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Movement of substances

Feature
Definition

Osmosis
Net movement of water
molecules down a water
potential gradient, from a
region of less negative water
potential to a region of more
negative water potential,
across a partially permeable
membrane, without the use
of ATP, until a dynamic
equilibrium is reached.

Direction

May be uni/bidirectional

Factors

Additional
help

Diffusion
Net movement of
substances down a
concentration
gradient, from a
region of higher
concentration to a
region of lower
concentration,
without the use of
ATP, until a dynamic
equilibrium is
reached.

Facilitated diffusion
Net movement of
substances down a
concentration gradient,
from a region of higher
concentration to a region
of lower concentration,
(with/without the use of
ATP) with the help of
specific transport proteins,
until a dynamic equilibrium
is reached.

Active transport
Net movement of
molecules against a
concentration gradient,
from a region of lower
concentration to a region
of higher concentration,
across a partially
permeable membrane, by
using energy in the form
of ATP.

May be uni/
Uni/bidirectional (Protein
bidirectional
controlled)
Size of molecules -> smaller sized molecules = faster Rate of Diffusion (RoD)
Solubility of subs -> more soluble = faster RoD
Concentration gradient -> greater concentration gradient = faster RoD
(Diffusion) Distance -> shorter distance (usually due to 1 cell thick) = faster RoD
Surface Area -> larger surface area = faster RoD

Unidirectional

Partially permeable
membrane:
ie. CSM in cells.
In animal cells,
w = s
In plant cells,
w = s+p
* When plant cells placed in
more conc. solution, plant
cell incipient plasmolysis ->
CSM pulls away from cell wall
-> ie. p = 0 , thus
w = s

ATP-utilising Carrier
proteins:
They are pumps that
uses ATP to change its
conformation ->
translocates solute
attached to the protein
across the membrane.
Eg. Ca2+-K+ pump
(1)High ATP levels close
ATP-sensitive K+ channels.
(2)Build-up of K+ in cells
causes depolarisation of

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Transport proteins:
1. Carrier proteins Have
specific binding sites for
a specific solute to bind ->
change its conformation
by flipping between 2
states constantly -> ie.
Alternatively open to
opposite sides of
membrane
2. Channel proteins
Have hydrophilic pores
in membrane to allow

02/03/2014

Movement of substances

Substance
transporte
d

# s = measure of decrease
in water potential in the
system due to presence of
solutes.
p = the equal opposing
pressure of turgor pressure
-> prevent water from further
entering cell.
ONLY water molecules.
*Small amount of water
molecules small enough to
pass through small tempo
gaps of hydrophobic
phospholipid bilayer.

All substance
*Across bilayer:
Lipid-soluble
molecules (eg.
steroid hormones)
Small hydrophobic
non-polar molecules
(eg. O2 and CO2)
Small polar
molecules (eg.
water)

hydrophilic molecules
such as charged ions
and polar molecules
(eg. water) to pass
through hydrophobic
fatty acid tails of
phospholipid bilayer ->
gated to control entry and
exit of molecules.
Charged ions
Polar molecules (eg. water;
glucose)
*water movement via
small temp gaps of
phospholipids insufficient
for cell.

membrane
(3)Change in membrane
potential causes voltagegated Ca2+ channels to
open.

All substances.
***Highly selective***
-> since protein can
choose how to use the
attached ATP to transfer
required substance.

Bulk transport:
Property/proc
ess:
Definition

Process

Endocytosis

Exocytosis

Intake of substances by invagination of cell


surface membrane or extension of
pseudopodia, thus a small area of CSM buds
off to form a vesicle containing the
substance in the cell.
Pinocytosis:
Involves uptake of droplets of extracellular
fluid via tiny vesicles -> unspecific as ALL
SOLUTES dissolved in droplets are take in.

Transport of substances out of cell, which is enclosed


in a vesicle

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Substances to be removed is enclosed in a vesicle,


which moves along cytoskeleton in the cell
towards the CSM membrane (1)
Membrane of secretory vesicle fuses with CSM (1)

02/03/2014

Movement of substances
Carried out via invagination of CSM, useful in
uptake of dissolved digested nutrients.

Contents discharged/released from the cell by


exocytosis. (1)

Phagocytosis:
Involves uptake of large, solid materials (eg.
WBC ingesting bacterium) -> specific as (refer
to as) phagocytes recognize molecules before
engulfing.
Engulfing (phagocytosis) -> extension of
pseudopodia by cells to engulf bacteria/
foreign particles. (1)
A phagocytic vesicle/phagosome formed with
particle enclosed when budding off CSM in cell
(1)
Lysosome membrane fuses with membrane
of phagocytic vesicle. (1)
Hydrolytic enzymes in lysosomes digest
contents of these vesicles into soluble
products (1)
that diffuses into cytoplasm for cell use. +
Undigested materials released out of cell via
endocytosis. (1)

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02/03/2014