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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

1.

10 March 2006

We have a parallel RLC with R = 1 k, C = 47 F and L = 11 mH.

(a) Qo = R(C/L) = 65.37
(b) fo = o/ 2 = (LC)- / 2 =

221.3 Hz

10-30o A

jL

-j/ C

The admittance Y(s) facing the source is Y(s) = 1/R + 1/sL + sC

= C(s2 + s/RC + 1/LC)/ s so Z(s) = (s/C) / (s2 + s/RC + 1/LC) and
Z(j) = (1/C) (j) / (1/LC 2 + j/RC).
Since V = 10-3 Z, we note that |V| > 0 as 0 and also as .

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2.

(a) R = 1000 and C = 1 F.

Qo = R(C/L) = 200 so L = C(R/ Qo)2 =
(b) L = 12 fH and C = 2.4 nF
R = Qo (L/ C)

(c) R = 121.7 k and L = 100 pH

C = (Qo / R)2 L =

10 March 2006

25 H

447.2 m

270 aF

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3.

10 March 2006

We take the approximate expression for Q of a varactor to be

Q CjRp/ (1 + 2 Cj2 Rp Rs)
(a) Cj = 3.77 pF, Rp = 1.5 M, Rs = 2.8

(b) dQ/d = [(1 + 2 Cj2 Rp Rs)(Cj Rp) - CjRp(2Cj2 Rp Rs)]/ (1 + 2 Cj2 RpRs)
Setting this equal to zero, we may subsequently write
CjRp (1 + 2 Cj2 Rp Rs) - CjRp(2Cj2 Rp Rs) = 0
Or

= 129.4 Mrad/s = 21.00 MHz

Qo = Q( = o) = 366.0

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4.

10 March 2006

Determine Q for (dropping onto a smooth concrete floor):

(a) A ping pong ball: Dropped twice from 121.1 cm (arbitrarily chosen).
Both times, it bounced to a height of 61.65 cm.
Q = 2h1/ (h1 h2) = 12.82
(b) A quarter (25 ). Dropped three times from 121.1 cm.
Trial 1: bounced to 13.18 cm
Trial 2: bounced to 32.70 cm
Trial 3: bounced to 16.03 cm. Quite a bit of variation, depending on how it struck.
Average bounce height = 20.64 cm, so
Qavg = 2h1/ (h1 h2) = 7.574
(c) Textbook. Dropped once from 121.1 cm. Didnt bounce much at all- only 2.223 cm.
Since the book bounced differently depending on angle of incidence, only one trial was
performed.
Q = 2h1/ (h1 h2) = 6.4
All three items were dropped from the same height for comparison purposes. An
interesting experiment would be to repeat the above, but from several different heights,
preferrably ranging several orders of magnitude (e.g. 1 cm, 10 cm, 100 cm, 1000 cm).

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10 March 2006

5.

= 80Np/s, d = 1200 rad/s, Z(2 + j d ) = 400

o = 12002 + 802 = 1202.66 rad/s Qo =
Now, Y( s ) = C

( s + j d )( s + + j d )
( )( + j 2 d )
Y(2 + j d ) = C
s
2 + j d

Y(160 + j1200) = C
C =

o
= 7.517
2

80(80 + j 2400)
1
1 + j 30
Y(160 + j1200) =
= 80C
160 + j1200
400
2 + j15

1
229
1
1
= 15.775 F; L = 2 = 43.88 mH; R =
= 396.7
o C
32, 000 901
2 C

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

6.
Yin =

1
1
2 j 0.1
j
+ 0.2 +
=
+ 0.2 +
2
2 + j 0.1
1 + 1000 / j 4 + 0.01
1000 + j10

2 j 0.1
2 + j1000
1000
0.1
0.2
+
+

+ 2
=0
2
6
2
2
4 + 0.1
10 +
4 + 0.01 + 106
0.1 3 + 105 = 4000 + 10 3 9.9 2 = 96, 000 = 98.47 rad/s
=

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7.

(a)

o =

(b)

1
I

1000

Y = 106 + j 106 , V = = 105 /103 103 + j

1000

10 March 2006

1
= 1000 rad/s; Qo = o RC = 103+ 66 = 1000
LC

V =

102
102
, V =
2
1000

1000

6
0.001 + j

10
+

1000

1000

995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
999.5
1000.5

0.993
1.238
1.642
2.423
4.47
10.0
4.47
2.428
1.646
1.243
0.997
7.070
7.072

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

8.
(a)

5(100 / j )
j 0.1
+2+
5 + (100 / j )
10 + j 0.01
500
100
100(20 j )
j10
j10
j10 (1000 j )
=
+2+
=
+2+
=
+2+
2
+ 400
2 + 106
100 + j 5
1000 + j 20 + j
1000 + j
Zin =

104
100
+
= 0 2 + 106 = 100 2 + 40, 000, 99 2 = 960, 000
2
2
6
+ 400 + 10
o = 960, 000 / 99 = 98.47 rad/s

(b)

Zin ( o ) =

10 o2
2000
2
+
+
= 2.294
o2 + 400
o2 + 106

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10 March 2006

9.
(a)

= 50 s 1 , d = 1000 s 1 o2 = 2 + d2 = 1, 002,500 o = 1001.249

1
106
1
106
+
L= 2 =
= 0.9975 H; R =
=
= 10 k
2 C 100
o C 1, 002,500

(b)

1
1

Y = 104 + j 106
, = 1000 Z = = 99971.4321
0.9975
Y

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

10.
f min = 535 kHz, f max = 1605 kHz, Qo = 45 at one end and
Qo 45 for 535 f 1605 kHz
f o = 1/ 2 LC 535 103 =

1
1
,1605 103 =
2 L max C
2 L min C
2

L max / L min = 3; L max C =

= 8.8498 1014
3
2 535 10

o RC 45,535 103

o
1605 103. Use o max
2

2 1605 103 20 103 C = 45 C = 223.1pF

L max =

8.8498 1014
L
= 397.6 H, L min = max = 44.08 H
12
223.1 10
9

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10 March 2006

11.
(a)

Apply 1V. IR = 104 A

1
+ 104 + (1 [105 (104 )])108 s
4.4 103 s
1000
48.4 108 s 2 + 4.4 104 s + 1000
4
8
Yin =
+ 10 + 11 10 s =
4.4 s
4.4 s
8 2
4
1000 48.4 10 + j 4.4 10
Yin ( j ) =
j 4.4
Yin = Iin =

(b)

At = o , 1000 = 48.4 108 o2 , o = 45.45 krad/s

1

j 4.4 104 o
Zin ( j o ) =
= 10 k
j 4.4 o

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12.

0 =

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

1
= 24 = 4.9 rad/s or f0 = 0 = 780 mHz
2
LC

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13.

0 =

1
=
LC

1
25 106
1.01

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

= 200 rad/s or f0 =

10 March 2006

0
= 31.99 Hz
2

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14.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

1
103
=
=5
2 C 200

(a) =

1
2 RC

0 =

1
1
=
= 1000 rad/s or f0 = 0 = 159.2 Hz
2
LC
106

R=

10 March 2006

Zin(0) = R = 5

(b) We see from the simulation result that the ratio of the test source voltage to its current
is 5 at the resonant frequency; the small error is due to the series resistance PSpice
required.

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15.

(a) =

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

1
= 50 s -1 and d = 02 2 = 5000 rad/s
2RC

Zin(0) = R so find R.

L d2 + 2
1
1
=
= 250
C= 2 = 2
= 40 F . R =
2 C
2(50)
0 L d + 2 L
1

1
= 5000 rad/s or f 0 = 795.8 Hz .
LC
We see from the simulation result that the ratio of the test source voltage to its current
is 250 at the resonant frequency; the small error is due to the series resistance PSpice
required.
(b) The resonant frequency is

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16.

o = 1000 rad/s, Qo = 80, C = 0.2 F

(a)

1
106
80
= 5 H, Qo = o RC R = 3
= 400 k
L= 2 =
6
o C 0.2 10
10 0.2 106

(b)

B = o / Q o = 1000 / 80 = 12.5

10 March 2006

1
B = 6.25 rad/s
2

o
Z = R / 1+ j
= 400 10 / 1 +

B/2
6.25

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

17.

1 = 103rad/s, 2 = 118,
Z( j105) = 10

o2 = 1 2 = 103 118
o

110.245+
o = 110.245 , B = 118 103 = 15 rad/s, Qo =
=
= 7.350
B
15
7.350
1
1
7.350 = o RC RC =
= 66.67 103 , LC = 2 =
+
110.2451
o 12,154
+

1
1
12,154

+ j 105C
C = 18.456 C
= 15C + j 105C
R
105L
105

0.1
1
1
C =
= 5.418 mF, R = C = 12.304 , L =
= 15.185 mH
18.456
15
12,154C
Y( j105) = 0.1 =

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10 March 2006

18.

(a)

B=

(b)

N=

(c)

(d)

Q
1
10
1

Zin ( j 28, 000) =

,C = o =
+ j 28, 000C j

28, 000L
o R 30, 000 600
600

Qo

B/ 2

28 30
= 1.3333
1.5
1

R
600
1 30, 000 10
1
28 10 30 10
L=
, =
=
Zin =
+ j

600
o Qo 30, 000 10 L
30 600 28 600
600
600
= 351.90654.0903
Zin =
28 30
1 + j10
30 28
(e)

approx-true
360 351.906
= 100%
= 2.300%
true
351.906
53.1301 54.0903
= 1.7752%
angle: 100%
54.0903
magnitude: 100%

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19.

(a)

10 March 2006

f 400
50 / 2

f = 400 25 3 = 443.3 and 356.7 Hz

(b)

IR =

v
R

1
1+ N

1
= 0.5 103 1 + N 2 = 4, N 2 = 15, N = 15
500

f = 400 25 15 = 496.8 and 303.2 Hz

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20.

o = 106 , Qo = 10, R = 5 103 , p.r.

(a)

Qo =

(b)

Approx: 2 = 5 / 1 + N

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

R
5 103
= 0.5 mH
L =
o L
10 106
2

N = 2.291 =

106
106 / 20

2
o
1
1

Exact: Y = 1 + jQo
0.5 = 0.2 1 + 100 ( in Mrad/S)
R

o
1
1
6.25 = 1 + 100( 2 2 + 1/ 2 ), 2 2 + 2 = 0.0525, 2 + 2 = 2.0525

4 2.0525 2 + 1 = 0, 2 =
(c)

1
2.0525 + 2.05252 4 = 1.2569, = 1.1211 Mrad/s
2

Approx: Y = 30 tan 1 N = 30, N = 0.5774 =

Exact: Y =

1
1/ 20

, = 1.0289 Mrad/s

1
1
1

1 + j10 (in Mrad/s) tan 30 = 0.5774 = 10

5000

= 0.05774, 2 0.05774 1 = 0, =

0.05774 + 0.057742 + 4
2

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

21.
(a)
(b)

C = 3 + 7 = 10 nF o =

1
4

10 10

Q o = o CR = 1061085 5 103 = 50
B = o / Q o = 20 krad/s
Parallel current source is

10
= j 3 109 At o , I s = j106 9 3
Z3

V1,0 = j 3 103 5 103 = 1590 V

(c)

o = 15 103 N =

15 103
1590
= 1.5 V1 =
= 8.32133.69 V
3
10 10
1 + j1.5

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10 March 2006

22.
(a)

(5 + 0.01s )(5 + 106 / s ) (5 + 0.01s )(5s + 106 )

=
10 + 0.01s + 106 / s
0.01s 2 + 10 s + 106
0.05s 2 + 25s + 104 s + 5 106
Zin ( s ) =
0.01s 2 + 10 s + 106
5 106 0.05 2 + j10, 025
Zin ( j ) =
106 0.01 2 + j10
10, 025 o
10 o
At = o ,
= 6
, 10.025 109 100.25 o2 = 5 107 0.5 o2
6
2
2
5 10 0.05 o 10 0.01 o
Zin ( s ) =

(b)

Zin ( j o ) = (5 + j100) (5 j100) =

25 + 10, 000
= 1002.5
10

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23.

, f o = 1000 Hz, Qo = 40, Zin ( j o ) = 2k B = 25 Hz

(a)

Zin(j) =

10 March 2006

2000
f 1000
, N=
, f = 1010, N = 0.8
1 + jN
12.5

(b)

0.9 f o < f < 1.1 f o 900 < f < 1100 Hz

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24.

10 March 2006

Taking 2 = 0.7, we read from

Fig. 16.48a: 1.7 kHz 0.6 kHz = 1.1 kHz
Fig. 16.48b:

2107 Hz 900 Hz = 20 MHz

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25.

10 March 2006

Bandwidth = 2 f 0 = 2 106 = 2 1 , where 1 = 2 ( 5.5 )103 .

(a) 2 = 1 + B , therefore f2 = 5.5 + 103 kHz = 1.0055 MHz
(b) f 0 =
(c) Q0 =

f1 f 2 =

( 5.5 )(1005.5) =

74.37 kHz

f 0 74.37 103
=
= 0.074
106
B

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26.

10 March 2006

Bandwidth = 109 Hz = f 2 f1 , where f1 = 75.3 106 Hz.

(a) f 2 = f1 + B , therefore f2 = 1.0753 GHz
(b) f 0 =
(c) Q0 =

f1 f 2 =

( 75.3 10 )(1.0753 10 ) =
6

284.6 MHz

f 0 284.6 106
=
= 0.2846
109
B

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27.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

(a) To complete the sketch, we need to first find 0, which we obtain in part (b).

(b) 0 = 12 = 2000 rad/s or f 0 = 318.3 Hz

(c) B = 2 1 = 3000 rad/s or
(d) Q =

2 1

477.5 Hz

2000
= 0.667
3000

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28.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

(a) We begin by labelling the series string with the capacitor as string 1, and the other as
string 2. We next find the parallel equivalent of each, and determine the frequency where
Xp1 + Xp2 = 0.

R12 + X 12
R22 + X 22
, and similarly X p2 =
.
Then X p1 =
X1
X2
For X p1 + X p2 = 0 we have

1
At 0, X 1 =
0C

At 0, X 2 = 0 L

R12 + X 12 R22 + X 22
+
=0
X1
X2

R12 + X 12
=
X1

52 +



1024

02 ( 330 )
1012
3300

R22 + X 22 52 + 104 02
=
.
102 0
X2

Enforcing Eq. , then, leads to 0 =

1022 ( 25 ) (330)1012
(330)108 25(33) 2

or f0 = 87.61 kHz.
(b) We see the simulation result agrees reasonably, with a resonant frequency of 87.6 kHz

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29.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

(a) We design for a bandwidth of 5.5 kHz, a low-frequency cut-off of 500 Hz, and a
resonant impedance of 1 k (no value was specified). Thus, we need to specify values
for R, L, and C.
f 2 = f1 + B = 6 kHz
f0 =

f1 f 2 =

( 0.5 ) (6) =

3 kHz

f0
3 103
Q0 =
=
B 5.5 103
Q0 = 0 RC so C =

L=

Q0
1
=
= 28.9 nF
3
0 R 5.5 10 ( 2 )103

5.5 103 103

1
=
= 292 mH
02C
2 3 106

and, of course, R = 1 k

(b) From the simulation, we observe a bandwidth of 5.5 kHz, a lower frequency cutoff of
approximately 500 Hz, and a peak impedance of 1000 , as desired.

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30.

(a) f 0 =

(b) Q0 =

1
2

1
1
=
LC 2

0 L

)(

400 106 3.3 106

10 March 2006

= 4.38 kHz

1 L 1 400
=
= 1.10
LC R 10 3.3

(c) Z at resonance = R = 10
(d) Z at 0.438 kHz =

1
10 + j 2 ( 438 ) 400 106
2 ( 438 ) 3.3 106

(e) Z at 43.8 kHz =

1
10 + j 2 ( 438 ) 400 104
2 ( 438 ) 3.3 104

= 10 j109.01

= 10 j108.98

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31.

10 March 2006

Bandwidth = 3 MHz, f1 = 17 kHz.

(a) f 2 = f1 + B =
(b) f 0 =
(c) Q0 =

f1 f 2 =

3.017 MHz
226.5 kHz

f0
= 0.0755
B

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32.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

(a) Z0 = 1 by definition

(b) 0 =

1
103
=
LC
2

= 112.5 Hz

(c) PSpice simulation verifies an impedance of 1 at f = 112.6 Hz.

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

33.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

(a) Z0 = 1 k by definition

(b) 0 =

1
106
=
LC
2

= 112.5 kHz

(c) PSpice simulation verifies an impedance of 1 k at f = 112.8 kHz.

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

10 March 2006

34.
(a)

20A 6, 3 6 = 2, 40 V in series with 2 + 1 = 3

1
L 60
= 10 rad/s, Qo = o =
= 20
R
3
LC
10
1
B=
= 0.5, B = 0.25, Vout ( j o ) = 40Qo = 800 V
20
2

o =

10
Vout ( j ) = 800 / 1 +

0.25

(b)

800
= 194.03V
17
40
600
Exact: Vout =

3 + j (6 600 / ) j
24, 000
Vout ( j 9) =
= 204.86 13.325 V
9[3 + j (54 66.67)]
(Approx: Vout ( j 9) =

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10 March 2006

35.

Series: R = 50 , L = 4 mH, C = 107

(a)

o = 1/ 4 1037 = 50 krad/s

(b)

(c)

Qo =

(d)

(e)

1 = o 1 + (1/ 2Qo ) 2 1/ 2Qo = 50 1 + 1/ 64 1/ 8 = 44.14 krad/s

(f)

2 = 50 65 / 64 + 1/ 8 = 56.64 krad/s

(g)

(h)

Zc / Z R

o L
R

45,000

50 103 4 103
=4
50

= 107 / j 45, 000 50 = 4.444

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

36.

Apply 1 A, in at top. VR = 10 V

(a)

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

108
1.2 108
(0.5 10 + 1) = 103 s + 10 +
s
5s
8
8
3
3
Zin ( j ) = 10 + j (10 1.2 10 / ) 10 o = 1.2 10 / o

o2 = 1.2 1011 , o = 346.4 krad/s

(b)

Qo =

o L
R

346.4 1033
= 34.64
10

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37.

10 March 2006

Find the Thvenin equivalent seen by the inductor-capacitor combination:

SC : 1.5 = V1 + 10 1 0.105 V1 V1 = 50 V
125

50
ISC =
= 0.4 A
125
1.5
= 3.75
OC :V1 = 0 VOC = 1.5 V R th =
0.4
1000 4
o = 1/ 4 0.25 106 = 1000, Qo =
= 1066.7
3.75
1000
1
= 0.9375, B = 0.4688 rad/s
B = o / Qo =
1066.7
2
VC max = Qo Vth = 1066.7 1.5 = 1600 V
Therefore, keep your hands off!

To generate a plot of |VC| vs. frequency, note that VC(j) = 1.5

j
C

3.75 + jL

j
C

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38.

(a)

500 = o L = 2 (500)L L = 0.15915+ H, C =

Qo = 10 =

(b)

X L ,0
R

10 March 2006

1
2
=
= 0.6366 F
2
o L (2 500) 2

500
R = 50
R

1
106 0.5
250, 000
1 = I 50 + j 2 f
j
= I 50 + j f j

f
2
2 f

6
10 0.5
I = 1/ 50 + j ( f 250, 000 / f ), Vc =
I
j 2 f
j 250, 000 / f
Vc (2 450) = 4.757 V
VC =
50 + j ( f 250, 000 / f )
Vc (2 500) = 10, 000 V Vc (2 550) = 4.218 V

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

39.
X : s = 0, , 0 : s = 20, 000 j80, 000 s 1 , Zin (104 ) = 20 + j 0 SERIES

= 20, 000, d = 80, 000 o = (64 + 4)108 = 82, 462 rad/s,

1
= o2 = 68 108
LC

R
R
1 L 68 108
1
= = 20, 000 = 40, 000,
=
= 170, 000; Z( ) = R + L +
2L
L1
LC R 40, 000
C
1
170, 000
1
=R R
R R = 1.2308
4
10, 000
10, 000C
1
1.2308
L =
= 30.77 H, C =
= 4.779 F
170, 000 1.2308
40, 000
20 = R 10, 000L

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40.
o 1/ 10

3 7

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

1053
= 10 rad/s, Q L =
= 100, R PL = 10, 000
1
5

1
= 500, R PC = 5002 0.2 = 50, 000
10 0.2
50 10 = 8.333 k Q o = o CR = 1057 8333 = 83.33
Qc =

5 7

100, 000
= 1200 rad/s, Zin ( jo ) = 8333
83.33
(99 100)103
8.333
= 99, 000 N =
= 1.6667, Zin ( j 99, 000) =
600
1 j1.667
= 4.287 59.04o k
B=

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41.

10 March 2006

Req = Qo/ o C = 50 / 105-7 = 5000 .

Thus, we may write 1/5000 = 1/8333 + 1/Rx so that
Rx = 12.5 k.

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

42.
3mH 1.5 mH = 1mH, 2 F + 8 F = 10 F, o =

1
1035

3 103 104
= 100, R p = 1002 0.3 = 3 k
0.3
1.5 103 104
Q=
= 60, R p = 60 0.25 = 900
0.25
692.3
900 3000 = 692.3 Q L = 43 = 69.23
10
692.3
R LS =
= 0.14444
69.232
106
Q= 4
= 125, R pc = 1252 0.1 = 1562.5 10 F
10 0.1 8
1562.5
Qc = 104 105 15625 = 156.25 R SC =
= 0.064
(156.25) 2
Q=

R S ,tot = 0.14444 + 0.064 = 0.2084 = Zin

min

, o = 10 krad/s

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10 March 2006

43.
(a)

o 1/ 2 0.2 103 = 50 rad/s

QleftL = 50 2.5 / 2 = 62.5, 2 62.52 = 7812.5
50 10
= 50, 10 502 = 25 k
10
1000
Qc =
= 100, 1002 1 = 10 k , R p = 7.8125 25 10 = 3731
50 0.2 1
50
1
Qo = 50 3731 0.2 10 3 = 37.31; B =
= 1.3400, B = 0.6700
37.31
2
3
V o = 10 3731 = 3.731V
Q rightL =

3.731 V

2.638 V

|V| (volts)

50

(b)

V = 103 [(2 + j125) (10 + j500) (1 j100)]

=

103
= 3.7321 0.3950+ V
1
1
1
+
+
2 + j125 10 + j 500 1 j100

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

44.
(a)

1000
= 2000 rad/s, Qc = 2000 2 106 25 103 = 100
0.25
R
20 104
R C , S = 25, 000 /1002 = 2.5 ; Q L =
=
= 40
o L 2000 0.25
o

20, 000
= 12.5 R tot = 12.5 + 2.5 = 15
1600
2000 0.25
1
Qo =
= 33.33 Vx = 1 33.33 = 16.667 V
15
2
R L,S =

(b)

20, 000 j 500

= 12, 4922 + j 499.688
20, 000 + j 500
25, 000( j 250)
= 2.4998 j 249.975
25, 000 j 250 =
25, 000 j 250
20, 000 j 500 =

Zin = 12.4922 + 2.4998 + j 499.688 j 250 j 249.975 = 14.9920 j 0.2870

I = 1/ 14.9920 j 0.2870 = 66.6902 mA Vx = 250 66.6902 103 = 16.6726 V

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45.

Q = CR, RS =

XS =

10 March 2006

RP
Q2 X P
X
,
and
=
S
1 + Q2
1 + Q2

1
1
1 + Q2
, XP =
CS = C P
Q2
CS
CP

(a) = 103 rad/s, Q = 5

Therefore, RS = 5/26 = 192 , CS = 26/25 F = 1.06 F
(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 50
Therefore, RS = 5/2501 = 2 , CS = 2501/2500 F = 1.0004 F
(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 500
Therefore, RS = 5000/250001 = 20 m, CS = 250001/250000 F = 1.0 F

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

46.

RP = RS 1 + Q 2 , and X P = X S
C P = CS

10 March 2006

1 + Q2
Q2

Q2
1 + Q2

(a) = 103 rad/s, Q = 0.2

Therefore, RP = 5(1 + 0.04) = 5.2 k, CP = 38.5 nF
(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 50
Therefore, RP = 5(1 + 0.0004) = 5.002 k, CP = 400 pF
(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 500
Therefore, RP = 5(1 + 4106) = 5 k, CP = 4 pF

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47.

Q=

10 March 2006

RP
Q2 X P
R
Q2
X
L
L
, RS =
,
and
=
.
=
S
S
P
1 + Q2
L
1 + Q2
1 + Q2

(a) = 103 rad/s, Q = 142.4103

Therefore, RS = 470/(1 + Q2) = 23.2 n, LS = 3.3 H
(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 14.24103
Therefore, RS = 470/(1 + Q2) = 23.2 , LS = 3.3 H
(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 1.424103
Therefore, RS = 470/(1 + Q2) = 232 , LS = 3.3 H

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48.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

1 + Q2
RP = RS 1 + Q 2 , and X P = X S

2
Q
1 + Q2
LP = LS

2
Q

(a) = 103 rad/s, Q = 7.02106

Therefore, RP = 470(1 + Q2) = 470 , LP = 67 mF
(b) = 104 rad/s, Q = 50
Therefore, RP = 470(1 + Q2) = 470 , LP = 670 F
(c) = 105 rad/s, Q = 500
Therefore, RP = 470(1 + Q2) = 470 , LP = 6.70 F

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49.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

R
470
7 6 = 47 . Since Q > 5, the series
L 10 10
equivalent is a 10/47 resistor in series with 1 H.
(a) For the left parallel circuit, Q =

For the right parallel circuit, Q = CR 107108 ( 200 ) = 20 . Again, Q > 5, so the series
equivalent is
a 10/20 = 500 m resistor in series with 10 nF.
We may therefore approximate the network as a 700 m resistor in series with a 10 nF
capacitor, in series with a 1 H inductor, in series with the 10 H inductor of interest.

At the resonant frequency the network connected in series with the inductor has an
impedance of 700 m. The inductor present an impedance of 100 . Thus, |Vx| = 1 V.

(b) ZL =

( 470 ) ( j107106 )
470 + j10

1
jC2
= 0.213 + j9.995 . Z L =
= 0.499 j9.975
1
R2 +
jC2
R2

Z3 = j100 .

Thus, Vx =

Z3
j100
= 0.99745 + j 0.0071 V
(10 ) =
0.714 + j 0.02
Z1 + Z L + Z3

So that |Vx| = 0.99977 V . Our approximation was pretty accurate, at least at this
frequency.

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

50.
(a)

(b)

50
20 103
= 0.5 K f =
= 0.02
100
106
1
0.5
9.82 H 0.5 9.82
= 24.55 H, 31.8 H
31.8 = 795 H
0.02
0.02
2.57
= 257 nF
2.57 nF
0.5 0.02
Km =

same ordinate; divide numbers on abscissa by 50

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10 March 2006

51.
(a)

Apply 1 V I1 = 10A 0.5 I1 = 5A ; 5A 0.2 can be replaced by 1 V in series with 0.2

Iin = 10 +

s + 10
1 (1)
2s
4s + 20 20( s + 5)
= 10 +
=
=
Zin ( s) =
20( s + 5)
s + 10
0.2 + 2 / s
0.2s + 2 0.2s + 2
2( s / 5 + 10) 0.1( s + 50)
=
20( s / 5 + 5)
s + 25

(b)

K m = 2, K f = 5 Zin ( s )

(c)

0.1 0.2 , 0.2 0.4 , 0.5F 0.05 F, 0.5 I1 0.5 I1

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10 March 2006

52.
(a)

o 1/ (2 + 8)103106 = 104 rad/s

3

Q L ,8 = 10 / 8 10 10 = 125 R L , S
4

2 + 8 = 10 mH Q L =

104
=
= 0.64
1252

104 10 103
= 156.25
0.64

1
= 100, R C , P = 1002 1 = 10 k
10 106
R P = 20 15.625 10 = 4.673 k Qo = 104 106 4.673 103 = 46.73
R L , P = 0.64 156.252 = 15.625 k ; QC =

(b)

(c)

o = 106 rad/s, Qo stays the same, B =

106
46.73

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10 March 2006

53.
(a)

K m = 250, K f = 400 0.1F

5 1250 , 2H

0.1
= 1F
250 400

2 250
= 1.25 H, 4 Ix 103 Ix
400

1.25 H

1 F

(b)

= 103. Apply 1 V I x = 106 s, I1250 =

1250

103

1
1250

1 103 s
1000 I x = 10 s I L =
1.25s
1
0.8
0.8
(1 103 s ) = 106 s +
; s = j103
Iin = 106 s +
+
1250 s
s
3
0.8 10
1 1000
Iin = j103 +
= j 0.2 103 Zth =
=
= j 5 k Voc = 0
Iin
j
j 0.2
3

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

54.
(a)

Is = 20 A, = 50 Vout = 6025 V

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

K m = 30, K f = 4, Is = 240 A, = 200 Vout = 180065 V

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10 March 2006

55.
(a)

H /( s) = 0.2 H dB = 20 log 0.2 = 13.979 dB

(b)

H( s ) = 50 H dB = 20 log 50 = 33.98dB

(c)

H( j10) =

(d)

(e)

(f)

H dB = 0.01dB H( s ) = 100.01/ 20 = 1.0012

12
26
6
13
292 + j 380
+
H dB = 20 log
+
= 20 log
= 6.451dB
2 + j10 20 + j10
1 + j 5 10 + j 5
60 + j 220

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56.
(a)

10 March 2006

(d)

MATLAB verification- shown adjacent to Bode plots below.

20( s + 1) 0.2(1 + s )
H( s ) =
=
, 0.2 14 dB
s + 100 1 + s /100

10

100

2000( s + 1) s
0.2 s(1 + s)
=
, 0.2 14 dB
2
( s + 100)
(1 + s /100) 2

(b)

H( s ) =

(c)

200 s 2 + 45s + 200 ( s + 5)( s + 40) 200(1 + s / 5)(1 + s / 40)

H( s ) = s + 45 +
=
=
=
, 200 46 dB
s
s
s
s

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10 March 2006

57.
H( s ) =

VC (20 + 2 s)(182 + 200 / s)

200 / s
=

IR
202 + 2 s + 200 / s
182 + 200 / s

400( s + 10)
200(10 + s )
=
2
2( s + 101s + 100) (1 + s)(100 + s )
20(1 + s /10)
H( s ) =
, 20 26 dB
(1 + s )(1 + s /100)
=

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

58.
5 108 s ( s + 100)
2.5s (1 + s /100)
=
, 2.5 8dB
3
( s + 20)( s + 1000)
(1 + s / 20)(1 + s /1000)3

(a)

H( s ) =

(b)

Corners: = 20, 34 dB;

= 100, 34 dB;
= 1000, 54 dB
Intercepts: 0 dB, 2.5 = 1, = 0.4
2.5 ( /100)
2.52 (20)109
= 1, 8dB; 0 dB,
=
= 1 = 22,360 rad/s
( / 20)( /1000)3
1003

(c)

Corners: = 20, 31.13dB

= 100, 36.69 dB H dB = 20 log 2.5

1 + ( /100) 2
[1 + ( / 20) 2 ][1 + ( /1000) 2 ]3

= 1000, 44.99 dB

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

59.
(a)

(b)

H( s ) =

5 108 s ( s + 100)
2.5s (1 + s /100)
=
,
3
( s + 20)( s + 1000)
(1 + s / 20)(1 + s /1000)3

= 2 : = 90

= 10 : = 90 45 + 45 log

10
= 58.5
20

100
100
+ 45 + 45 log
= 58.5
20
100
200
200

= 200 : = 90 90 + 45 + 45 log
3 45 + 45 log
= 17.9
100
100

= 100 : = 90 45 + 45 log

1000

= 45
1000

= 10, 000 : = 90 90 + 90 3 90 = 180

= 1000 : = 90 90 + 90 3 45 + 45 log

(c)

= 2 : = 90 + tan 1 0.02 tan 1 0.1 3 tan 1 0.002 = 85.09

= 10 : = 90 + tan 1 0.1 tan 1 0.5 3 tan 1 0.01 = 67.43
= 100 : = 90 + tan 1 1 tan 1 5 3 tan 1 0.1 = 39.18
= 200 : = 90 + tan 1 2 tan 1 10 3 tan 1 0.2 = 35.22
= 1000 : = 90 + tan 1 10 tan 1 50 3 tan 1 1 = 49.56
= 10, 000 : = 90 + tan 1 100 tan 1 500 3 tan 1 10 = 163.33

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

60.
(a)

20 400 s 2 + 20 s + 400
+ 2 =
s
s
s2
1 + 2 0.5( s / 20) + ( s / 20) 2
= 400
s2
o = 20, = 0.5
H( s ) = 1 +

Hdb

20 log 400 = 52dB

Correction at o is 20 log 2 = 0 dB

(b)

= 5 : H dB = 52 2 20 log 5 = 24.0 dB (plot)

H dB = 20 log 1 16 + j 4 = 23.8dB (exact)

= 100 : H dB = 0 dB (plot)
H dB = 20 log 1 0.04 + j 0.2 = 0.170 dB (exact)

(c)

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

61.
(a)

(b)

H( s ) =

VR
25
25s
=
=
=
2
V5 10 s + 25 + 1000 / s 10 s + 25s + 1000

1 s s
1 + 2 +
8 10 10

1
o = 10, = 1/ 8 correction = 20 log 2 = 12 dB
8
0.025 32 dB
HdB

(c)

0.025s

= 20, H( j 20) =

ang(H)

j 0.5
H dB = 15.68 dB H( j 20) = 80.54
1 4 + j 0.5

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Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

62.
1st two stages, H1 ( s ) = H 2 ( s ) = 10; H 3 ( s ) =

1/(50 103 106 )

20
=
3
6
s + 1/(200 10 10 ) s + 5

20 400
H( s ) = (10)(10)
=
s + 5 1+ s / 5
400 52 dB

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

63.
(a)

10 March 2006

1st stage: C1 A = 1 F, R1 A = , R fA = 105 H A (S) = R fA C1 A s = 0.1 s

2nd stage: R 1B = 105 , R fB = 105 , C fB = 1 F H B ( s ) =

1/ R1B C fB
s + 1/ R fB C fB

1/(105 106 )
10
=
5
6
s + 1/(10 10 )
s + 10
3rd stage: same as 2nd

H B (s) =

0.1s
10 10
H( s ) = (0.1s )

=
(1 + s /10) 2
s + 10 s + 10

20log10(0.1) = -20 dB
(b)

(c)

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64.

10 March 2006

An amplifier that rejects high-frequency signals is required. There is some ambiguity in

the requirements, as social conversations may include frequencies up to 50 kHz, and
echolocation sounds, which we are asked to filter out, may begin below this value.
Without further information, we decide to set the filter cutoff frequency at 50 kHz to
ensure we do not lose information. However, we note that this decision is not necessarily
the only correct one.
Our input source is a microphone modeled as a sinusoidal voltage source having a peak
amplitude of 15 mV in series with a 1- resistor. Our output device is an earphone
modeled as a 1-k resistor. A voltage of 15 mV from the microphone should correspond
to about 1 V at the earphone according to the specifications, requiring a gain of 1000/15
= 66.7.
Rf
= 66.7 - 1 = 65.7
If we select a non-inverting op amp topology, we then need
R1
Arbitrarily choosing R1 = 1 k, we then need Rf = 65.7 k. This completes the
amplification part. Next, we need to filter out frequencies greater than 50 kHz.
Placing a capacitor across the microphone terminals will short out high frequencies.
1
We design for c = 2fc = 2(50103) =
. Since Rmic = 1 , we require
Rmic C filter
Cfilter = 3.183 F.

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65.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

We choose a simple series RLC circuit. It was shown in the text that the gain of the
RC
.
circuit with the output taken across the resistor is AV =
1
2
2
2 2 2 2
1 - LC + R C
This results in a bandpass filter with corner frequencies at

[(

c =
L

-RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC
2 LC

and

c =
H

RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC
2 LC

If we take our output across the inductor-capacitor combination instead, we obtain the
opposite curve- i.e. a bandstop filter with the same cutoff frequencies. Thus, we want
-RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC
2(20) =
and 2(20103) =
2 LC

RC + R 2 C 2 + 4 LC
2 LC

Noting that cH cL = R/L = 125.5 krad/s, we arbitrarily select R = 1 k, so that L =

7.966 mH. Returning to either cutoff frequency expression, we then find C = 7.950 F
PSpice verification. The circuit
performs as required, with a
lower corner frequency of about
20 Hz and an upper corner
frequency of about 20 kHz.

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66.

10 March 2006

We choose a simple RC filter topology:

Vout
1
=
Vin 1 + jRC

Vout
1
. We desire a cutoff
=
2
Vin
1 + (RC )
frequency of 1 kHz, and note that this circuit does indeed act as a low-pass filter (higher
frequency signals lead to the capacitor appearing more and more as a short circuit).
Thus,
1
1
=
=
where c = 2fc = 2000 rad/s.
2
2
1 + ( c RC )

Where

and

hence

A small amount of algebra yields 1 + [2(1000)RC]2 = 2 or 2000RC = 1. Arbitrarily

setting R = 1 k, we then find that C = 159.2 nF. The operation of the filter is verified in
the PSpice simulation below:

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

67.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

We are not provided with the actual spectral shape of the noise signal, although the
reduction to 1% of its peak value (a drop of 40 dB) by 1 kHz is useful to know. If we
place a simple high-pass RC filter at the input of an op amp stage, designing for a pole at
2.5 kHz should ensure an essentially flat response above 25 kHz, and a 3 dB reduction at
2.5 kHz. If greater tolerance is required, the 40 dB reduction at 1 kHz allows the pole to
be moved to a frequency even closer to 1 kHz. The PSpice simulation below shows a
1
filter with R = 1 k (arbitrarily chosen) and C =
= 63.66 nF .
2 (2.5 10 3 )(1000)
At a frequency of 25 kHz, the filter shows minimal gain reduction, but at 1 kHz any
signal is reduced by more than 8 dB.

We therefore design a simple non-inverting op amp circuit such as the one below, which
with Rf = 100 k and R1 = 1 k, has a gain of 100 V/V. In simulating the circuit, a gain
of approximately 40 dB at 25 kHz was noted, although the gain dropped at higher
frequencies, reaching 37 dB around 80 kHz. Thus, to completely assess the suitability of
design, more information regarding the frequency spectrum of the failure signals would
be required.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

68.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

We select a simple series RLC circuit with the output taken across the resistor to serve as
a bandpass filter with 500 Hz and 5000 Hz cutoff frequencies. From Example 16.12, we
know that
R
1
c L = +
R 2C 2 + 4LC = 2 (500)
2L 2LC
and
R
1
cH =
+
R 2C 2 + 4LC = 2 (5000)
2L 2LC

With cH - cL = 2p(5000 500) = R/L, we (arbitrarily) select R = 1 k, so that L

= 35.37 mH. Substituting these two values into the equation for the high-frequency
cutoff, we find that C = 286.3 nF. We complete the design by selecting R1 = 1 k and Rf
= 1 k for a gain of 2 (no value of gain was specified). As seen in the PSpice simulation
results shown below, the circuit performs as specified at maximum gain (6 dB or 2 V/V),
with cutoff frequencies of approximately 500 and 5000 KHz and a peak gain of 6 dB.

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

69.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

For this circuit, we simply need to connect a low-pass filter to the input of a noninverting op amp having Rf/R1 = 9 (for a gain of 10). If we use a simple RC filter, the
cutoff frequency is
1
c =
= 2 (3000)
RC
Selecting (arbitrarily) R = 1 k, we find C = 53.05 nF. The PSpice simulation below
shows that our design does indeed have a bandwidth of 3 kHz and a peak gain of 10 V/V
(20 dB).

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

70.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

We require four filter stages, and choose to implement the circuit using op amps to isolate each filter subcircuit. Selecting a bandwidth of 1 rad/s (no specification was given) and a simple RLC filter as suggested
in the problem statement, a resistance value of 1 leads to an inductor value of 1 H (bandwidth for this
type of filter = H L = R/L). The capacitance is found by designing each filters respective resonant
frequency ( 1 LC ) at the desired notch frequency. Thus, we require CF1 = 10.13 F, CF2 = 2.533 F,
CF3 = 1.126 F and CF4 = 633.3 nF.
The Student Version of PSpice will not permit more than 64 nodes, so that the total solution must be
simulated in two parts. The half with the filters for notching out 50 and 100 Hz components is shown
below; an additional two op amp stages are required to complete the design.

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

71.

Chapter Sixteen Solutions

10 March 2006

Using the series RLC circuit suggested, we decide to design for a bandwidth of 1 rad/ s
(as no specification was provided). With H L = R/ L, we arbitrarily select R = 1 so
that L = 1 H. The capacitance required is obtained by setting the resonant frequency of
the circuit ( 1 LC ) equal to 60 Hz (120 rad/s). This yields C = 7.04 F.

vin

vout

1
1H

7.04 F

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.