 52(1):29-56

Ribeiro e Silva, S.; Guedes Soares, C., (2000), Time Domain Simulation of Parametrically Excited Roll in Head

Seas. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles (STAB'2000);

Renilson, M. (ed) Launceston, Tasmania, Australia. Pages 652-664.

Rodrigues, J. M.; Perera, L. P., and Guedes Soares, C. (2011), Decision support system for the safe operation of

fishing vessels in waves, Proceedings 1st Int. Conf. on Maritime Engineering and Technology, Lisbon (in press)

Shin, Y.S., Belenky, V.L., Paulling, J.R., Weems, K.M., Lin, W.M., (2004), Criteria for parametric roll of large

containerships in longitudinal seas SNAME, Maritime Technology Conference and Expo in Washington, DC,

30 September1 October

Tello, M.; Ribeiro e Silva, S., and Guedes Soares, C. (2011), Seakeeping Performance of Fishing Vessels in

Irregular Waves. Ocean Engineering. 38:763-773.

Turk, A.; Prpic-Oric, J.; Ribeiro e Silva, S., and Guedes Soares, C. (2010), Methods for Estimating Parametric

Rolling, Advanced Ship Design for Pollution Prevention. Guedes Soares, C. and Parunov, J. (Eds.), London,

U.K.: Taylor & Francis Group; pp. 43-54.

Uzunoglu, E., 2011, Numerical and Experimental Study of Parametric rolling of a Container Ship in Waves,

M.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico.

391

A. C. Benim*, K. Kuppa*, P. Wollny*, B. Pfeiffelmann*, A. Al-Halbouni**, H. Rahms**,

A. Giese***

*

kalyan.kuppa@fh-duesseldorf.de, patrick.wollny@fh-duesseldorf.de, bjoern.pfeiffelmann@fh-duesseldorf.de

**

hendrik.rahms@clydebergemann.de

***

Abstract

Steady-state, two-dimensional problems in the area of supersonic combustion are computationally

investigated. Predictions are performed for non-combustion and combusting cases. Different turbulence

and combustion modeling approaches are applied. Results are compared with the measurements found in

literature.

1. Introduction

Supersonic combustion is a vital area of concern not only in the field of Aerodynamics (Segal, 2009), but

also in specialized areas in industry such as Vacuum metallurgy (Mahoney et al, 2008). This paper aims

an initial validation study of CFD based modelling of supersonic combustion, as a part of a sponsored

German national research project, which aims in the development of an industrial burner operating in the

supersonic regime. Numerous investigations in this field have already occurred (Baurle et al, 1998;

Kumaran and Babu, 2009). However, the challenges of a truly satisfying combustion modelling are yet to

be met. The views for the modelling philosophy are bifurcated, as there are investigations supporting the

turbulence influence on the time-averaged reaction rates in the high-speed flows (Baurle et al, 1998;

Kumaran and Babu, 2009), on the other hand there are investigations indicating the importance of

turbulence-chemistry interaction (Engman, 2008; Villasenor et al, 1992; Baurle et al, 1998) In this work, a

detailed validation study of different turbulence and combustion models is conducted and is applied to a

number of test cases from literature and validated by comparisons with the experimental results.

393

2. Modelling

2.1. Formulation and Solution methodology

The computations are implemented in the general-purpose finite volume code Fluent (Ansys Fluent 13.0,

2010). All equations are to be understood as time averaged equations (Durbin and Reif, 2003), adopting a

Reynolds averaging (Durbin and Reif, 2003) for the density and a Favre averaging (Durbin and Reif,

2003) for the remaining dependent variables. In the momentum equations, the gravity is neglected. In the

energy equation, the pressure work and viscous dissipation terms are neglected. Radiation is neglected.

2.1.1. Turbulence Modelling

The turbulence is modelled by the turbulent viscosity approach. The SST model (including

incompressibility corrections) (Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010; Menter, 1994), the two equation standard k(Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010; Launder and Spalding, 1974), RNG k- (Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010; Yakhot and

Orszag, 1986) and the realizable k- model (Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010; Shih et al, 1992). The one equation

Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) model (Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010; Spalart et al, 1992) is also tested. Although some

authors suggest the use of modified values (Baurle, 2004), or variable (Xiao et al, 2007) turbulent Prandtl

and Schmidt numbers in supersonic flows, the standard, constant values (Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010) are

used. For treating the turbulent flow near the wall in wall-bounded flows, the following two approaches

are adopted: Firstly, the near-wall flow is sufficiently resolved, and no-wall functions are applied. . In the

second approach the near-wall layer is not resolved, and non-equilibrium wall-functions are used that are

sensitized to pressure gradient (Kim and Choudhury, 1995). An exception here is the S-A model (Ansys

Fluent 13.0, 2010), since the model was originally designed as a low-Reynolds number model.

2.1.2. Combustion Modelling

In the present computations, hydrogen is used as the fuel. A single-step global reaction scheme for the

oxidation of hydrogen is considered.

Three different approaches are applied in calculating the time-averaged conversion rates of the species,

which are necessary as the source/sink terms of the averaged species transport equations.

Model 1 (M1): The reaction-rates are considered to be purely kinetic based and computed using

Arrhenius kinetics, by directly using the mean temperatures and mean concentrations (Kuo, 2005).

Turbulence influence on the time-averaged reaction rate is completely neglected. This approach is quite

frequently used in modelling supersonic combustion (Baurle et al, 1998; Kumaran and Babu, 2009;

Engman, 2008), assuming that the mixing is too fast at the supersonic speeds for the reactions to be

394

mixing controlled and the time scales are too short to assume equilibrium. The kinetic data for evaluating

the Arrhenius equation, is obtained from Hsu and Jemcov (Hsu and Jemcov, 2000).

Model 2 (M2): The reaction-rates are assumed to be purely controlled by turbulent-mixing, i.e. the

Time-averaged conversion rates are assumed to be controlled purely by the rate of fine-scale mixing, as it

is modelled using the Eddy Dissipation Model (EDM) (Magnussen and Hjertager, 1976).

Model 3 (M3): The time-averaged reaction rates given by the previously mentioned two models are

computed and the minimum of the two is assumed to be the net time-averaged reaction rate, thus,

considering that the reaction may be either mixing or kinetics controlled.

2.1.3. Boundary Conditions

At inlets, the static pressure and stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature and species mass fractions are

specified. For the cases with measured inlet distributions, the profiles are considered in prescribing the

inlet boundary conditions. The turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameters are specified at the inlets. At

outlets, the static pressure is prescribed, which however, wasnt effective for supersonic flow at the exit.

In some of the considered cases, the flames were rather free-jet type and blowing into quite large

domains. In such cases, pressure boundaries were prescribed for segregating the solution domain from the

environment. In defining the position of such boundaries, several trials were performed for ensuring that

they were placed sufficiently far away from the jet/flame and do not practically affect the solution. No-slip

conditions were applied at walls, in combination with the wall-functions approach for the near-wall

turbulence modelling, if the grid wasnt fine enough to sufficiently resolve the near-wall layer, as already

discussed above. Either isothermal or adiabatic conditions were applied for the energy equation at walls.

Zero-gradient boundary conditions applied for the species transport equations at the walls.

2.2. Numerical Modelling

Grid independence studies were performed, the details of which are not included in the paper. The

presented results are grid independent. For the momentum and continuity equations, pressure based

(segregated and coupled) and density based solvers are alternatively used (Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010). The

performance of the coupled solver is observed to be comparable to that of the density based one, whereas

the segregated schemes observed to be less satisfactory, in general. For the discretization of the convective

terms, a second-order upwind scheme (Ansys Fluent 13.0, 2010) is used for all variables except the

turbulence quantities. For the latter, a first-order upwind scheme is used. For convergence, the residuals

are required to be at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the default settings.

395

3. Results

Identical results were obtained from the Computations with and without wall-functions, confirming the

adequacy of the wall-functions method in the present class of flows. Thus, this point will not be elaborated

further. Similar results delivered by the different k-

realizable k- model showed better predictions. Thus, here, only the results of the realizable k- model

will be presented as the k- prediction (k-eps), along with that of the SST and S-A models. The numerical

domain contained about 50,000 cells, and a grid independent solution was obtained.

3.1. Cases (Pure mixing)

Firstly the test cases here are considered without combustion, in order to validate the capability of the

applied procedures in predicting the Flow field at supersonic/transonic velocities and pure-mixing,

independent from the uncertainties of combustion modelling.

3.1.1. Case WOC-1 (Cutler et al, 2006):

This test case is based on the measurements of Cutler et al. (Cutler et al, 2006). A coaxial-jet assembly is

blowing supersonically a mixture consisting of 95% He and 5% O2 (mole-fractions) through the central jet

and air through the coaxial jet into the environmental air. The both streams have Mach numbers of 1.8 at

the jet exit. The experimentally set total pressures and total temperatures for the axial and coaxial jet were

(628 kPa, 306 K) and (580 kPa, 300 K) respectively (Cutler et al, 2006).

Fig. 1 shows the velocity magnitude and Mach number distributions in the near-field of the jet exit as

predicted by the SST model. Although the jets have the same Ma at the inlet, they have considerably

different velocities due to the different material properties, and thus sound speed. Mixing of the axial and

coaxial streams and the widening of the jet by the ambient air entrainment can be observed.

Fig. 2 shows the radial total temperature profile at x=101mm. Fig. 3 shows the radial distributions of

the Helium molar concentrations at several axial positions. A fair agreement of the predictions with the

measurement is observed. However, the accuracy of the predictions decreased with increasing distance to

the jet exit. The realizable k- model showed a rather better performance than the SST model.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. Predicted (SST) detail contours of (a) velocity magnitude, (b) Mach number (WOC-1)

396

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3. He mole fraction profiles at (a) x=28mm, (b) x=81mm, (c) x=151 (WOC-1)

This test case is based on the measurements of Burrows and Kurkov (Burrows and Kurlov, 1973). An inert

gas mixture (67% N2 and 33%H2O) is flowing supersonically through the main channel above the

hydrogen slit, the Mach number in this case is 2.44. The mixture exits the hydrogen channel at pure sonic

velocity. The inlet stagnation-temperatures are 300K and 1150 K for the hydrogen and inert gas (a profile

was considered for the main channel). The walls have a constant temperature of 298K throughout.

Fig. 4 shows the static pressure contour-plots as predicted by the SST model. An expansion wave

structure can be observed. Through the Profiles of the Mach number and the total temperature shown in

Fig. 5, the predicted and measured traversal profiles at the exit of the test section are compared. An over

prediction by all models is observed, especially in the near-wall region. A slightly better performance is

showed by the SST and k- models in comparison to the Spalart-Allmaras model (Fig. 5). Fig. 6 presents

the profiles of H2 and H2O mole fractions. The SST and k- show very similar predictions as it was also

the case for the Mach number and the total temperature, Fig. 5. Although their quantitative agreement with

the experiments leaves more to be desired, they may still be considered to show a fair qualitative

397

(a)

(b)

agreement with the experiments. A rather too intensive mixing is predicted by the Spalart-Allmaras model

which shows a comparably less satisfactory performance.

3.2. Cases With Combustion

3.2.1. Case WIC-1 (Cheng et al, 1994):

These measurements are obtained from the experiments of Cheng et al. (Cheng et al, 1994), the co-axial

burner geometry and arrangement are principally very similar to that of the experiments of Cutler et al.

(Cutler et al, 2006) (WOC-1). Pure H2 is used as the fuel. The oxidizer was vitiated air with the molar

composition: 20.1% O2, 54.4%N2, 25.5% H2O. The stagnation pressure and temperature of the oxidizer

and fuel flow were given as (778 kPa, 1750 K) and (213 kPa, 657 K), respectively. The Mach numbers at

the nozzle exit for the co-axial oxidizer and the central fuel jet were 2.0 and 1.0, respectively. Fig. 7 shows

the radial profiles of temperature and O2 mole fraction at x/D=43. Again a fair qualitative agreement

between the measurements and predictions is observed, while there are quantitative discrepancies. M2 and

M3 perform quite similar, where M1 provides a slightly different and a somewhat better prediction.

398

(a)

(b)

These measurements are obtained from Burrows and Kurkov (Burrows and Kurlov, 1973), who also

performed combustion measurements on the same test rig. The test conditions remain quite similar to case

(a)

(b)

WOC-2, with the difference: vitiated air is now flowing through the main channel with the molar

composition of 20.3% O2, 43.8%N2 and 35.9% H2O and the static temperature of 1250 K. The SST model

is used and different combustion models: M1, M2, M3 are used for the computations.

Fig. 8 shows the mole-fractions at the exit. The radial extension of the reaction zone is under-predicted

by all models, while a fair qualitative agreement with the experiments can be observed. For the mole

fraction, M1 seems to perform slightly better, where M2 and M3 deliver again practically identical results.

Fig. 9 shows the traversal profiles of the Mach number and the total temperature at channel exit. The

399

predictions show a reasonable qualitative agreement with the experiments. Quantitatively, they overpredict the measurements.A very similar Mach number distribution is predicted by the combustion

models. For the total temperature practically identical results are predicted by M2 and M3. M1 predicts a

higher peak value, this is due to the higher static temperature predicted by the model, which on the use of

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 8. Mole fraction profiles (a) H2, (b) O2, (b) H2O (WIC-2)

a much more sophisticated mechanism with a number of inter-mediate reactions, would predict lower

temperatures accommodating for dissociation effects.

(a)

(b)

4. Conclusions

The numerical simulations of the combusting and non-combusting cases in a supersonic regime are

presented. The two-equation turbulence models show similar overall performance, which is better than

400

that of the single-equation one, for the cases considered. In combustion modeling, M2 and M3 approaches

lead to similar results. The M1 approach predicts not much different but is generally slightly better.

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. T. S. Cheng, Prof. A. D. Cutler and Prof. R. W. Pitz for making their measured data

available, Prof. V. Babu and Dr. Gerlinger for the technical discussions. We gratefully acknowledge the

financial support by the German Federal Ministry of Economy of Technology for this research project.

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