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nut and bolt. - Advantage of removing the parts when required without breaking. NUTS (i) Hexagonal nut. (ii) Square nut. (iii) Castle nut. - Have hexagonal portion with cylindrical upper part that is slotted. It is used where there is a possibility of getting loose while in use. - Split pin is passed through the slot in the nut and hole drilled in bolt.
(iv) Cap nut Cylindrical cap is provided at the top . Prevents the end of the bolt against corrosion and prevents leakage
(v) Dome nut - Same as cap nut just with the change in shape.
(vi) Flanged nut Integral circular flange. Integral flange acts as a washer which increases the bearing area.
(vii) Knurled nut knurling helps to screw and unscrew the nut. Used where the nut is frequently required to be screwed on and off by hand.
Wing nut Used for light duty. It is used where the nut is to be tightened or untightened by thumb and finger, without the use of any device.
(ix) Ring collar nut Lower part is cylindrical and grooved. screw introduced from the side, end point of which fits in the groove to lock it.
Lock nut Height of the lock nut varies from 0.5D to 0.66D. Used where there is the possibility of the main nut to get loose
WASHER Washer is placed below the nut. - Purpose: 1. To give the smooth bearing area, where the surface below the nut is uneven. 2. Pressure of tightening the nut spreads over a larger area of washer. 3. Prevents the nut from cutting into the metal.
Types of washers (i) Plain and chamfered washers. - Are simple circular pieces of plates with hole. - Diameter of washer: 2D + 3 mm. (D is the nominal dia of bolt) - Thickness: 0.125D, Chamfer angle: 300.
(ii) Spring washer used as locking device for nut. - Its elasticity keeps the nut tight on the bolt and does not allow it to loose. - It is mostly used where the nut gets loose due to vibrations and washer is to be used for some reason. Mostly used in automobiles
BOLTS It is a cylindrical piece of metal having a head, of some particular shape on one end and threads to a definite length on other end. It is passed through the hole in two or more aligned parts, that are to be joined. Nut is screwed tightly on the threaded end to hold the parts. TYPES OF BOLTS (i) Hexagonal Headed bolt - Its thickness (0.75D) is less than that of nut as it is solid as compared to nut which is having a hole.
Square Headed bolt It is mostly used in machines where the head is to be accommodated in a recess, which prevents the rotation of head when nut is screwed on or off. As cutting of the square recess is easier than cutting hexagonal recess.
(iii) Cheese headed bolt Head is of cup shaped. Used in a limited space and where the use of spanner is to be avoided. Have a snug with the bolt. This snug fits in the recess and prevents the rotation of bolt while nut is screwed on and off.
(iv) Cup Headed bolt - Used in a limited space and where the use of spanner is to be avoided. - Square neck is sometimes made to prevent the rotation of bolt in the hole.
T- headed bolt - This bolt has the capacity to slide. - Used in vices which have T-slots.
(v) Hook bolt - Head is only at one side of the shank. - it is used where one part to be joined cannot have a hole. - That part comes under the head and is supported by it. - Used in railway tracks.
(vi) Eye bolt - Used for lifting the heavy parts. - The bolt is screwed in the machine part and lifted.
(vii) Counter sunk headed bolt. Head is fully inside the recess. - Used where head should not project outside on the surface. - Mostly used in woodwork where smooth surface is required.
Locking Arrangements - Necessary to provide some arrangement for preventing nut against loosening. - This loosening can be due to vibration in a machine or part. - To check this tendency some devices called locking devices are used. (i) Lock nut
(ii) Spring Washer
(iii) Split Pin - Wire of which split pin is made of semicircular section, so that when its two ends are bend a circular section is obtained. - Advantages: i. Easy method for locking. - Disadvantage: i. Difficult to align the holes to pass the split pin. ii. Holes for pins weakens the part.
(iii) Ring Collar nut
(v) Sawn Nut - This nut is cut half way. - When the set screw is tightened, the two halfs are pulled together to lock it
(vi) Simmond’s Lock nut - Have a collar with internal diameter smaller than the threads. - Collar is made up of soft material like nylon. - When nut is screwed, threads force their way through this collar which grips it. - disadvantage: same nut cannot be used again.
(vii) Locking Plate
Foundation bolts - To fix heavy machinery to concrete foundation, special types of bolts are used. Types of Foundation bolts
Rag bolt: i. Used in Stone/Concrete foundation. ii. Made from rectangular section bar. Curved bolt: i. Made from circular section bar.
(iii) Lewis bolt - used for temporary foundations. - The bolt can be removed by taking out the key. (iv) Cotter bolt - Used to fix heavy machines to the brick or stone foundation.
(iv) Hoop Bolt - Eye is made of a rod. - A bar is passed through this eye to hold the bolt. (v) Square headed bolt.
STUD or STUD BOLT - Rounded bar threaded on both sides. - It is used where sufficient space for bolt-head is not available.
STUD USED WITH NUT
MACHINE SCREWS - It is a type of small bolt which is to be used without a nut. - It is assembled by passing through the clearance hole in one part and screwed in other part to join the two. - The head of the screw have the slot for the tool to screw and unscrew it.