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Solid

Solid particles are held rigidly by strong attractive forces.


Solid particles are closely packed in an orderly
arrangement in their lattice.
Solid particles cannot move freely in its solid lattice. They
have relatively low kinetic energy. Therefore, they can
only vibrate or rotate in their fixed position.
Solids are not easily compressed.
Solids have fixed shapes and volumes.

SOLID

Liquid

MATTER
GAS

LIQUID

Attractive forces between liquid particles are weaker


than those in solid.
Liquid particles are less closely packed in a cluster.
Liquid particles are not arranged orderly.
Liquid particles have higher kinetic energy than solid
particles. Therefore, they can vibrate, rotate and move
freely (flows) throughout the liquid.
Liquid are not easily compressed.
Liquid assumes the shape of its container, but have fixed
volumes.

Gas

Gases assume the shape and volume of their containers.


Gas particles are far apart from one another.
The attractive forces between gas particles are weak, almost negligible.
Gas particles have continuous, random motion.
As gas particles bounce around in random direction in its vessel, they will collide with one another and with
the wall of container.
The collisions between gas particles and the wall of container give rise to GAS PRESSURE.
Gases are easily compressed because the gas particles are far apart.

MATTER

4.1

GAS

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES


The behavior of gases can be explained with the kinetic molecular theory.
This theory is based on the following postulates/ assumptions:
1. The size of gas particles are
and
compared to the volume of its container.
2. The gas particles exert neither
force nor
force on one another.
3. Gas particles are in constant
direction.

and

4. These particles move in a straight line until they collide with


another particle or the walls of the container. All the collisions
are perfectly
without any loss of
energy after collision.
5. The average kinetic energy of gas particles in a vessel is
directly proportional to the absolute
of
the gas.

THE MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION


The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve shows the distribution of speeds for a gas at a certain
temperature.
The curve:
At a temperature of T
K, the gas particles in
a gas sample will
have different kinetic
energy,
therefore
they all move with
different speed.

A few gas particles have very low EK and very low speed,
Many gas particles have moderate EK and moderate speed,
And there is the AVERAGE/ MEAN SPEED. The number of particles is HIGHEST.
A few gas particles have very high EK and very high speed.

The total area under the


curve represents the total
number of gas particles in
the sample.

When the gas sample is heated, the


temperature will increase. So the
average kinetic energy and the
average speed of the particles
increase.
The number of particles with very high
speed/ energy will increase as well.
The number of particles with very low
speed/ energy will decrease.

BOYLES LAW
The volume of a fixed number of mole of gas at
constant temperature is inversely proportional to its
pressure.
i.e.

CHARLES LAW
The volume of a fixed number of mole of gas at
constant pressure is directly proportional to its
temperature.
i.e.

AVOGADROS LAW
The volume of all gases, at same pressure and
temperature, is directly proportional to its number of
mole.
i.e.

IDEAL GAS EQUATION

UNITS:

EXAMPLE 1

: GAS LAWS GRAPH SKETCHING

Sketch the following graphs for an ideal gas:


1. against at constant temperature

3. against

at constant temperature

2. against

at constant temperature

4. against at constant temperature

5. against at constant pressure

7.

9.

11.

against at constant pressure

against

against at constant temperature

( = density)

6. against at constant pressure of 1 atm and


2 atm; 1 < 2

8.

10.

against

against

12. against at constant temperature

[PAST-YEAR 2010 ]

EXAMPLE 2 : BOYLES LAW

When a 52 cm3 flask is filled with a gas at 200C, the pressure produced is 1.29105 Pa. If the temperature
is then increased to 400C, the pressure increases to 3.68 105 Pa.
Which statement explains these observations?
[ Gas constant, R, is 8.31 J K1 mol1 ]
A
The gas obeys Boyles law.
B
The gas exists as a dimer at 200C.
C
The number of gas molecules increases by 2.85 times at 400C.
D
The number of collisions between gas molecules and the wall of the flask doubles at 400C.
[PAST-YEAR 2015]

EXAMPLE 3 : BOYLES LAW

Gas X of mass 0.118 g was filled into a 250 cm3 flask at 298 K and 73.5 kPa. What is the mass of 1 mol of
the gas?
[ Gas constant, R, is 8.31 J K1 mol1 ]
A 7.42 g
B 11.3 g
C 14.6 g
D 15.9 g

DALTONS LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE for a mixture of gases


Assumptions:
1. In the mixture, the gases do not interact with one another
2. All the gases are ideal gas.
3. The pressure each gas exerts in mixture is called its partial pressure.
For a mixture of gas,

The total pressure of the mixture is the sum of


the partial pressure of the constituent gases.

PT = PA + PB + PC +
PT = Total pressure of the gas mixture
PA, PB, PC = Partial pressure of A, B and C

Other useful formulae:

Mole fraction of gas A, =

+ +

= Mole fraction of A Total pressure

PA = XA PT

EXAMPLE 4 : DALTONS LAW


1. A container holds a mixture of two different gases. The oxygen in a container exerts 80 mmHg of
pressure on the inside of the container. The total pressure inside the container is 120 mmHg. What is
the pressure of the other gas in the container?
Answer: 40 mmHg

2. A canister contains 425 kPa of carbon dioxide, 750 kPa of nitrogen and 525 kPa of oxygen. What is the
total pressure of the container?

3. A tank containing ammonia and argon has a total pressure equal to 1.8 atm. The pressure of the
ammonia is 1.2 atm. What is the pressure of the argon gas?

4. A container of volume 2 dm 3 contains 0.4 mol of oxygen and 1.2 mol of carbon dioxide under a total
pressure of 100 kPa. For each gas in the mixture,
(a) Calculate the mole fraction,
(b) Calculate the partial pressure.
(c) Calculate the volume.
[ Gas constant, R, is 8.31 J K1 mol1 ]
Answer: (a) 0.25, 0.75;
(b) 25 kPa, 75 kPa;
(c) 0.5 dm3, 1.5 dm3

5. 1.0 dm3 of gas A at a pressure of 505.0 kPa and 2.5 dm3 of gas B at a pressure of 232.2 kPa were
forced into a container of 0.7 dm3 capacity.
Calculate the total pressure of the gas mixture assuming that the temperature remains constant.
Answer: PTotal = 1551 kPa

6. A mixture of gases (under a total pressure of 200 kPa contains 35% CO, 50% N 2 and 15% He by
volume.
(a) Calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the mixture.
(b) N2 is removed from the mixture. What is the partial pressure of the remaining gases?
Answer: (a) PCO = 70 kPa; PN2 = 100 kPa; PH2 = 30 kPa
(a)

(b)
7. A 2.5 dm3 container contains 0.10 mol nitrogen and 0.25 mol oxygen at 25C.
Calculate the partial pressure of each gas and the total pressure of the mixture.
[ Gas constant, R, is 8.31 J K1 mol1 ]
Answer: PNitrogen = 9.9 104 Pa ; POxygen = 2.5 105 Pa ; PTotal = 3.49 105 Pa

8. A 1.500 dm3 vessel containing nitrogen monoxide at a pressure of 101.0 kPa is connected to a 4.500
dm3 vessel containing neon at a pressure of 300.0 kPa. The valve between the two vessels is then
opened and the gases are allowed to mix until equilibrium is achieved. Assuming the temperature
remains constant throughout the whole process, calculate:
(a) The partial pressure of nitrogen monoxide and neon in the mixture.
(b) The total pressure of the mixture
(c) The mole fraction of each gas in the mixture.
Answer: (a) PNO = 25.25 kPa; PNe = 225.0 kPa
(b) PTotal = 250.25 kPa
(c) XNO = 0.1009; XNe = 0.8991

9. A 20 dm3 container contains 2 mol of hydrogen and 1 mol of nitrogen at 273 K.


In the reaction: N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g),
All the hydrogen gas reacted to form ammonia.
What is the total pressure in the container after the reaction has stopped?
Answer: PTotal = 1.89 105 Pa

EXAMPLE 5 : GAS LAWS & MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION

[PAST-YEAR 2007 ]

A quantity of 28 g of nitrogen is mixed with 32 g of oxygen at 298 K and 101 kPa.


Which statement best describes the mixture of gases formed?
A
More oxygen than nitrogen molecules are found in the mixture.
B
The average velocities of nitrogen and oxygen molecules are the same.
C
The average kinetic energies of nitrogen and oxygen molecules are the same.
D
There is no transfer of kinetic energy when nitrogen and oxygen molecules collide.

All
GAS are NOT IDEAL. Why so?
Because: 1. They have size (The size of gas particles are significant).
2. Intermolecular
forces and

forces exist.

Examples of real gases: H2, O2, HCl, NH3, CO2, CO


The deviation from ideal behavior increases (Become less ideal) as:
1. Size of molecule increases Greater intermolecular forces
e.g.: Non-ideality of CH4 > H2
2. Molecule is polar Greater intermolecular forces
e.g.: Non-ideality of HF > CH3Cl > CH4
3. Temperature is low
Gas molecules have lower average kinetic energy, thus move slower
The slow moving gas molecules have greater intermolecular forces with one another.
4. Pressure is high
The compressed gas molecules are closer to each other.
The molecular size becomes more significant.
Also more intermolecular repulsion.
Real gases approach ideal behavior (behave more ideally) when:
1. Size of molecule are small Only have positive deviation
e.g.: Helium, He and Hydrogen, H2
2. Temperature is high
Gas molecules have higher average kinetic energy, thus move faster
The fast moving gas molecules have little intermolecular forces with one another.
3. Pressure is low
The gas molecules are far apart.
The molecular size and intermolecular forces becomes insignificant/ negligible.
The deviation of real gas from ideal behavior is shown by the plot of

against [when = 1 mol]

2. For H2 and He:

1.

For an ideal gas:

Positive deviation only


H2 and He are small and non-polar
Intermolecular forces are negligible
But the size of gas particles are still significant

3. For O2, N2, CH4 and CO2:

4. For N2 and NH3:

The larger the molecule, the greater the deviation


due to greater intermolecular forces

Polar molecule are less


intermolecular forces

5. For N2 at 200 K, 500 K and 1000 K:

TWO CHARACTERISTICS OF A REAL GAS:

ideal

due

to

greater

POSITIVE DEVIATION:
-

PV/RT

When the pressure is

Due to

.
forces.

NEGATIVE DEVIATION:

Real gases
temperature

behave

more

ideally

at

EXAMPLE 6 : GAS LAWS & REAL GAS

higher

PV/RT

When the pressure is

Due to

.
forces.
[PAST-YEAR 2005]

(a) Ammonium nitrate is an explosive compound and it decomposes at a high temperature according to the
equation: 2NH 4 NO 3 (s)
4H 2 O(l) + 2N 2 (g) + O 2 (g)
Calculate the total volume of gases collected from the decomposition of 100 g of ammonium nitrate at
1.01 105 Pa and 25C.
Ans: 0.046 m3

(b) Sketch a graph of


against for 1.0 mol of ammonia gas at 0C. Based on the graph, explain the

negative deviation of ammonia gas compared to an ideal gas.


[7]

(c)

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