Engineering Circuit Analysis. 7th Ed. Chapter 16.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis. 7th Ed. Chapter 16.

© All Rights Reserved

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1.

10 March 2006

(a) Qo = R(C/L) = 65.37

(b) fo = o/ 2 = (LC)- / 2 =

221.3 Hz

10-30o A

jL

-j/ C

= C(s2 + s/RC + 1/LC)/ s so Z(s) = (s/C) / (s2 + s/RC + 1/LC) and

Z(j) = (1/C) (j) / (1/LC 2 + j/RC).

Since V = 10-3 Z, we note that |V| > 0 as 0 and also as .

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers

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2.

Qo = R(C/L) = 200 so L = C(R/ Qo)2 =

(b) L = 12 fH and C = 2.4 nF

R = Qo (L/ C)

C = (Qo / R)2 L =

10 March 2006

25 H

447.2 m

270 aF

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers

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3.

10 March 2006

Q CjRp/ (1 + 2 Cj2 Rp Rs)

(a) Cj = 3.77 pF, Rp = 1.5 M, Rs = 2.8

(b) dQ/d = [(1 + 2 Cj2 Rp Rs)(Cj Rp) - CjRp(2Cj2 Rp Rs)]/ (1 + 2 Cj2 RpRs)

Setting this equal to zero, we may subsequently write

CjRp (1 + 2 Cj2 Rp Rs) - CjRp(2Cj2 Rp Rs) = 0

Or

Qo = Q( = o) = 366.0

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers

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4.

10 March 2006

(a) A ping pong ball: Dropped twice from 121.1 cm (arbitrarily chosen).

Both times, it bounced to a height of 61.65 cm.

Q = 2h1/ (h1 h2) = 12.82

(b) A quarter (25 ). Dropped three times from 121.1 cm.

Trial 1: bounced to 13.18 cm

Trial 2: bounced to 32.70 cm

Trial 3: bounced to 16.03 cm. Quite a bit of variation, depending on how it struck.

Average bounce height = 20.64 cm, so

Qavg = 2h1/ (h1 h2) = 7.574

(c) Textbook. Dropped once from 121.1 cm. Didnt bounce much at all- only 2.223 cm.

Since the book bounced differently depending on angle of incidence, only one trial was

performed.

Q = 2h1/ (h1 h2) = 6.4

All three items were dropped from the same height for comparison purposes. An

interesting experiment would be to repeat the above, but from several different heights,

preferrably ranging several orders of magnitude (e.g. 1 cm, 10 cm, 100 cm, 1000 cm).

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10 March 2006

5.

o = 12002 + 802 = 1202.66 rad/s Qo =

Now, Y( s ) = C

( s + j d )( s + + j d )

( )( + j 2 d )

Y(2 + j d ) = C

s

2 + j d

Y(160 + j1200) = C

C =

o

= 7.517

2

80(80 + j 2400)

1

1 + j 30

Y(160 + j1200) =

= 80C

160 + j1200

400

2 + j15

1

229

1

1

= 15.775 F; L = 2 = 43.88 mH; R =

= 396.7

o C

32, 000 901

2 C

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10 March 2006

6.

Yin =

1

1

2 j 0.1

j

+ 0.2 +

=

+ 0.2 +

2

2 + j 0.1

1 + 1000 / j 4 + 0.01

1000 + j10

2 j 0.1

2 + j1000

1000

0.1

0.2

+

+

+ 2

=0

2

6

2

2

4 + 0.1

10 +

4 + 0.01 + 106

0.1 3 + 105 = 4000 + 10 3 9.9 2 = 96, 000 = 98.47 rad/s

=

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7.

(a)

o =

(b)

1

I

1000

1000

10 March 2006

1

= 1000 rad/s; Qo = o RC = 103+ 66 = 1000

LC

V =

102

102

, V =

2

1000

1000

6

0.001 + j

10

+

1000

1000

995

996

997

998

999

1000

1001

1002

1003

1004

1005

999.5

1000.5

0.993

1.238

1.642

2.423

4.47

10.0

4.47

2.428

1.646

1.243

0.997

7.070

7.072

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10 March 2006

8.

(a)

5(100 / j )

j 0.1

+2+

5 + (100 / j )

10 + j 0.01

500

100

100(20 j )

j10

j10

j10 (1000 j )

=

+2+

=

+2+

=

+2+

2

+ 400

2 + 106

100 + j 5

1000 + j 20 + j

1000 + j

Zin =

104

100

+

= 0 2 + 106 = 100 2 + 40, 000, 99 2 = 960, 000

2

2

6

+ 400 + 10

o = 960, 000 / 99 = 98.47 rad/s

(b)

Zin ( o ) =

10 o2

2000

2

+

+

= 2.294

o2 + 400

o2 + 106

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10 March 2006

9.

(a)

1

106

1

106

+

L= 2 =

= 0.9975 H; R =

=

= 10 k

2 C 100

o C 1, 002,500

(b)

1

1

Y = 104 + j 106

, = 1000 Z = = 99971.4321

0.9975

Y

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10 March 2006

10.

f min = 535 kHz, f max = 1605 kHz, Qo = 45 at one end and

Qo 45 for 535 f 1605 kHz

f o = 1/ 2 LC 535 103 =

1

1

,1605 103 =

2 L max C

2 L min C

2

= 8.8498 1014

3

2 535 10

o RC 45,535 103

o

1605 103. Use o max

2

L max =

8.8498 1014

L

= 397.6 H, L min = max = 44.08 H

12

223.1 10

9

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10 March 2006

11.

(a)

1

+ 104 + (1 [105 (104 )])108 s

4.4 103 s

1000

48.4 108 s 2 + 4.4 104 s + 1000

4

8

Yin =

+ 10 + 11 10 s =

4.4 s

4.4 s

8 2

4

1000 48.4 10 + j 4.4 10

Yin ( j ) =

j 4.4

Yin = Iin =

(b)

1

j 4.4 104 o

Zin ( j o ) =

= 10 k

j 4.4 o

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12.

0 =

10 March 2006

1

= 24 = 4.9 rad/s or f0 = 0 = 780 mHz

2

LC

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13.

0 =

1

=

LC

1

25 106

1.01

= 200 rad/s or f0 =

10 March 2006

0

= 31.99 Hz

2

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14.

1

103

=

=5

2 C 200

(a) =

1

2 RC

0 =

1

1

=

= 1000 rad/s or f0 = 0 = 159.2 Hz

2

LC

106

R=

10 March 2006

Zin(0) = R = 5

(b) We see from the simulation result that the ratio of the test source voltage to its current

is 5 at the resonant frequency; the small error is due to the series resistance PSpice

required.

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15.

(a) =

10 March 2006

1

= 50 s -1 and d = 02 2 = 5000 rad/s

2RC

Zin(0) = R so find R.

L d2 + 2

1

1

=

= 250

C= 2 = 2

= 40 F . R =

2 C

2(50)

0 L d + 2 L

1

1

= 5000 rad/s or f 0 = 795.8 Hz .

LC

We see from the simulation result that the ratio of the test source voltage to its current

is 250 at the resonant frequency; the small error is due to the series resistance PSpice

required.

(b) The resonant frequency is

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16.

(a)

1

106

80

= 5 H, Qo = o RC R = 3

= 400 k

L= 2 =

6

o C 0.2 10

10 0.2 106

(b)

B = o / Q o = 1000 / 80 = 12.5

10 March 2006

1

B = 6.25 rad/s

2

o

Z = R / 1+ j

= 400 10 / 1 +

B/2

6.25

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10 March 2006

17.

1 = 103rad/s, 2 = 118,

Z( j105) = 10

o2 = 1 2 = 103 118

o

110.245+

o = 110.245 , B = 118 103 = 15 rad/s, Qo =

=

= 7.350

B

15

7.350

1

1

7.350 = o RC RC =

= 66.67 103 , LC = 2 =

+

110.2451

o 12,154

+

1

1

12,154

+ j 105C

C = 18.456 C

= 15C + j 105C

R

105L

105

0.1

1

1

C =

= 5.418 mF, R = C = 12.304 , L =

= 15.185 mH

18.456

15

12,154C

Y( j105) = 0.1 =

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10 March 2006

18.

(a)

B=

(b)

N=

(c)

(d)

Q

1

10

1

,C = o =

+ j 28, 000C j

28, 000L

o R 30, 000 600

600

Qo

= 3 krad/s

B/ 2

28 30

= 1.3333

1.5

1

R

600

1 30, 000 10

1

28 10 30 10

L=

, =

=

Zin =

+ j

600

o Qo 30, 000 10 L

30 600 28 600

600

600

= 351.90654.0903

Zin =

28 30

1 + j10

30 28

(e)

approx-true

360 351.906

= 100%

= 2.300%

true

351.906

53.1301 54.0903

= 1.7752%

angle: 100%

54.0903

magnitude: 100%

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19.

(a)

10 March 2006

f 400

50 / 2

(b)

IR =

v

R

1

1+ N

1

= 0.5 103 1 + N 2 = 4, N 2 = 15, N = 15

500

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20.

(a)

Qo =

(b)

Approx: 2 = 5 / 1 + N

10 March 2006

R

5 103

= 0.5 mH

L =

o L

10 106

2

N = 2.291 =

106

106 / 20

= 1.1146 Mrad/S

2

o

1

1

Exact: Y = 1 + jQo

0.5 = 0.2 1 + 100 ( in Mrad/S)

R

o

1

1

6.25 = 1 + 100( 2 2 + 1/ 2 ), 2 2 + 2 = 0.0525, 2 + 2 = 2.0525

4 2.0525 2 + 1 = 0, 2 =

(c)

1

2.0525 + 2.05252 4 = 1.2569, = 1.1211 Mrad/s

2

Exact: Y =

1

1/ 20

, = 1.0289 Mrad/s

1

1

1

5000

= 0.05774, 2 0.05774 1 = 0, =

0.05774 + 0.057742 + 4

= 1.0293 Mrad/s

2

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10 March 2006

21.

(a)

(b)

C = 3 + 7 = 10 nF o =

1

4

10 10

= 106 rad/s

Q o = o CR = 1061085 5 103 = 50

B = o / Q o = 20 krad/s

Parallel current source is

10

= j 3 109 At o , I s = j106 9 3

Z3

(c)

o = 15 103 N =

15 103

1590

= 1.5 V1 =

= 8.32133.69 V

3

10 10

1 + j1.5

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10 March 2006

22.

(a)

=

10 + 0.01s + 106 / s

0.01s 2 + 10 s + 106

0.05s 2 + 25s + 104 s + 5 106

Zin ( s ) =

0.01s 2 + 10 s + 106

5 106 0.05 2 + j10, 025

Zin ( j ) =

106 0.01 2 + j10

10, 025 o

10 o

At = o ,

= 6

, 10.025 109 100.25 o2 = 5 107 0.5 o2

6

2

2

5 10 0.05 o 10 0.01 o

Zin ( s ) =

(b)

25 + 10, 000

= 1002.5

10

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23.

(a)

Zin(j) =

10 March 2006

2000

f 1000

, N=

, f = 1010, N = 0.8

1 + jN

12.5

(b)

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24.

10 March 2006

Fig. 16.48a: 1.7 kHz 0.6 kHz = 1.1 kHz

Fig. 16.48b:

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25.

10 March 2006

(a) 2 = 1 + B , therefore f2 = 5.5 + 103 kHz = 1.0055 MHz

(b) f 0 =

(c) Q0 =

f1 f 2 =

( 5.5 )(1005.5) =

74.37 kHz

f 0 74.37 103

=

= 0.074

106

B

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26.

10 March 2006

(a) f 2 = f1 + B , therefore f2 = 1.0753 GHz

(b) f 0 =

(c) Q0 =

f1 f 2 =

( 75.3 10 )(1.0753 10 ) =

6

284.6 MHz

f 0 284.6 106

=

= 0.2846

109

B

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27.

10 March 2006

(a) To complete the sketch, we need to first find 0, which we obtain in part (b).

(c) B = 2 1 = 3000 rad/s or

(d) Q =

2 1

477.5 Hz

2000

= 0.667

3000

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28.

10 March 2006

(a) We begin by labelling the series string with the capacitor as string 1, and the other as

string 2. We next find the parallel equivalent of each, and determine the frequency where

Xp1 + Xp2 = 0.

R12 + X 12

R22 + X 22

, and similarly X p2 =

.

Then X p1 =

X1

X2

For X p1 + X p2 = 0 we have

1

At 0, X 1 =

0C

At 0, X 2 = 0 L

R12 + X 12 R22 + X 22

+

=0

X1

X2

R12 + X 12

=

X1

52 +

[1]

1024

02 ( 330 )

1012

3300

R22 + X 22 52 + 104 02

=

.

102 0

X2

1022 ( 25 ) (330)1012

(330)108 25(33) 2

= 550.5 krad/s

or f0 = 87.61 kHz.

(b) We see the simulation result agrees reasonably, with a resonant frequency of 87.6 kHz

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29.

10 March 2006

(a) We design for a bandwidth of 5.5 kHz, a low-frequency cut-off of 500 Hz, and a

resonant impedance of 1 k (no value was specified). Thus, we need to specify values

for R, L, and C.

f 2 = f1 + B = 6 kHz

f0 =

f1 f 2 =

( 0.5 ) (6) =

3 kHz

f0

3 103

Q0 =

=

B 5.5 103

Q0 = 0 RC so C =

L=

Q0

1

=

= 28.9 nF

3

0 R 5.5 10 ( 2 )103

1

=

= 292 mH

02C

2 3 106

and, of course, R = 1 k

(b) From the simulation, we observe a bandwidth of 5.5 kHz, a lower frequency cutoff of

approximately 500 Hz, and a peak impedance of 1000 , as desired.

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30.

(a) f 0 =

(b) Q0 =

1

2

1

1

=

LC 2

0 L

)(

10 March 2006

= 4.38 kHz

1 L 1 400

=

= 1.10

LC R 10 3.3

(c) Z at resonance = R = 10

(d) Z at 0.438 kHz =

1

10 + j 2 ( 438 ) 400 106

2 ( 438 ) 3.3 106

1

10 + j 2 ( 438 ) 400 104

2 ( 438 ) 3.3 104

= 10 j109.01

= 10 j108.98

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31.

10 March 2006

(a) f 2 = f1 + B =

(b) f 0 =

(c) Q0 =

f1 f 2 =

3.017 MHz

226.5 kHz

f0

= 0.0755

B

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32.

10 March 2006

(a) Z0 = 1 by definition

(b) 0 =

1

103

=

= 707 rad/s

LC

2

= 112.5 Hz

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33.

10 March 2006

(a) Z0 = 1 k by definition

(b) 0 =

1

106

=

= 707 krad/s

LC

2

= 112.5 kHz

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10 March 2006

34.

(a)

1

L 60

= 10 rad/s, Qo = o =

= 20

R

3

LC

10

1

B=

= 0.5, B = 0.25, Vout ( j o ) = 40Qo = 800 V

20

2

o =

10

Vout ( j ) = 800 / 1 +

0.25

(b)

= 9 rad/s

800

= 194.03V

17

40

600

Exact: Vout =

3 + j (6 600 / ) j

24, 000

Vout ( j 9) =

= 204.86 13.325 V

9[3 + j (54 66.67)]

(Approx: Vout ( j 9) =

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10 March 2006

35.

(a)

o = 1/ 4 1037 = 50 krad/s

(b)

(c)

Qo =

(d)

(e)

(f)

2 = 50 65 / 64 + 1/ 8 = 56.64 krad/s

(g)

(h)

Zc / Z R

o L

R

45,000

50 103 4 103

=4

50

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36.

Apply 1 A, in at top. VR = 10 V

(a)

10 March 2006

108

1.2 108

(0.5 10 + 1) = 103 s + 10 +

s

5s

8

8

3

3

Zin ( j ) = 10 + j (10 1.2 10 / ) 10 o = 1.2 10 / o

(b)

Qo =

o L

R

346.4 1033

= 34.64

10

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37.

10 March 2006

SC : 1.5 = V1 + 10 1 0.105 V1 V1 = 50 V

125

50

ISC =

= 0.4 A

125

1.5

= 3.75

OC :V1 = 0 VOC = 1.5 V R th =

0.4

1000 4

o = 1/ 4 0.25 106 = 1000, Qo =

= 1066.7

3.75

1000

1

= 0.9375, B = 0.4688 rad/s

B = o / Qo =

1066.7

2

VC max = Qo Vth = 1066.7 1.5 = 1600 V

Therefore, keep your hands off!

j

C

3.75 + jL

j

C

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38.

(a)

Qo = 10 =

(b)

X L ,0

R

10 March 2006

1

2

=

= 0.6366 F

2

o L (2 500) 2

500

R = 50

R

1

106 0.5

250, 000

1 = I 50 + j 2 f

j

= I 50 + j f j

f

2

2 f

6

10 0.5

I = 1/ 50 + j ( f 250, 000 / f ), Vc =

I

j 2 f

j 250, 000 / f

Vc (2 450) = 4.757 V

VC =

50 + j ( f 250, 000 / f )

Vc (2 500) = 10, 000 V Vc (2 550) = 4.218 V

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10 March 2006

39.

X : s = 0, , 0 : s = 20, 000 j80, 000 s 1 , Zin (104 ) = 20 + j 0 SERIES

1

= o2 = 68 108

LC

R

R

1 L 68 108

1

= = 20, 000 = 40, 000,

=

= 170, 000; Z( ) = R + L +

2L

L1

LC R 40, 000

C

1

170, 000

1

=R R

R R = 1.2308

4

10, 000

10, 000C

1

1.2308

L =

= 30.77 H, C =

= 4.779 F

170, 000 1.2308

40, 000

20 = R 10, 000L

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40.

o 1/ 10

3 7

10 March 2006

1053

= 10 rad/s, Q L =

= 100, R PL = 10, 000

1

5

1

= 500, R PC = 5002 0.2 = 50, 000

10 0.2

50 10 = 8.333 k Q o = o CR = 1057 8333 = 83.33

Qc =

5 7

100, 000

= 1200 rad/s, Zin ( jo ) = 8333

83.33

(99 100)103

8.333

= 99, 000 N =

= 1.6667, Zin ( j 99, 000) =

600

1 j1.667

= 4.287 59.04o k

B=

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41.

10 March 2006

Thus, we may write 1/5000 = 1/8333 + 1/Rx so that

Rx = 12.5 k.

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10 March 2006

42.

3mH 1.5 mH = 1mH, 2 F + 8 F = 10 F, o =

1

1035

= 10 krad/s

3 103 104

= 100, R p = 1002 0.3 = 3 k

0.3

1.5 103 104

Q=

= 60, R p = 60 0.25 = 900

0.25

692.3

900 3000 = 692.3 Q L = 43 = 69.23

10

692.3

R LS =

= 0.14444

69.232

106

Q= 4

= 125, R pc = 1252 0.1 = 1562.5 10 F

10 0.1 8

1562.5

Qc = 104 105 15625 = 156.25 R SC =

= 0.064

(156.25) 2

Q=

min

, o = 10 krad/s

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10 March 2006

43.

(a)

QleftL = 50 2.5 / 2 = 62.5, 2 62.52 = 7812.5

50 10

= 50, 10 502 = 25 k

10

1000

Qc =

= 100, 1002 1 = 10 k , R p = 7.8125 25 10 = 3731

50 0.2 1

50

1

Qo = 50 3731 0.2 10 3 = 37.31; B =

= 1.3400, B = 0.6700

37.31

2

3

V o = 10 3731 = 3.731V

Q rightL =

3.731 V

2.638 V

|V| (volts)

1.34 rad/s

50

(b)

(rad/s)

=

103

= 3.7321 0.3950+ V

1

1

1

+

+

2 + j125 10 + j 500 1 j100

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10 March 2006

44.

(a)

1000

= 2000 rad/s, Qc = 2000 2 106 25 103 = 100

0.25

R

20 104

R C , S = 25, 000 /1002 = 2.5 ; Q L =

=

= 40

o L 2000 0.25

o

20, 000

= 12.5 R tot = 12.5 + 2.5 = 15

1600

2000 0.25

1

Qo =

= 33.33 Vx = 1 33.33 = 16.667 V

15

2

R L,S =

(b)

= 12, 4922 + j 499.688

20, 000 + j 500

25, 000( j 250)

= 2.4998 j 249.975

25, 000 j 250 =

25, 000 j 250

20, 000 j 500 =

I = 1/ 14.9920 j 0.2870 = 66.6902 mA Vx = 250 66.6902 103 = 16.6726 V

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45.

Q = CR, RS =

XS =

10 March 2006

RP

Q2 X P

X

,

and

=

S

1 + Q2

1 + Q2

1

1

1 + Q2

, XP =

CS = C P

Q2

CS

CP

Therefore, RS = 5/26 = 192 , CS = 26/25 F = 1.06 F

(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 50

Therefore, RS = 5/2501 = 2 , CS = 2501/2500 F = 1.0004 F

(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 500

Therefore, RS = 5000/250001 = 20 m, CS = 250001/250000 F = 1.0 F

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46.

RP = RS 1 + Q 2 , and X P = X S

C P = CS

10 March 2006

1 + Q2

Q2

Q2

1 + Q2

Therefore, RP = 5(1 + 0.04) = 5.2 k, CP = 38.5 nF

(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 50

Therefore, RP = 5(1 + 0.0004) = 5.002 k, CP = 400 pF

(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 500

Therefore, RP = 5(1 + 4106) = 5 k, CP = 4 pF

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47.

Q=

10 March 2006

RP

Q2 X P

R

Q2

X

L

L

, RS =

,

and

=

.

=

S

S

P

1 + Q2

L

1 + Q2

1 + Q2

Therefore, RS = 470/(1 + Q2) = 23.2 n, LS = 3.3 H

(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 14.24103

Therefore, RS = 470/(1 + Q2) = 23.2 , LS = 3.3 H

(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 1.424103

Therefore, RS = 470/(1 + Q2) = 232 , LS = 3.3 H

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48.

10 March 2006

1 + Q2

RP = RS 1 + Q 2 , and X P = X S

2

Q

1 + Q2

LP = LS

2

Q

Therefore, RP = 470(1 + Q2) = 470 , LP = 67 mF

(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 50

Therefore, RP = 470(1 + Q2) = 470 , LP = 670 F

(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 500

Therefore, RP = 470(1 + Q2) = 470 , LP = 6.70 F

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49.

10 March 2006

R

470

7 6 = 47 . Since Q > 5, the series

L 10 10

equivalent is a 10/47 resistor in series with 1 H.

(a) For the left parallel circuit, Q =

For the right parallel circuit, Q = CR 107108 ( 200 ) = 20 . Again, Q > 5, so the series

equivalent is

a 10/20 = 500 m resistor in series with 10 nF.

We may therefore approximate the network as a 700 m resistor in series with a 10 nF

capacitor, in series with a 1 H inductor, in series with the 10 H inductor of interest.

At the resonant frequency the network connected in series with the inductor has an

impedance of 700 m. The inductor present an impedance of 100 . Thus, |Vx| = 1 V.

(b) ZL =

( 470 ) ( j107106 )

470 + j10

1

jC2

= 0.213 + j9.995 . Z L =

= 0.499 j9.975

1

R2 +

jC2

R2

Z3 = j100 .

Thus, Vx =

Z3

j100

= 0.99745 + j 0.0071 V

(10 ) =

0.714 + j 0.02

Z1 + Z L + Z3

So that |Vx| = 0.99977 V . Our approximation was pretty accurate, at least at this

frequency.

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10 March 2006

50.

(a)

(b)

50

20 103

= 0.5 K f =

= 0.02

100

106

1

0.5

9.82 H 0.5 9.82

= 24.55 H, 31.8 H

31.8 = 795 H

0.02

0.02

2.57

= 257 nF

2.57 nF

0.5 0.02

Km =

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10 March 2006

51.

(a)

Iin = 10 +

s + 10

1 (1)

2s

4s + 20 20( s + 5)

= 10 +

=

=

Zin ( s) =

20( s + 5)

s + 10

0.2 + 2 / s

0.2s + 2 0.2s + 2

2( s / 5 + 10) 0.1( s + 50)

=

20( s / 5 + 5)

s + 25

(b)

K m = 2, K f = 5 Zin ( s )

(c)

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10 March 2006

52.

(a)

3

Q L ,8 = 10 / 8 10 10 = 125 R L , S

4

2 + 8 = 10 mH Q L =

104

=

= 0.64

1252

104 10 103

= 156.25

0.64

1

= 100, R C , P = 1002 1 = 10 k

10 106

R P = 20 15.625 10 = 4.673 k Qo = 104 106 4.673 103 = 46.73

R L , P = 0.64 156.252 = 15.625 k ; QC =

(b)

(c)

106

= 21.40 krad/s

46.73

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10 March 2006

53.

(a)

5 1250 , 2H

0.1

= 1F

250 400

2 250

= 1.25 H, 4 Ix 103 Ix

400

1.25 H

1 F

(b)

1250

103

1

1250

1 103 s

1000 I x = 10 s I L =

1.25s

1

0.8

0.8

(1 103 s ) = 106 s +

; s = j103

Iin = 106 s +

+

1250 s

s

3

0.8 10

1 1000

Iin = j103 +

= j 0.2 103 Zth =

=

= j 5 k Voc = 0

Iin

j

j 0.2

3

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10 March 2006

54.

(a)

Is = 20 A, = 50 Vout = 6025 V

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

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10 March 2006

55.

(a)

(b)

H( s ) = 50 H dB = 20 log 50 = 33.98dB

(c)

H( j10) =

(d)

(e)

(f)

12

26

6

13

292 + j 380

+

H dB = 20 log

+

= 20 log

= 6.451dB

2 + j10 20 + j10

1 + j 5 10 + j 5

60 + j 220

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56.

(a)

10 March 2006

(d)

20( s + 1) 0.2(1 + s )

H( s ) =

=

, 0.2 14 dB

s + 100 1 + s /100

10

100

2000( s + 1) s

0.2 s(1 + s)

=

, 0.2 14 dB

2

( s + 100)

(1 + s /100) 2

(b)

H( s ) =

(c)

H( s ) = s + 45 +

=

=

=

, 200 46 dB

s

s

s

s

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10 March 2006

57.

H( s ) =

200 / s

=

IR

202 + 2 s + 200 / s

182 + 200 / s

400( s + 10)

200(10 + s )

=

2

2( s + 101s + 100) (1 + s)(100 + s )

20(1 + s /10)

H( s ) =

, 20 26 dB

(1 + s )(1 + s /100)

=

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10 March 2006

58.

5 108 s ( s + 100)

2.5s (1 + s /100)

=

, 2.5 8dB

3

( s + 20)( s + 1000)

(1 + s / 20)(1 + s /1000)3

(a)

H( s ) =

(b)

= 100, 34 dB;

= 1000, 54 dB

Intercepts: 0 dB, 2.5 = 1, = 0.4

2.5 ( /100)

2.52 (20)109

= 1, 8dB; 0 dB,

=

= 1 = 22,360 rad/s

( / 20)( /1000)3

1003

(c)

= 100, 36.69 dB H dB = 20 log 2.5

1 + ( /100) 2

[1 + ( / 20) 2 ][1 + ( /1000) 2 ]3

= 1000, 44.99 dB

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10 March 2006

59.

(a)

(b)

H( s ) =

5 108 s ( s + 100)

2.5s (1 + s /100)

=

,

3

( s + 20)( s + 1000)

(1 + s / 20)(1 + s /1000)3

= 2 : = 90

= 10 : = 90 45 + 45 log

10

= 58.5

20

100

100

+ 45 + 45 log

= 58.5

20

100

200

200

= 200 : = 90 90 + 45 + 45 log

3 45 + 45 log

= 17.9

100

100

= 100 : = 90 45 + 45 log

1000

= 45

1000

= 1000 : = 90 90 + 90 3 45 + 45 log

(c)

= 10 : = 90 + tan 1 0.1 tan 1 0.5 3 tan 1 0.01 = 67.43

= 100 : = 90 + tan 1 1 tan 1 5 3 tan 1 0.1 = 39.18

= 200 : = 90 + tan 1 2 tan 1 10 3 tan 1 0.2 = 35.22

= 1000 : = 90 + tan 1 10 tan 1 50 3 tan 1 1 = 49.56

= 10, 000 : = 90 + tan 1 100 tan 1 500 3 tan 1 10 = 163.33

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10 March 2006

60.

(a)

20 400 s 2 + 20 s + 400

+ 2 =

s

s

s2

1 + 2 0.5( s / 20) + ( s / 20) 2

= 400

s2

o = 20, = 0.5

H( s ) = 1 +

Hdb

Correction at o is 20 log 2 = 0 dB

(b)

H dB = 20 log 1 16 + j 4 = 23.8dB (exact)

= 100 : H dB = 0 dB (plot)

H dB = 20 log 1 0.04 + j 0.2 = 0.170 dB (exact)

(c)

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10 March 2006

61.

(a)

(b)

H( s ) =

VR

25

25s

=

=

=

2

V5 10 s + 25 + 1000 / s 10 s + 25s + 1000

1 s s

1 + 2 +

8 10 10

1

o = 10, = 1/ 8 correction = 20 log 2 = 12 dB

8

0.025 32 dB

HdB

(c)

0.025s

= 20, H( j 20) =

ang(H)

j 0.5

H dB = 15.68 dB H( j 20) = 80.54

1 4 + j 0.5

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10 March 2006

62.

1st two stages, H1 ( s ) = H 2 ( s ) = 10; H 3 ( s ) =

20

=

3

6

s + 1/(200 10 10 ) s + 5

20 400

H( s ) = (10)(10)

=

s + 5 1+ s / 5

400 52 dB

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63.

(a)

10 March 2006

2nd stage: R 1B = 105 , R fB = 105 , C fB = 1 F H B ( s ) =

1/ R1B C fB

s + 1/ R fB C fB

1/(105 106 )

10

=

5

6

s + 1/(10 10 )

s + 10

3rd stage: same as 2nd

H B (s) =

0.1s

10 10

H( s ) = (0.1s )

=

(1 + s /10) 2

s + 10 s + 10

20log10(0.1) = -20 dB

(b)

(c)

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64.

10 March 2006

the requirements, as social conversations may include frequencies up to 50 kHz, and

echolocation sounds, which we are asked to filter out, may begin below this value.

Without further information, we decide to set the filter cutoff frequency at 50 kHz to

ensure we do not lose information. However, we note that this decision is not necessarily

the only correct one.

Our input source is a microphone modeled as a sinusoidal voltage source having a peak

amplitude of 15 mV in series with a 1- resistor. Our output device is an earphone

modeled as a 1-k resistor. A voltage of 15 mV from the microphone should correspond

to about 1 V at the earphone according to the specifications, requiring a gain of 1000/15

= 66.7.

Rf

= 66.7 - 1 = 65.7

If we select a non-inverting op amp topology, we then need

R1

Arbitrarily choosing R1 = 1 k, we then need Rf = 65.7 k. This completes the

amplification part. Next, we need to filter out frequencies greater than 50 kHz.

Placing a capacitor across the microphone terminals will short out high frequencies.

1

We design for c = 2fc = 2(50103) =

. Since Rmic = 1 , we require

Rmic C filter

Cfilter = 3.183 F.

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65.

10 March 2006

We choose a simple series RLC circuit. It was shown in the text that the gain of the

RC

.

circuit with the output taken across the resistor is AV =

1

2

2

2 2 2 2

1 - LC + R C

This results in a bandpass filter with corner frequencies at

[(

c =

L

-RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC

2 LC

and

c =

H

RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC

2 LC

If we take our output across the inductor-capacitor combination instead, we obtain the

opposite curve- i.e. a bandstop filter with the same cutoff frequencies. Thus, we want

-RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC

2(20) =

and 2(20103) =

2 LC

RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC

2 LC

7.966 mH. Returning to either cutoff frequency expression, we then find C = 7.950 F

PSpice verification. The circuit

performs as required, with a

lower corner frequency of about

20 Hz and an upper corner

frequency of about 20 kHz.

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66.

10 March 2006

Vout

1

=

Vin 1 + jRC

Vout

1

. We desire a cutoff

=

2

Vin

1 + (RC )

frequency of 1 kHz, and note that this circuit does indeed act as a low-pass filter (higher

frequency signals lead to the capacitor appearing more and more as a short circuit).

Thus,

1

1

=

=

where c = 2fc = 2000 rad/s.

2

2

1 + ( c RC )

Where

and

hence

setting R = 1 k, we then find that C = 159.2 nF. The operation of the filter is verified in

the PSpice simulation below:

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67.

10 March 2006

We are not provided with the actual spectral shape of the noise signal, although the

reduction to 1% of its peak value (a drop of 40 dB) by 1 kHz is useful to know. If we

place a simple high-pass RC filter at the input of an op amp stage, designing for a pole at

2.5 kHz should ensure an essentially flat response above 25 kHz, and a 3 dB reduction at

2.5 kHz. If greater tolerance is required, the 40 dB reduction at 1 kHz allows the pole to

be moved to a frequency even closer to 1 kHz. The PSpice simulation below shows a

1

filter with R = 1 k (arbitrarily chosen) and C =

= 63.66 nF .

2 (2.5 10 3 )(1000)

At a frequency of 25 kHz, the filter shows minimal gain reduction, but at 1 kHz any

signal is reduced by more than 8 dB.

We therefore design a simple non-inverting op amp circuit such as the one below, which

with Rf = 100 k and R1 = 1 k, has a gain of 100 V/V. In simulating the circuit, a gain

of approximately 40 dB at 25 kHz was noted, although the gain dropped at higher

frequencies, reaching 37 dB around 80 kHz. Thus, to completely assess the suitability of

design, more information regarding the frequency spectrum of the failure signals would

be required.

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68.

10 March 2006

We select a simple series RLC circuit with the output taken across the resistor to serve as

a bandpass filter with 500 Hz and 5000 Hz cutoff frequencies. From Example 16.12, we

know that

R

1

c L = +

R 2C 2 + 4LC = 2 (500)

2L 2LC

and

R

1

cH =

+

R 2C 2 + 4LC = 2 (5000)

2L 2LC

= 35.37 mH. Substituting these two values into the equation for the high-frequency

cutoff, we find that C = 286.3 nF. We complete the design by selecting R1 = 1 k and Rf

= 1 k for a gain of 2 (no value of gain was specified). As seen in the PSpice simulation

results shown below, the circuit performs as specified at maximum gain (6 dB or 2 V/V),

with cutoff frequencies of approximately 500 and 5000 KHz and a peak gain of 6 dB.

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69.

10 March 2006

For this circuit, we simply need to connect a low-pass filter to the input of a noninverting op amp having Rf/R1 = 9 (for a gain of 10). If we use a simple RC filter, the

cutoff frequency is

1

c =

= 2 (3000)

RC

Selecting (arbitrarily) R = 1 k, we find C = 53.05 nF. The PSpice simulation below

shows that our design does indeed have a bandwidth of 3 kHz and a peak gain of 10 V/V

(20 dB).

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70.

10 March 2006

We require four filter stages, and choose to implement the circuit using op amps to isolate each filter subcircuit. Selecting a bandwidth of 1 rad/s (no specification was given) and a simple RLC filter as suggested

in the problem statement, a resistance value of 1 leads to an inductor value of 1 H (bandwidth for this

type of filter = H L = R/L). The capacitance is found by designing each filters respective resonant

frequency ( 1 LC ) at the desired notch frequency. Thus, we require CF1 = 10.13 F, CF2 = 2.533 F,

CF3 = 1.126 F and CF4 = 633.3 nF.

The Student Version of PSpice will not permit more than 64 nodes, so that the total solution must be

simulated in two parts. The half with the filters for notching out 50 and 100 Hz components is shown

below; an additional two op amp stages are required to complete the design.

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71.

10 March 2006

Using the series RLC circuit suggested, we decide to design for a bandwidth of 1 rad/ s

(as no specification was provided). With H L = R/ L, we arbitrarily select R = 1 so

that L = 1 H. The capacitance required is obtained by setting the resonant frequency of

the circuit ( 1 LC ) equal to 60 Hz (120 rad/s). This yields C = 7.04 F.

vin

vout

1

1H

7.04 F

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