You are on page 1of 12

5/7/2015

Air Transportation System

Airport Planning & Design

Introduction and History


Air transport and National economy

Unit I

Growth of air transport and future treads

The Air Transportation Systems

Aviation organization and their functions

Madhava Reddy N
M.Tech (IIT-Kgp)

Madhava Reddy N

INTRODUCTION
Transportation is an important factor for the social and

Airport Planning and Design

INTRODUCTION
Various Economic Benefits From The Transportation System Are

economic development of any region of country.


It is very difficult to imagine society without any mode of

 Utilization of Resources
 Regional Specialization

Transportation .
No region or country can develop if it lacks the Transport

 Saving In Travel Time

facilities.
Transportation of goods, it is essential that they cost the

Other Benefits are like Social, Cultural & Political

minimum and are available when and where wanted.

Madhava Reddy N

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

INTRODUCTION

Airport Planning and Design

INTRODUCTION
Deferent Modes of Transportation

One of the greatest inventions in the present man kind has been
off the wheel
Egyptians were the first who developed the FIRST real ship
Watts development of the steam engine in the 17th century gave
rise to many efforts for developing steam propelled vehicles
The advent of long range aero plane after world war-II was

Land

- Roadways & Railways

Water

- Waterways

Air

- Airways

- In India railways were assigned priority of development in the


past
- In India, the road transportation system has become stagnant

increased predominantly
Madhava Reddy N

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Advantages of Air transportation

Limitations of Air Transportations

 Rapidity:

 Operating Expenses: The expenses are very high including the

It maintains the highest speed , and designs have

cost of air vehicles, traffic control system etc

been finalized for supersonic jets with travel faster than sound

 Capacity: Weight carrying capacity is low amongst other


 Continuous Journey: It is continuous over land and water

modes
 Weather Conditions: It will affect the operation of air

without loss of the time unlike other modes of transport

transport. Foggy days are absolutely not convenient


 Accessibility: It has the unique ability to open up any region,

 Flight Rules: Air transport is more beneficial for the


international travel, as such certain laws in respect to the

i.e inaccessible by other modes

international aviation have to be observed.


Madhava Reddy N

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

HISTORY OF AIR TRANSPORT

Airport Planning and Design

HISTORY OF AIR TRANSPORT

Reger Becan was the first man who studied the flight of birds
and made a prophecy in 1266 that the source of energy for flight

The 1st International air service started b/w Toulouse and


Barcelona in France @ 1918

derived from fire


In 1927, Lindburg made first solo flight between New York to
The first flight was made on December

17th

,1903 by a bicycle

Paris

repair man Orville Wright


1st Jet flight was made on August 27th, 1939 in Germany, and
He propelled himself through the air a distance of 35m

Madhava Reddy N

manufactured by Heinkel Aircraft Company, Germany

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

10

Airport Planning and Design

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRANSPORT

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRANSPORT

Civil Aviation is a major international industry that carries more

The 1st attempt to reach an international consensus was

than Half-Billion passengers per year

unsuccessful in 1910 b/w 19 European nation meet to develop an


International agreement

Approximate Travel distance is 8000 Millions Km

After World war I, Versailles Peace Conference set-up the


international conference for Air Navigation

Typically, civil aviation requires the building of airports to


accepted international standards, navigational aids, weather
reporting

systems..etc

to

minimize

possible

errors

misunderstanding

All through this organization lasted from 1919 to World War II

&
Its effectiveness was extremely limited because of the regionality
of air transport even up to the early 1940s

Madhava Reddy N

11

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

12

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRANSPORT

2nd

world war provided a huge importance to civil aviation

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRANSPORT


The most important of the international organizations are as follows

Chicago convention on civil aviation was held In nov 1944


between 52 countries : conducted by USA

The Chicago convention established 96 articles, which outlined

International Airport Transport Association (IATA):

- 100 scheduled international carrier members

the privileges of contracting stages, by deducting the formalities


of customs and immigrations

- role is to foster the interest of the civil aviation to provide a

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) came into

forum for industry views on to establish industry practices

existence on April 4, 1947


Madhava Reddy N

13

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRANSPORT

14

Airport Planning and Design

NATIONAL AIRPORTS AUTHORITY (NAA)


The NAA established in June 1st , 1986 trough an act of

International Civil Airport Association(ICA):


- Association of civil airport authorities established to serve as
forum and focus for the views and interest of civil airport
operators

parliament
It was managed by Board consisting of Chairmen, Four fulltime
members and 8 part time members
NAA managed all domestic civil airports and civil enclaves to a
total of 116
It spreads over the nation from Porbandar (west), Leh (N-E),

Institute of Air Transport (IAT):


- Association for individuals and organizations with interest in
civil aviation

Trivandrum (South)
NAA provides all the essential facilities to make flights possible
by managing the runways, technical buildings, air traffic control

Madhava Reddy N

15

Airport Planning and Design

NATIONAL AIRPORTS AUTHORITY (NAA)


Major Responsibilities of NAA

Madhava Reddy N

16

Airport Planning and Design

NATIONAL AIRPORTS AUTHORITY (NAA)


Objective of NAA

To manage the air routes and air space for domestic airports
For the maintenance of efficient air traffic services at domestic
Communication, navigation and radar services at domestic and
international airports

and international airports to ensure the highest standard air traffic


control system using modern communication system, radars,
navigations..etc

Visual Aid and ground safety at domestic airports

Responsible for all domestic air travels, search & rescues..etc


Madhava Reddy N

17

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

18

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

NATIONAL AIRPORTS AUTHORITY (NAA)


Achievements of NAA

NATIONAL AIRPORTS AUTHORITY (NAA)


Achievements of NAA

Construction of commissioning of new airports at Shimla, Agatti,


Calicut..etc

Flight calibration consultancy services to foreign countries such


as Angola, Bhutan etc
Installation of

Construction/ extension of terminal building (or) commissioning


of new civil air terminals at Jammu, Leh, Gorakhpur..etc

Doppler very high frequency Omni range

(DVOR) at Bombay, Madras airports,..etc


Installation of Night landing facilities at Ranchi, Vadodara etc
Installation of Solar Powered obstruction lights at Udaipur

Extension and Strengthening of runways (or) pavements at all


domestic airports

Introduction of 52 high capacity modern crash fire tenders at


major airports

Consultancy services render to state Govt., or Pvt. Organizations


Madhava Reddy N

19

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

NATIONAL AIRPORTS AUTHORITY (NAA)

20

Airport Planning and Design

Development of Model Airports


In India, most of airports were constructed during World War II,

Role of NAA at International Airports


In addition to 88 domestic airports, NAA provided all technical

and it has been transfer to Civil Aviation Department after the War

services and exercises air space control to International Airports


From time to time this airports have been expanded and modified

like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai etc


Installation and Control of ;

according to operational requirements

- Instrument Landing Systems (ILS)


- Very High Frequency Range (VOR), and
- Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

In the 1st step it has been decided to develop 12 airports in the


country as model airports in 5 regions

- Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)


Madhava Reddy N

21

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Development of Model Airports


i.

Bombay Region:

Nagpur, Vadodara & Indore

22

Airport Planning and Design

International Airports Authority of India (IAAI)


With the introduction of jet aircraft, and the gradual increase in
the size of air craft, passenger air traffic congestions and delays

ii. Calcutta Region:

Bhubaneswar & Patna

iii. Delhi Region:

Jaipur & Lucknow

iv. Madras Region:

Coimbatore, Hyderabad & Calicut

v. North Eastern Region:

Guwahati & Imphal

happened

To review this situation and to recommend measures witch would


enable India to keep abreast of world wide development

- The total allocated capital is appx. 300 crore for modern

Govt. appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Mr. RJD


TATA in July 1967 to plan, construct & maintain international

development

airports
Madhava Reddy N

23

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

24

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

International Airports Authority of India (IAAI)


Role of IAAI

Airports Authority of India (AAI)


The AAI was formed on 1st April, 1995 by merging IAAI & NAA

IAAI took several new initiatives to provide passenger facilities


dealing with increased problems of environmental control and
maximum security

With the view to accelerate the integrated development, extension


and modernization of the operational, terminal and cargo faculties

Installation of automatic answering systems for passengers

It manages 5 international airports, 87 Domestic airports & 28


civil Air terminals at defense airfield

Increasing safety security systems

Sharing arrival & departure information


Madhava Reddy N

25

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)


The nations of the world have established the ICAO to serve as
the medium for necessary understanding and agreement between
nations.

Airport Planning and Design

26

Structure of ICAO
(a) The Assembly:
The assembly is the self-governing body of ICAO & meets every
3 years at a place and time convened by the council

Agreement and bylaws in all the technical , economic and legal


fields so that the air can be the high road to carry man and his

The decisions are taken by a majorities of votes cast

goods any ware anytime without fetter and halt.


Established in 1947

The financial arrangement of ICAO are determined

ICAO provides the international link between civil and military


Directions and recommendations given for future actions

flying activities
Madhava Reddy N

27

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

28

Airport Planning and Design

Growth of Air Transport

Structure of ICAO

Year 1911 is recorded as beginning of air flight in India by Henri

(a) The Council:


The council is the permanent governing body and composed of 33

Piquet, a Frenchman.

members elected by the assembly


The council elect its own President

The flight was planned from Allahbad to Naini Junction = 7km

One of its major duties is to adopt international standards and

Same year Sir George Loyd undertook the Organization of air


flying b/w Mombai and Karachi

recommended practices

The council controls and co-ordinates the work of additional

dept. helped building up of few aerodromes

representative bodies
Madhava Reddy N

In 1927, British govt., established Civil Aviation Dept. and this

29

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

30

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

Growth of Air Transport


In 1939 TATA Airways Limited started internal air services b/w

Growth of Air Transport


Air India International Limited started 1st International flight to
London on June 8, 1948

Allahabad, Calcutta and Colombo

Indian Trans-Continental Airways Limited was formed for the

The Govt. of India appointed an Air Transport Committee in 1950

foreign flights in 1933


In 1953 Parliament passed an Air Corporation Act in 1953, under
Air Transporting Licensing Board came into being in 1946

which Air India & Indian Airlines were formed as Public Sector
Corporation

TATA airlines changed its name as Air India Limited, July 1946

Madhava Reddy N

31

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Growth of Air Transport


In 1960 Air India celebrated entry in to the Jet age by starting
Boeing 707 service to London

Airport Planning and Design

32

Growth of Air Transport


IAAI was set-up in April 1972 for the operation, management,
planning and development

In July 1967, Govt set up a committee under chairmanship of Mr.

National Airport Authority (NAA) was established in June 1980

JRD TATA to advice regarding improvement of Airports


By merging these two organization Airports Authority of India
On 2nd Jan 1971, Indian Airlines inaugurated the daily Boeing

(AAI) established on April 1st, 1995

737 service on Bombay-Calcutta & Delhi-Bombay Service

Madhava Reddy N

33

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Airport Planning and Design

Indian Airlines & Air India

National Airlines
Domestic services being provided by Indian Airlines (IA)

34

IA & AI nationalization of private airlines was done in August


1953

Air India (AI) operates International services


There after tremendous growth has taken place in Air transport
International flights connected India is about 37 countries
Indias first Boeing 747 (Jumbojet) was introduced in April 1971
Vayudoot is Joint venture b/w AI & IA, for domestic operations
Its 2.5 times bigger than the Boeing 707
Pawan Hans formed in 1985, to provide helicopter service to Oil
Industry
Madhava Reddy N

35

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

36

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

37

Airport Planning and Design

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

39

Airport Planning and Design

41

Airport Planning and Design

Airport Planning and Design

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

38

40

Airport Planning and Design

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

42

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

43

Airport Planning and Design

Indian Airlines & Air India

Madhava Reddy N

Airport Planning and Design

44

Indian Airlines & Air India

VAYUDOOT
Its is a jointly owned company of AI & IA

With an objective of providing low cost

connections to the

inaccessible areas in North-East region

However, the services are expanded over the country

During 1992-93, Voyudoot operates to 97 stations and planned to


expand it to 130

Madhava Reddy N

45

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Airport Planning and Design

46

VAYUDOOT

PAWAN HANS
Pawan Hans formed in 1985 with 51% of equity participation of
Govt, and 49% of Oil & Natural gas industries

The prime goal is to reduce the foreign chartering helicopters

Its presently has a fleet of 41 helicopters

And also few helicopters are leased for


Civilian use
Madhava Reddy N

47

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

48

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

Air Taxi Policy

Total Investment on Fleet Acquisition

The Govt of India started Air taxi policy in 1985 to allow resident
& non-resident of Indians to start taxi services with in India

However no air taxi company recommended for support of


tourist movement

The maximum capacity is


10 nos

Madhava Reddy N

49

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Growth of International Traffic


The avg growth of international passenger traffic from India is
16% from 1974 to 1984

50

Airport Planning and Design

Growth of Domestic Traffic


During the period 1984-85 to 1993-94 air traffic has increased
from 668.5 millions to 1787.3 millions

Air Indias route coverage has been extensive and it has utilized
its compact fleet efficiency

In the year 1984-85, Indian Airlines carried 0.08 million


passengers

And Vayudoot carried 0.16 million


passengers

Madhava Reddy N

51

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Growth of Domestic Traffic

52

Airport Planning and Design

Technological Development
There are several major technological developments will are likely
to occur in the filed of flight equipment's, and its operations

Fuel efficient propulsion system developed by reducing the


consumption of fuel to 25%

Light weight composite materials, advanced traffic aids..etc

Automatic ticketing, machine readable tickets ..etc


Madhava Reddy N

53

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

54

Airport Planning and Design

5/7/2015

Other Development

Airport & Airport Facilities


Bombay Airport:

Infrastructural development

(a) International Passenger Traffic:

Institutional development for planning

- Holding capacity 8.30 millions in 1994-95

Manpower development

- Increased to 11.10 millions in 2000


(b)

Domestic Passenger Traffic:


- Holding capacity 9.70 millions in 1994-95
- Increased to 14.00 millions in 2000

Madhava Reddy N

55

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Airport & Airport Facilities


Bombay Airport:
(c )

56

Airport Planning and Design

Airport & Airport Facilities


Bombay Airport:

Cargo Traffic:
- Holding capacity 1.23 lakh tons in 1984-85
- Increased to 7.30 lakh tons in 2000

(d)

Runway, Taxiway, Apron & Other Facilities:


- Cost of development of this site alone is 4000 crore @ 2000
- Planned to have 2 parallel runways

Madhava Reddy N

57

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Airport & Airport Facilities


Delhi IGI Airport:

Airport Planning and Design

Airport & Airport Facilities


Delhi IGI Airport:

(a) International Passenger Traffic:

(b)

58

(c )

Cargo Traffic:

- Holding capacity 4.73 millions in 1994-95

- Holding capacity 0.71 lakh tons in 1984-85

- Increased to 6.34 millions in 2000

- Increased to 4.44 lakh tons in 2000

Domestic Passenger Traffic:

(d)

Runway, Taxiway, Apron & Other Facilities:

- Holding capacity 7.0 millions in 1994-95

- Center lightening of taxiways

- Increased to 10.8 millions in 2000

- Planned to provide 2 parallel runways

Madhava Reddy N

59

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

60

Airport Planning and Design

10

5/7/2015

Airport & Airport Facilities


Delhi IGI Airport:

Airport & Airport Facilities


Calcutta Airport:
(a) International Passenger Traffic:
- Holding capacity 1.0 millions in 1994-95
- Increased to 1.46 millions in 2000
(b)

Domestic Passenger Traffic:


- Holding capacity 4.29 millions in 1994-95
- Increased to 6.27 millions in 2000

Madhava Reddy N

61

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Airport & Airport Facilities


Calcutta Airport:
(c )

62

Airport Planning and Design

Airport & Airport Facilities


Calcutta Airport:

Cargo Traffic:
- Holding capacity 0.08 lakh tons in 1984-85
- Increased to 0.17 lakh tons in 2000

(d)

Runway, Taxiway, Apron & Other Facilities:


- The present runway meets the demand till 2000
- Planned to provide lightening in taxiways

Madhava Reddy N

63

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

Airport & Airport Facilities


Madras Airport:

Airport Planning and Design

Airport & Airport Facilities


Madras Airport:

(a) International Passenger Traffic:

(b)

64

(c )

Cargo Traffic:

- Holding capacity 0.98 millions in 1994-95

- Holding capacity 1.17 lakh tons in 1984-85

- Increased to 1.51 millions in 2000

- Increased to 4.6 lakh tons in 2000

Domestic Passenger Traffic:

(d)

- Holding capacity 1.17 millions in 1984-85


- Increased to 4.6 millions in 2000

Runway, Taxiway, Apron & Other Facilities:


- In the year 2000, the runway length increased from 3015m to
3600m
- Secondary runway from 1800m to 2160m

Madhava Reddy N

65

Airport Planning and Design

Madhava Reddy N

66

Airport Planning and Design

11

5/7/2015

Airport & Airport Facilities


Madras Airport:

Madhava Reddy N

67

Airport Planning and Design

12