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# Explain linear system with one example

## What are different classifications of control system?

What is the effect of positive feedback on stability?
Differentiate between open loop and closed loop system with example.
What is time invariant system?
What are the characteristics of feedback system?
What is a regulator system?
Why negative feedback is used in control system?
What do you understand by system modeling?
Define transfer function and what the assumptions for obtaining transfer
functions are.
What do you understand by an analogous system and how it is useful in
practice?
What do you understand by force voltage analogy?
What do you understand by force-current analogy?
What are the energy storing elements in mechanical and electrical systems?
What are the energy dissipating elements in mechanical and electrical
systems?
representation?
Write Masons gain formula and explain every term used in it.
Explain various rules used in block diagram reduction technique.
Explain what do you understand by a signal flow graph.
What do you understand by cascade, parallel and feedback connections?
Mention the basic rules of a signal flow graph.

## What is the application of a lag compensator?

What is the application of lead compensator network?
Explain the use of synchro as an error detector.
Mention the application of stepper motor.
Explain the used of AC tacho generators.
Name the major components used in closed loop control systems
What is a synchro transmitter?
What is the analogy of gear train in electrical system explain.
What is a potentiometer and mention its application.
Explain the working of AC servo motor
Differentiate between AC servomotor and induction motor
What do you understand by optical encoder?
Mention different types of optical encoders and differentiate them
Explain in detail incremental encoder
Explain in detail absolute encoder.
Give two advantages of using generalized error coefficient.
A second order system is subjected to a unit ramp input. What is the steady
state error?
Define steady state error of a feedback control system.
When a linear system is characterized as conditionally stable?
Define delay time
Define type of a control system.

## Define rise time

Define settling time
What is the value of damping ratio for underdamped, overdamped, critically
damped and undamped system?
What is the characteristic equation of linear system and why it is called so?
What causes a transient response in a system?
What is the time constant of the control system?
Define overshoot.
What is the importance of impulse response of a system?
Why system is tested for a step input?
What is the effect of adding a pole to a second order system?
What is the effect of PD controller on the performance of the system?
What is the effect of PI controller on the performance of the second order
system?
What do you understand by sensitivity of a system?
How does the value of real part of a characteristics equation of a first order
system affect the transient response?
Name the performance specifications for first order system in the time
domain.
What part of CLTF is responsible for determining the stability of a linear
system?
What is the effect of changing the damping factor on the maximum
overshoot of a second order system when subjected to step input?
What is the effect of changing natural frequency on the maximum overshoot
of a second order system when subjected to step input?
What is the effect of increasing the un-damped frequency of oscillation on
rise time, settling time and time at which maximum overshoot occurs?

What is the major advantage of using time domain technique for the solution
of the response?
Define bounded input bounded output stability.
How are locations of roots of characteristics equation related to stability?
Define Routh-Hurwitz criterion
What you understand by singularity of a function?
What are the two special cases of applying Routh-Hurwitz criterion?
What is meant by relative stability?
What is meant by stable system?
What is the limitation or drawback of the Routh-Hurwitz criterion?
What is meant by critically stable system?
What is the stability condition in the time domain?
What is the pre-requisite before characteristic polynomial is tested for its
stability using Rouths criterion?
criterion?
Under what condition is it possible to find out the exact location of the roots
of a polynomial using Rouths test?
When a complete row in Routh array becomes zero, what is the procedure to
complete the Rouths array?
When the first column of Rouths array becomes zero, what is the procedure
to complete the Rouths array?
How would you find LHP and imaginary axis roots of a given characteristics
polynomial using Rouths stability criterion?
How would you find the number of roots of characteristic polynomial lying to
the right of a vertical straight line passing through a point other than the
origin?
What is the basic condition of root locus technique?

## What do you understand by breakaway point in root locus technique?

How do you identify root locus on the real axis?
What are the uses of root locus?
What is phase angle criterion for a negative feedback system for negative
values of K?
How do you determine the root locus on the j axis in the s-plane?
What are the advantages of root locus technique?
Where does root locus starts from and terminates at?
State and explain the principle of superposition.
What are the frequency domain specifications?
Explain phase margin, gain margin and stability of system.
Explain phase cross over frequency and gain crossover frequency.
For first order system, what is the maximum log magnitude error between
the exact response and the asymptotic curve? Where exactly error occurs?
Define cut-off rate.
Differentiate between type and order of the system with an example.
Define the term resonant peak and resonating frequency.
How is location of roots of the characteristic equation related to stability?
What is bandwidth?
What do you understand by frequency response plot?
What are different methods available for frequency response plot?
What factors of the transfer function decides starting & finishing portion of
the polar plot?
What are the advantages and drawbacks of Bode plot over that of polar plot?
What is meant by corner frequency?

## What idea do you understand by non-minimum phase transfer function?

What do you understand by all pass transfer function?
How polar plot is drawn for a system?
What will be polar plot for transfer function with pure transportation lag?
What will be bode plot for a transfer function with pure transportation lag?
State Nyquist stability criterion.
What do you understand by singularity of function?
What are the limitations of the Routh_Hurwitz criterion?
What are the advantages of Nyquist stability criterion over Routh Hurwitz
criterion?
What do you understand by conformal mapping?
What is an oscillatory system as per Nyquist stability criterion?
What is the advantage of drawing Nyquist plot in GH(s) plane rather than
1+GH(s) plane?
What is meant by Nyquist path?
How on-off control system is realized?
What is effect of connecting PD controller in cascade with a second order
system?
What is the effect of connecting PI controller in cascade with second order
system?
What is the effect of ID controller without proportional controller?
Explain reaction curve for the system?
Explain tuning of PID controller by first method of Ziggler Nichols.
Explain tuning of PID controller by second method of Ziggler Nichols.
What is the application of proportional controller and state its limitations?
For what Integral controller is used?