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TEST AP101-3.2

Digestion, Nutrition & Metabolism


25 Multiple-Choice Questions and 5 Short-Answer Questions

Test Duration:

50 minutes

Reading Time:

10 minutes

Only Bilingual Dictionaries allowed, NO NOTES. This test consists of two part: a) 25 multiple choice questions
(numbers 1 to 25) to be answered on the computer answer sheet (25 marks), and b) 5 short-answer (15
marks) questions. A total of 40 marks is available.
Write your name and student number in the spaces provided on the computer answer sheet. Carefully fill in
the shapes on the computer-marked answer sheet under your name and ID number with a 2B pencil. You
must only use a 2B pencil on the computer answer sheet. Please read the instructions on the answer sheet
carefully and follow them precisely. Select the best answer to questions. If you are unsure of an answer,
eliminate the alternatives that you know to be incorrect and select answer from the remaining alternatives.
To indicate your selection, use a 2B pencil to blacken the corresponding oval on the computer answer sheet,
AP101-1. No marks are deducted for wrong answers. So students are advised to move on quickly without
wasting too much time on one question.


Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Which of the following substances make up the so called the mucosal barrier that provides protection to
the stomach?
A. bicarbonate ions
B. IgA antibodies
C. mucus
D. both A and C
2. Which of the following components of the saliva has a little or no protective effect against
A. mucus
B. IgA antibodies
C. lysozyme
D. defensins
3. Which of the following process does NOT occur in the mouth?
A. mechanical breakdown
B. ingestion
C. absorption
D. propulsion
4. Which of the following is NOT a role or importance of hydrochloric acid (HCl)?
A. it is necessary for activation of pepsinogen into an enzyme pepsin
B. it helps digest food by denaturing proteins
C. it is required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine
D. it kill many of the bacteria ingested with foods
5. Which of the following cell produces bicarbonate-rich juice containing digestive enzymes for all categories
of foodstuffs?
A. pancreatic acini (exocrine)
B. pancreatic islets (alpha and beta cells)
C. goblet cells
D. parietal and chief cells
6. Which of the following is important in moving food along the small intestine?
A. mass movement
B. peristalsis
C. segmentation
D. reflux
7. The products of protein digestion enter the bloodstream largely through cells lining:
A. the stomach
B. the small intestine
C. the large intestine
D. the bile duct

8. Which of the following is not present in the large intestine?

A. goblet cells
B. villi
C. bacteria flora
D. none of the above (i.e., A, B and C can be all found)
9. Bile is required for lipid digestion because:
A. it contains bile salts which are enzymes that emulsify large fat globules
B. it is a lipid-soluble solution that enable transport of fat molecules into bloodstream
C. it contains lipid-soluble fat-digesting enzymes
D. it has bile salts that physically separate fat globules into small droplets, facilitating the digestion
10. The major function of the large intestine is:
A. to harvest vitamins made by the bacteria flora
B. to reclaim most of the remaining water
C. to eliminate the faeces
D. none of the above
11. Pepsin is an enzyme activated in the stomach, which breaks the proteins down into:
A. monosaccharides
B. pentose sugars
C. monosaccharides and fatty acids
D. polypeptides and amino acids
12. Emulsification could be considered as
A. chemical
B. propulsive
C. mechanical/physical
D. peristaltic
13. In a lumen of intestine, products of lipid digestion are absorbed into:
A. blood capillaries
B. lacteals
C. afferent arteriole
D. efferent arteriole
14. The protein molecule must be digested before it can be transported to and utilised by the cells because:
A. protein is only useful directly
B. protein has a low pH and water solubility
C. proteins in the circulating blood produce an adverse osmotic pressure
D. the protein is too large to be readily absorbed
15. Carbohydrates are acted on by:
A. peptidases, trypsin, and chymotrypsin
B. amylase, maltase, and sucrase
C. brush border enzymes and lipases
D. galactase, peptidases, and lipases

16. Most water-soluble vitamins are absorbed easily in the small intestine, except:
A. vitamin C
B. vitamin K
C. vitamin B12
D. vitamin D
17. The major site of water absorption in the GIT is:
A. large intestine
B. small intestine
C. anus
D. stomach
18. Lipase is to fats as _______ is to starch.
A. proteases
B. trypsin
C. amylase
D. nuclease
19. Why is most food digested?
A. Digestive enzymes require a variety of substrates
B. It ensures that the diet is balanced
C. most ingested food molecules are large
D. to prevent disorders of the intestine
20. The parasympathetic nervous system influences digestion by:
A. stimulating peristalsis and secretory activities
B. relaxing smooth muscle
C. constricting sphincters
D. none of the above
21. The gall bladder:
A. produces bile
B. is attached to the pancreas
C. stores and concentrates bile
D. produces secretin
22. The protein molecule will be digested by enzymes made by:
A. the mouth, stomach and colon
B. the stomach, liver and small intestine
C. the pancreas, stomach and small intestine
D. the small intestine, mouth and liver
23. The propulsive function that occurs in the oesophagus is called:
A. swallowing
B. defecation
C. peristalsis
D. segmentation

24. Before the blood carrying the products of protein digestion reaches the heart, it first passes through
capillary networks in:
A. the spleen
B. the lungs
C. the liver
D. the brain
25. During fasts lasting several weeks, blood glucose is maintained by:
A. glycogenolysis
B. lipolysis
C. glycolysis
D. gluconeogenesis

Short Answer Questions

1. The small intestine is known as the major absorption site of the GIT. Explain why the small intestine
cannot function properly by itself. Name the TWO internal organs that are vital to the functioning of the
small intestine. (3 Marks)

2. John is a 46 year old patient who recently had a partial gastrectomy a surgical procedure where the
lowest part of the stomach is removed. He asked you, a student nurse, why he needs to take vitamin B12,
when his small intestine is working perfectly normal. (2 Marks)

3. Chloe is a 16 year old girl who has a childhood trauma of being a fat girl at school. A few months ago, she
started reducing the amount of fatty foods, such as KFC Zinger burger and wicked wings. However, she
wants to be a fat-free girl like a slim model in a fashion show. So Chloe has recently modified her low-fat
diet to a zero-fat diet.
a) Which of the following is she at risk of developing? (1 Mark)
A. vitamin B12 deficiency
B. type 1 diabetes
C. vitamin A, D, E & K deficiency
D. type 2 diabetes

b) Explain why she is at high risk of developing this condition, and why it is important to have a balanced
diet that contains dietary fats? (2 Marks)

4. Describe one of the structural features of the small intestine that enhance the absorption process. And
explain how might absorption of nutrients be affected if food moved through the small intestine at a
faster rate? Justify your answer. (4 Marks)

5. Describe the role of enzymes in digestion (also name the digestive process in which enzymes are involved)
with references to two named examples. (3 Marks)

For personal use only, last update:

31st August 2015 by Incognitus
16th February 2014 by RD