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# Contents

Literature review.................................................................................................... 1
Terminology........................................................................................................... 2
Characteristic of Mass Haul Diagram.....................................................................3
Example of mass haul calculation..........................................................................4

Literature review
Mass haul diagram is a significant part in anyway projects that
involves earthworks. It is a summarized form of soil embankments and
excavations for the entire project. It is also extremely useful tool in the
0

## earthwork design process, to evaluate design process and balancing

points (zero mass ordinate), and to calculate haul.

## The mass haul diagram or curve is drawn in accordance to the

calculation of earthwork volumes and its ordinates that describes
cumulative volume at specific points along the center line. A simple way
to understand mass haul diagram is to imagine a truck thats moves along
the length of the projects in the direction of increasing stations. As the
truck moves between two stations, the cut volumes between these
stations are added to the truck and fill volumes (adjusted for the
compaction factor) are removed from the truck. The volume of soil in the
truck at a particular station is the mass ordinate. Volumes of cut
(excavation) and fill (embankment) are treated as positive and negative,
respectively. Compensation can be made as necessary, for shrinkage or
bulking of the excavated material when placed finally in an embankment.
Using mass haul diagram we can determine:

## The distances over which cut (excavation) and fill (Embankment)

will balance.
Volume of soil to be moved and the direction of movement.
Areas where soil may have to be borrowed or wasted and the
volumes involved.
The best policy to adopt to achieve the most economic use of plan.

Terminology
Haul: The number of work involved in an earthwork project is not totally
reflected by the (cut) excavation and (fill) embankment volumes alone.
Two balanced projects with similar excavation volumes, but significantly
different lengths, differ so much in the amount of work required to move
the excavated soil to its final place in the embankment. The effort
required to transport the excavated soil is quantified as haul. Haul is
measured in units of cubic m3/km, which is defined as the amount of work
required to move 1 m3 of excavated soil a km.
Free haul distance: is the specified distance wherein an excavated
material will be hauled without additional cost.
Overhaul: is the authorized hauling in excess of the free haul distance and
beyond balance points.
Waste Material: Occasionally, excess excavated soil not necessary to
construct the roadway embankment is obtained. Consequently, waste
areas must be obtained or embankment slopes must be flattened, so that
excess soil can be disposed.
Borrow Material: in some occasion, the existing profile grade cannot be
adjusted, or there may be insufficient excavation soil available to balance
the earthwork.
Excavation (cut): the soil volume that is removed to obtain the desired
earth grade cross section. The cut slope catch point for each cut section is
normally set at a fixed distance from the bottom of the ditch.
Embankment (fill): Excavated soil that is placed and compacted to obtain
the desired earth grade cross section.
Topsoil: Top soil is the layer of nutrient rich soil that is removed, stored,
and placed over the surface of all disturbed areas for vegetation purposes.
Shrinkage or swell factor: 1m3 of excavation on amount will not always
occupies 1 m of space in the fill, so some adjusting is required. Shrinkage
and swell factor are stated as percentage of shrinkage or percentage of
swell, which symbolize the percent volume change between cut and fill.

## Characteristic of Mass Haul Diagram

Figure 1

1. The ordinate at any station along the curve in mass haul diagram
represent the soil volume accumulation to that point.
2. The maximum ordinate (+) shows a change from cut to fill as one
continues along the centre-line from a randomly assumed origin.
The minimum ordinate (-) shows a change from fill to cut. These
maximum and minimum points may not certainly coincide with the
apparent points of transition as shown by the profile section; this
based on whether or not there are side-hill transition as shown by
the profile section;
3. A rising curve at any point shows an excess of cut (excavation)
volume over embankment material at this point. A falling curve
indicates the opposite.
4. A steeply rising or falling curve indicates heavy cuts (excavation) or
fills (embankment). Flat curves show that the accumulated soil
volume is small.
5. The shapes of the loops show the direction of haul. A convex loop
indicates that the haul from cut to fill is to be from left to right, while
a concave loop shows that the haul is to be from right to left.
6. Since the ordinates of a curve are plotted from cuts (excavation)
volumes and adjusted fills (embankment) volumes, then any line
parallel to the base line which cuts off a loop intersects the curve at
two points between which the amount of cut is equal to the fill. Such
a line is called a balancing line and the intersection points are called
' balancing points '.

## 7. The area between a balance line and the mass-haul curve is a

measure of the haul between the balance points. If this area is
divided by the maximum ordinate between the balance line and
curve, the value attained is the average distance that the cut soil
must be hauled in order to make the fill. This distance can also be
calculated by drawing a horizontal line through the mid-point of this
maximum ordinate until it intersects the loop at two points; the
length of this line is very close to the average haul distance when
the shape of the loop is smooth.
8. Balance lines need not be continuous; the vertical break between
any two balance lines merely indicates unbalanced earthwork
balance lines should never overlap, as this means using the same
part of the mass-diagram twice.

Chainag
e/
Station
1000
1040
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1780
1820
1900
2000
2035
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2530
2600
2700

Centre
Height
(m)
F1.22
0
C1.52
C3.96
C4.12
C2.74
0
F3.05
F4.27
F4.72
F4.72
F3.51
F1.22
0
C1.98
C3.96
C3.66
C2.44
C0.61
0
F1.07
F1.52

Volume (m3)
Cut

Fill

Shrinka
ge
Constan
t

230
480
2560
4560
3940
950

0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
1350
4010
4600
BRIDGE
4130
2370
60

510
3180
4055
3860
1320
100

0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
350
1230

Correcte
d
Volume

Accumulat
ed
volume

-230
+430
+2300
+4100
+3550
+850
-1350
-4010
-4600
0
-4130
-2370
-60
+460
+2860
+3650
+3470
+1190
+90
-350
-1230

0
-230
+200
+2500
+6600
+10150
+11000
+9650
+5640
+1040
+1040
-3090
-5460
-5520
-5060
-2200
+1450
+4920
+6110
+6200
+5850
+4620
4

2800
2900
3000

0
C1.68
C3.66

420
1080
3720

0.89
0.89

-420
+960
+3320

+4200
+5160
+8480

## TOTAL COST OF EARTHWORK

Freehaul prices in
freehaul distance

## = freehaul volume x freehaul distance x

freehaul prices

Overhaul prices in
freehaul distance

## = overhaul volume x freehaul distance x

freehaul prices

Overhaul prices in
overhaul distance

## = overhaul volume x (average overhaul

distance freehaul distance) x overhaul
prices

Borrow prices