0 Up votes0 Down votes

37 views36 pagesAug 31, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

37 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself (with bonus article "How Will You Measure Your Life?" by Clayton M. Christensen)
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America
- Vermilion Drift: A Novel
- King, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscovering the Archetypes of the Mature Masculine
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Free to Focus: A Total Productivity System to Achieve More by Doing Less
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- Lost in the Solar System
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy
- The Subtle Body: An Encyclopedia of Your Energetic Anatomy
- University Physics

You are on page 1of 36

Potential Energy

CHAPTER OUTLINE

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

Q8.4

The Isolated

SystemConservation of

Mechanical Energy

Conservative and

Nonconservative Forces

Changes in Mechanical

Energy for Nonconservative

Forces

Relationship Between

Conservative Forces and

Potential Energy

Energy Diagrams and the

Equilibrium of a System

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Q8.1

The final speed of the children will not depend on the slide

length or the presence of bumps if there is no friction. If there is

friction, a longer slide will result in a lower final speed. Bumps

will have the same effect as they effectively lengthen the

distance over which friction can do work, to decrease the total

mechanical energy of the children.

Q8.2

Potential energy can be negative, so the sum of kinetic plus

potential can also be negative.

Q8.3

energy. They may disagree on the value of gravitational

potential energy, depending on their choice of a zero point.

(a)

(b)

No further energy is supplied to the object-Earth system, but some chemical energy must be

supplied to the muscles as they keep the weight aloft.

(c)

The object loses energy mgh, giving it back to the muscles, where most of it becomes internal

energy.

Q8.5

Lift a book from a low shelf to place it on a high shelf. The net change in its kinetic energy is zero,

but the book-Earth system increases in gravitational potential energy. Stretch a rubber band to

encompass the ends of a ruler. It increases in elastic energy. Rub your hands together or let a pearl

drift down at constant speed in a bottle of shampoo. Each system (two hands; pearl and shampoo)

increases in internal energy.

Q8.6

Three potential energy terms will appear in the expression of total mechanical energy, one for each

conservative force. If you write an equation with initial energy on one side and final energy on the

other, the equation contains six potential-energy terms.

215

216

Q8.7

Potential Energy

(a)

It does if it makes the objects speed change, but not if it only makes the direction of the

velocity change.

(b)

Q8.8

The original kinetic energy of the skidding can be degraded into kinetic energy of random molecular

motion in the tires and the road: it is internal energy. If the brakes are used properly, the same

energy appears as internal energy in the brake shoes and drums.

Q8.9

All the energy is supplied by foodstuffs that gained their energy from the sun.

Q8.10

Elastic potential energy of plates under stress plus gravitational energy is released when the plates

slip. It is carried away by mechanical waves.

Q8.11

The total energy of the ball-Earth system is conserved. Since the system initially has gravitational

energy mgh and no kinetic energy, the ball will again have zero kinetic energy when it returns to its

original position. Air resistance will cause the ball to come back to a point slightly below its initial

position. On the other hand, if anyone gives a forward push to the ball anywhere along its path, the

demonstrator will have to duck.

Q8.12

Using switchbacks requires no less work, as it does not change the change in potential energy from

top to bottom. It does, however, require less force (of static friction on the rolling drive wheels of a

car) to propel the car up the gentler slope. Less power is required if the work can be done over a

longer period of time.

Q8.13

There is no work done since there is no change in kinetic energy. In this case, air resistance must be

negligible since the acceleration is zero.

Q8.14

There is no violation. Choose the book as the system. You did work and the earth did work on the

book. The average force you exerted just counterbalanced the weight of the book. The total work on

the book is zero, and is equal to its overall change in kinetic energy.

Q8.15

Kinetic energy is greatest at the starting point. Gravitational energy is a maximum at the top of the

flight of the ball.

Q8.16

Q8.17

In stirring cake batter and in weightlifting, your body returns to the same conformation after each

stroke. During each stroke chemical energy is irreversibly converted into output work (and internal

energy). This observation proves that muscular forces are nonconservative.

Chapter 8

Q8.18

motion. If you start the vibration by pushing down on the block (2),

its kinetic energy becomes extra elastic potential energy in the

spring ( Us ). After the block starts moving up at its lower turning

point (3), this energy becomes both kinetic energy (K) and

gravitational potential energy ( U g ), and then just gravitational

energy when the block is at its greatest height (1). The energy then

turns back into kinetic and elastic potential energy, and the cycle

repeats.

Q8.19

217

FIG. Q8.18

(a)

Kinetic energy of the running athlete is transformed into elastic potential energy of the bent

pole. This potential energy is transformed to a combination of kinetic energy and

gravitational potential energy of the athlete and pole as the athlete approaches the bar. The

energy is then all gravitational potential of the pole and the athlete as the athlete hopefully

clears the bar. This potential energy then turns to kinetic energy as the athlete and pole fall

to the ground. It immediately becomes internal energy as their macroscopic motion stops.

(b)

Rotational kinetic energy of the athlete and shot is transformed into translational kinetic

energy of the shot. As the shot goes through its trajectory as a projectile, the kinetic energy

turns to a mix of kinetic and gravitational potential. The energy becomes internal energy as

the shot comes to rest.

(c)

Kinetic energy of the running athlete is transformed to a mix of kinetic and gravitational

potential as the athlete becomes projectile going over a bar. This energy turns back into

kinetic as the athlete falls down, and becomes internal energy as he stops on the ground.

The ultimate source of energy for all of these sports is the sun. See question 9.

Q8.20

Chemical energy in the fuel turns into internal energy as the fuel burns. Most of this leaves the car

by heat through the walls of the engine and by matter transfer in the exhaust gases. Some leaves the

system of fuel by work done to push down the piston. Of this work, a little results in internal energy

in the bearings and gears, but most becomes work done on the air to push it aside. The work on the

air immediately turns into internal energy in the air. If you use the windshield wipers, you take

energy from the crankshaft and turn it into extra internal energy in the glass and wiper blades and

wiper-motor coils. If you turn on the air conditioner, your end effect is to put extra energy out into

the surroundings. You must apply the brakes at the end of your trip. As soon as the sound of the

engine has died away, all you have to show for it is thermal pollution.

Q8.21

A graph of potential energy versus position is a straight horizontal line for a particle in neutral

equilibrium. The graph represents a constant function.

Q8.22

Q8.23

The ball is in stable equilibrium when it is directly below the pivot point. The ball is in unstable

equilibrium when it is vertically above the pivot.

218

Potential Energy

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

Section 8.1

P8.1

With our choice for the zero level for potential energy when the car

is at point B,

(a)

UB = 0 .

When the car is at point A, the potential energy of the car-Earth

system is given by

FIG. P8.1

U A = mgy

where y is the vertical height above zero level. With 135 ft = 41.1 m , this height is found as:

Thus,

ge

ja

The change in potential energy as the car moves from A to B is

U B U A = 0 2.59 10 5 J = 2.59 10 5 J .

(b)

With our choice of the zero level when the car is at point A, we have U A = 0 . The potential

energy when the car is at point B is given by U B = mgy where y is the vertical distance of

point B below point A. In part (a), we found the magnitude of this distance to be 26.5 m.

Because this distance is now below the zero reference level, it is a negative number.

Thus,

ge

ja

The change in potential energy when the car moves from A to B is

U B U A = 2.59 10 5 J 0 = 2.59 10 5 J .

Chapter 8

P8.2

(a)

219

potential energy with the child at the

lowest point of the arc. When the string

is held horizontal initially, the initial

position is 2.00 m above the zero level.

Thus,

fa

(b)

of 30.0 the child is at a vertical height of

2.00 m 1 cos 30.0 above the lowest

point of the arc. Thus,

fa

FIG. P8.2

fa

fa

(c)

The zero level has been selected at the lowest point of the arc. Therefore, U g = 0 at this

location.

*P8.3

The volume flow rate is the volume of water going over the falls each second:

fb

The mass flow rate is

m

V

= = 1 000 kg m3 1.8 m3 s = 1 800 kg s

t

t

je

If the stream has uniform width and depth, the speed of the water below the falls is the same as the

speed above the falls. Then no kinetic energy, but only gravitational energy is available for

conversion into internal and electric energy.

ja f

energy mgy m

=

= gy = 1 800 kg s 9.8 m s 2 5 m = 8.82 10 4 J s

t

t

t

The output power is Puseful = efficiency Pin = 0.25 8.82 10 4 W = 2.20 10 4 W

The input power is Pin =

b

e

ge

The efficiency of electric generation at Hoover Dam is about 85%, with a head of water (vertical

drop) of 174 m. Intensive research is underway to improve the efficiency of low head generators.

Section 8.2

*P8.4

(a)

One child in one jump converts chemical energy into mechanical energy in the amount that

her body has as gravitational energy at the top of her jump:

mgy = 36 kg 9.81 m s 2 0.25 m = 88.3 J . For all of the jumps of the children the energy is

e

ja f

12e1.05 10 j88.3 J = 1.11 10 J .

6

(b)

0.01

1.11 10 9 J = 1.11 10 5 J , making the Richter

100

log E 4.8 log 1.11 10 5 4.8 5.05 4.8

magnitude

=

=

= 0.2 .

1.5

1.5

1.5

220

P8.5

Potential Energy

a f 12 mv

1

g a3.50 Rf = 2 g a Rf + v

2

Ui + K i = U f + K f :

mgh + 0 = mg 2 R +

v = 3.00 gR

F = m

v

:

R

n + mg = m

v2

R

LM v g OP = m L 3.00 gR g O = 2.00mg

N R Q MN R PQ

n = 2.00e5.00 10 kg je9.80 m s j

2

n=m

= 0.098 0 N downward

P8.6

FIG. P8.5

K i + Ui = K f + U f

1

2

m 6.00 m s + 0 = 0 + m 9.80 m s 2 y

2

b6.00 m sg =

y =

a2fe9.80 m s j

*P8.7

(a)

1.84 m

1

1

1

1

mvi2 + kx i2 = mv 2f + kx 2f

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

0 + 10 N m 0.18 m = 0.15 kg v 2f + 0

2

2

f b

ga

g

F 10 N I FG 1 kg m IJ =

= a0.18 mf G

H 0.15 kg m JK H 1 N s K

b

vf

(b)

K i + U si = K f + U sf

1

0 + 10 N m 0.18 m

2

0.162 J =

vf =

ga

1

0.15 kg v 2f

2

1

+ 10 N m 0. 25 m 0.18 m

2

=

1

0.15 kg v 2f + 0.024 5 J

2

g

ga

1.47 m s

2 0.138 J

= 1.35 m s

0.15 kg

FIG. P8.7

Chapter 8

*P8.8

221

1

mv 2 + mgy

2

1

mv 2 + mgd sin where d is the distance it has moved along the track.

2

dE

dv

P=

= mv

+ mgv sin

dt

dt

E=

(a)

jb

(b)

2. 2 m s 0

dv

=a=

= 0.183 m s 2

dt

12 s

Maximum power is injected just before maximum speed is attained:

ge

(c)

*P8.9

(a)

1

1

2.20 m s

mv 2 + mgd sin = 950 kg

2

2

FG b

H

2

5.82 10 6 J

Energy of the object-Earth system is conserved as the object moves between the release

point and the lowest point. We choose to measure heights from y = 0 at the top end of the

string.

eK + U j = eK + U j :

g

0 + mgyi =

1

mv 2f + mgy f

2

v = 2e9.8 m s ja 2 mfa1 cos 30f = 2.29 m s

2

2

f

(b)

f

2 gLacos 15 cos 30f = 2e9.8 m s ja 2 mfacos 15 cos 30f =

0 + mg L cos 30 =

vf =

P8.10

1

mv 2f + mg L cos 15

2

1.98 m s

Choose the zero point of gravitational potential energy of the object-spring-Earth system as the

configuration in which the object comes to rest. Then because the incline is frictionless, we have

EB = E A :

K B + U gB + U sB = K A + U gA + U sA

or

0 + mg d + x sin + 0 = 0 + 0 +

d=

kx 2

x .

2mg sin

1 2

kx .

2

222

P8.11

Potential Energy

U gt = U si ,

or

2

P8.12

(a)

FIG. P8.11

trapeze bar exerts on the performer.

From the free-body diagram for the performers body, as

shown,

F mg cos = m

v2

A

F = mg cos + m

v2

A

or

FIG. P8.12

moves between the starting point and any later point:

mg A A cos i = mg A A cos +

Solve for

(b)

1

mv 2

2

mv 2

and substitute into the force equation to obtain F = mg 3 cos 2 cos i

A

F = mg 3 2 cos i

F = 2mg = mg 3 2 cos i

which gives

i = 60.0 .

223

Chapter 8

P8.13

Using conservation of energy for the system of the Earth and the two objects

(a)

v = 19.6 = 4.43 m s

(b)

object and the Earth during the time interval between the instant

when the string goes slack and the instant at which the 3.00 kg

object reaches its highest position in its free fall.

FIG. P8.13

a f

1

3.00 v 2 = mg y = 3.00 gy

2

y = 1.00 m

y max = 4.00 m + y = 5.00 m

P8.14

m1 > m 2

(a)

m1 gh =

v=

(b)

1

m1 + m 2 v 2 + m 2 gh

2

b

bm

g

g

2 m1 m 2 gh

1 + m2

1

m 2 v 2 , it will rise an additional height h determined from

2

m 2 g h =

1

m2 v 2

2

or from (a),

h =

P8.15

b

b

g

g

m1 m 2 h

v2

=

m1 + m 2

2g

2m1 h

.

m1 + m 2

rod do no work on the ball, since they are perpendicular to each

step of displacement. Consider energy conservation of the ballEarth system between the instant just after you strike the ball and

the instant when it reaches the top. The speed at the top is zero if

you hit it just hard enough to get it there.

K i + U gi = K f + U gf :

a f

a fa f

1

mvi2 + 0 = 0 + mg 2L

2

vi = 4 gL = 4 9.80 0.770

vi = 5.49 m s

initial

final

L

vi

FIG. P8.15

224

*P8.16

Potential Energy

efficiency =

e=

=

total input energy

total input power

m water gy t

b1 2gm ev tj

air

g

e Av t j

2 water v water t gy

air r

2 w v w t gy

2 3

a r v

where A is the length of a cylinder of air passing through the mill and v w is the volume of water

pumped in time t. We need inject negligible kinetic energy into the water because it starts and ends

at rest.

e

ja fb g

e

je

j

F 1 000 L IJ FG 60 s IJ = 160 L min

sG

H 1 m K H 1 min K

2

3

v w e a r 2 v 3 0.275 1.20 kg m 1.15 m 11 m s

=

=

2 w gy

t

2 1 000 kg m 3 9.80 m s 2 35 m

= 2.66 10 3 m3

P8.17

(a)

K i + U gi = K f + U gf

1

1

mvi2 + 0 = mv 2f + mgy f

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

2

mv xi + mv yi

= mv xf

+ mgy f

2

2

2

But v xi = v xf , so for the first ball

yf =

2

v yi

2g

2a9.80f

= 1.85 10 4 m

b1 000g =

=

2a9.80f

2

yf

(b)

5.10 10 4 m

gb

1

20.0 kg 1 000 m s

2

= 1.00 10 7 J .

Chapter 8

P8.18

mgr cos =

1

mv 2

2

Fr = mar

+Tmax mg cos = m

Eliminate

v2

r

v2

= 2 g cos

r

Tmax mg cos = 2mg cos

Tmax = 3mg cos

= cos 1

F T I = cos

GH 3mg JK

max

F

I

GG 3 2.00 kg44.59.N80 m s JJ

ge

jK

Hb

2

= 40.8

*P8.19

(a)

mg = k 1.5 m . For a longer cord of length L the stretch distance

is longer so the spring constant is smaller in inverse proportion:

k=

5 m mg

= 3.33 mg L

L 1.5 m

eK + U

+ Us

j = eK + U

i

+ Us

initial

1

0 + mgyi + 0 = 0 + mgy f + kx 2f

2

mg 2

1 2 1

mg yi y f = kx f = 3.33

xf

2

2

L

FIG. P8.19(a)

here yi y f = 55 m = L + x f

1

2

55.0 mL = 3.33 55.0 m L

2

55.0 mL = 5.04 10 3 m 2 183 mL + 1.67 L2

L=

a fe

2a1.67f

j = 238 152 =

3.33

(b)

mg

25.8 m

F = ma

k = 3.33

+ kx max mg = ma

mg

3.33

29. 2 m mg = ma

25.8 m

a = 2.77 g = 27.1 m s 2

final

25.8 m

225

226

*P8.20

Potential Energy

When block B moves up by 1 cm, block A moves down by 2 cm and the separation becomes 3 cm.

v

h

We then choose the final point to be when B has moved up by and has speed A . Then A has

3

2

2h

moved down

and has speed v A :

3

eK

+ KB + Ug

0+0+0=

j = eK

i

+ KB + Ug

FG IJ

H K

v

1

1

mv A2 + m A

2

2

2

mgh mg 2 h

3

3

mgh 5

= mv A2

3

8

8 gh

15

vA =

Section 8.3

P8.21

ge

(a)

= Fg OA cos 90.0+ Fg AC cos 180

a f

a f

= a39.2 N fa5.00 mf + a39.2 N fa5.00 mfa 1f

C

(5.00, 5.00) m

= 196 J

(b)

= 39.2 N 5.00 m cos 180+ 39.2 N 5.00 m cos 90.0

fa

fa

FIG. P8.21

= 196 J

(c)

a f

F 1 IJ =

2 mjG

H 2K

fe

= 39.2 N 5.00

196 J

The results should all be the same, since gravitational forces are conservative.

P8.22

(a)

(b)

W = F dr =

ze

je

j a f z dx + a4.00 Nf z dy

+ a 4.00 N fy

= 15.0 J + 20.0 J = 35.0 J

5.00 m

W = 3.00 N x 0

5.00 m

0

5.00 m

5.00 m

Chapter 8

P8.23

dx i 2 y i + x 2 j =

dyj 2 y i + x 2 j =

5.00 m

WOA =

(a)

2 ydx

x dy

x dy

2 ydx

5.00 m

5 .00 m

2

5.00 m

2

5.00 m

227

WOA = 0

5 .00 m

W AC =

For x = 5.00 m,

W AC = 125 J

and

WOB =

(b)

dyj 2 y i + x 2 j =

dx i 2 yi + x 2 j =

5 .00 m

0

WOB = 0

WBC =

5.00 m

0

WBC = 50.0 J

since y = 5.00 m,

WOC =

(c)

WOC =

ze

ze

je

5.00 m

(d)

(a)

a K f

1

1

mv B2 mv 2A = m 9.80 1.80

2

2

v B = 5.94 m s

AB

(b)

Wg

A C

a fa f

= mg 3.00 m = 147 J

2 x + x 2 dx = 66.7 J

P8.24

j z e2ydx + x dyj

dx i + dyj 2 y i + x 2 j =

B

5.00 m

3.20 m

FIG. P8.24

C

2.00 m

228

P8.25

Potential Energy

(a)

F = 3.00 i + 5.00 j N

m = 4.00 kg

r = 2.00 i 3.00 j m

a f

The result does not depend on the path since the force is conservative.

(b)

W = K

Fa f I

GH

JK

4.00

4.00 v 2

9.00 =

4.00

2

2

so v =

(c)

32.0 9.00

= 3.39 m s

2.00

U = W = 9.00 J

Section 8.4

P8.26

U f = K i K f + Ui

(a)

E = 40.0 J

(b)

P8.27

The distance traveled by the ball from the top of the arc to the bottom is R . The work done by the

non-conservative force, the force exerted by the pitcher,

is

a f

E = Fr cos 0 = F R .

We shall assign the gravitational energy of the ball-Earth system to be zero with the ball at the

bottom of the arc.

Then

becomes

or

1

1

mv 2f mvi2 + mgy f mgyi

2

2

1

1

mv 2f = mvi2 + mgyi + F R

2

2

Emech =

a f

v f = vi2 + 2 gyi +

0.250

2 F R

=

m

v f = 26.5 m s

*P8.28

120 Wh 1 0.60 = mg y f yi = Fg y

y =

g FG J IJ FG N m IJ =

H W sKH J K

890 N

194 m

Chapter 8

*P8.29

229

As the locomotive moves up the hill at constant speed, its output power goes into internal energy

plus gravitational energy of the locomotive-Earth system:

P = mgv f sin + fv f

F 746 W I = f b27 m sg

f = 2.76 10 N

GH 1 hp JK

F 5 m IJ + e2.76 10 Njv

Then also 746 000 W = b160 000 kg ge9.8 m s jv G

H 100 m K

P = fvi

1 000 hp

vf =

P8.30

746 000 W

1.06 10 5 N

= 7.04 m s

We shall take the zero level of gravitational potential energy to be at the lowest level reached by the

diver under the water, and consider the energy change from when the diver started to fall until he

came to rest.

1

1

mv 2f mvi2 + mgy f mgyi = f k d cos 180

2

2

E =

0 0 mg yi y f = f k d

fk =

P8.31

mg yi y f

2

5.00 m

m 2 gh fh =

Ui + K i + Emech = U f + K f :

2.06 kN

1

1

m1 v 2 + m 2 v 2

2

2

f = n = m1 g

m 2 gh m1 gh =

v2 =

v=

P8.32

i e

Emech = K f K i + U gf U gi

1

m1 + m 2 v 2

2

gb g

2 m 2 m1 hg

m1 + m 2

FIG. P8.31

ja

8.00 kg

= 3.74 m s

did pushing forward on the wheels.

i e

j

1

= me v v j + mg a hf + fx

2

1

= a 47.0 f a6. 20f a1.40f a 47.0fa9.80fa 2.60 f + a 41.0 fa12.4f

2

Thus,

Wapp = K f K i + U gf U gi + fx

or

Wapp

Wapp

Wapp = 168 J

2

f

2

i

FIG. P8.32

230

P8.33

Potential Energy

1

1

m v 2f vi2 = mvi2 = 160 J

2

2

K =

(b)

(c)

f=

(d)

FIG. P8.33

86.5 J

= 28.8 N

3.00 m

28.8 N

k =

= 0.679

5.00 kg 9.80 m s 2 cos 30.0

P8.34

(a)

ge

(a)

0 + mgyi f1 x1 f 2 x 2 =

1

mv 2f + 0

2

1

784 000 J 40 000 J 720 000 J = b80.0 kg gv

2

2b 24 000 Jg

= 24.5 m s

v =

2

2

f

2

f

(b)

(c)

80.0 kg

Now in the same energy equation as in part (a), x 2 is unknown, and x1 = 1 000 m x 2 :

fb

g b

gb

1

80.0 kg 5.00 m s

2

x 2 =

(d)

733 000 J

= 206 m

3 550 N

Really the air drag will depend on the skydivers speed. It will be larger than her 784 N

weight only after the chute is opened. It will be nearly equal to 784 N before she opens the

chute and again before she touches down, whenever she moves near terminal speed.

P8.35

aK + Uf + E

(a)

0+

= K +U f :

mech

1 2

1

kx fx = mv 2 + 0

2

2

ge

1

8.00 N m 5.00 10 2 m

2

(b)

j e3.20 10

2 5. 20 10 3 J

v=

231

Chapter 8

5.30 10

j=

kg

ja

f 12 e5.30 10

N 0.150 m =

kg v 2

1.40 m s

When the spring force just equals the friction force, the ball will stop speeding up. Here

Fs = kx ; the spring is compressed by

3. 20 10 2 N

= 0.400 cm

8.00 N m

and the ball has moved

5.00 cm 0.400 cm = 4.60 cm from the start.

(c)

1 2

1

1

kxi fx = mv 2 + kx 2f

2

2

2

1

1

1

2 2

3.20 10 2 4.60 10 2 = 5.30 10 3 v 2 + 8.00 4.00 10 3

8.00 5.00 10

2

2

2

v = 1.79 m s

P8.36

j e

je

j e

Fy = n mg cos 37.0 = 0

n = mg cos 37.0 = 400 N

fx = Emech

a100fa20.0f = U + U + K + K

U = m g d h h i = a50.0fa9.80fa 20.0 sin 37.0f = 5.90 10

U = m g d h h i = a100 fa9.80fa 20.0f = 1.96 10

1

K = m e v v j

2

m

1

K = m e v v j =

K = 2 K

2

m

A

2

f

2

f

2

i

2

i

FIG. P8.36

232

P8.37

Potential Energy

(a)

The object moved down distance 1.20 m + x. Choose y = 0 at its lower point.

K i + U gi + U si + Emech = K f + U gf + U sf

0 + mgyi + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 +

1 2

kx

2

0 = b160 N mgx a14.7 N fx 17.6 J

14.7 N a 14.7 N f 4b160 N mga17.6 N mf

x=

2b160 N mg

2

x=

14.7 N 107 N

320 N m

The negative root tells how high the object will rebound if it is instantly glued to the spring.

We want

x = 0.381 m

(b)

2

The positive root is x = 0.143 m .

(c)

The equation expressing the energy version of the nonisolated system model has one more

term:

mgyi fx =

1 2

kx

2

2

160 x 2 14.0 x 16.8 = 0

x=

14.0

a14.0f 4a160fa16.8f

x = 0.371 m

320

Chapter 8

P8.38

233

1

mv 2 + mgh .

2

Emech = K + U g =

Since the skysurfer has constant speed,

a f

dEmech

dv

dh

= mv

+ mg

= 0 + mg v = mgv .

dt

dt

dt

The rate the system is losing mechanical energy is then

dEmech

= mgv = 75.0 kg 9.80 m s 2 60.0 m s = 44.1 kW .

dt

*P8.39

(a)

jb

Let m be the mass of the whole board. The portion on the rough surface has mass

normal force supporting it is

a=

(b)

ge

mgx

mxg

and the frictional force is k

= ma . Then

L

L

k gx

opposite to the motion.

L

In an incremental bit of forward motion dx, the kinetic energy converted into internal

mgx

energy is f k dx = k

dx . The whole energy converted is

L

L

k mgx

mg x 2

1

mv 2 =

dx = k

2

2

L

L

0

=

0

k mgL

2

v = k gL

Section 8.5

P8.40

U = Ax + Bx 2 dx =

ze

x

(a)

(b)

U =

3.00 m

Fdx =

K =

(a)

Ax 2 Bx 3

2

3

j a f

A 3.00 2 2.00

2.00 m

P8.41

mx

. The

L

H 2

3 K

W = Fx dx =

5 .00 m

(b)

K + U = 0

(c)

K = K f

mv12

2

+ 4x

a f a2.00f

B 3.00

I

JK

5.00

19.0

A

B

2

3

5 .00 m

1

U = K = W = 40.0 J

K f = K +

mv12

= 62.5 J

2

234

P8.42

Potential Energy

e

e

j e

j e

3x 3 y 7x

U

=

= 9x 2 y 7 = 7 9x 2 y

Fx =

x

x

3x 3 y 7x

U

=

= 3 x 3 0 = 3 x 3

Fy =

y

y

b g

P8.43

af

e7 9x yji 3x j .

2

A

r

d A

A

U

Fr =

=

= 2 . The positive value indicates a force of repulsion.

dr r

r

r

Ur =

Section 8.6

FG IJ

H K

P8.44

stable

unstable

neutral

FIG. P8.44

P8.45

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fx

B

A

E

D

FIG. P8.45

x (m)

Chapter 8

P8.46

(a)

235

At r = 1.5 mm and 3.2 mm, the equilibrium is stable.

At r = 2.3 mm , the equilibrium is unstable.

A particle moving out toward r approaches neutral equilibrium.

P8.47

(b)

The system energy E cannot be less than 5.6 J. The particle is bound if 5.6 J E < 1 J .

(c)

If the system energy is 3 J, its potential energy must be less than or equal to 3 J. Thus, the

particles position is limited to 0.6 mm r 3.6 mm .

(d)

(e)

(f)

(a)

changes from L to

k

FH

IK

Fx = 2 k

FH

x 2 + L2 L

IK FG

H

x

2

x +L

I = 2kx +

JK

2 kLx

x 2 + L2

FIG. P8.47(a)

U a x f = kx + 2 kLFH L x + L IK

U a x f = 40.0 x + 96.0FH 1.20 x + 1.44 IK

af

U x = Fx dx =

0

(b)

x

2

x + L2

dx

af

positive x. The only equilibrium point (i.e., where

Fx = 0) is x = 0 .

(c)

K i + U i + Emech = K f + U f

1

0 + 0.400 J + 0 = 1.18 kg v 2f + 0

2

v f = 0.823 m s

FIG. P8.47(b)

236

Potential Energy

Additional Problems

P8.48

An amount of energy k mgd cos is converted into internal energy due to friction on the incline.

Therefore the final height y max is found from

mgy max = mgh k mgd cos

where

y max

sin

mgy max = mgh k mgy max cot

d=

h

y max

Solving,

y max =

P8.49

FIG. P8.48

h

1 + k cot

At a pace I could keep up for a half-hour exercise period, I climb two stories up, traversing forty

steps each 18 cm high, in 20 s. My output work becomes the final gravitational energy of the system

of the Earth and me,

ja

ge

6 000 J

= ~ 10 2 W .

20 s

P8.50

v = 100 km h = 27.8 m s

The retarding force due to air resistance is

R=

fe

jb

1

1

DAv 2 = 0.330 1.20 kg m 3 2.50 m 2 27.8 m s

2

2

je

= 382 N

Comparing the energy of the car at two points along the hill,

K i + U gi + E = K f + U gf

or

a f

K i + U gi + We R s = K f + U gf

a f d

i e

We = R s + K f K i + U gf U gi

Recognizing that K f = K i and dividing by the travel time t gives the required power input from

the engine as

H t K H t K H t K

P = a382 N fb 27.8 m sg + b1 500 kg ge9.80 m s jb 27.8 m sg sin 3.20

P=

P = 33.4 kW = 44.8 hp

Chapter 8

P8.51

m = mass of pumpkin

R = radius of silo top

Fr = mar n mg cos = m

237

v2

R

Thus, at the point where it leaves the surface: v 2 = Rg cos .

FIG. P8.51

Choose U g = 0 in the = 90.0 plane. Then applying conservation of energy for the pumpkin-Earth

system between the starting point and the point where the pumpkin leaves the surface gives

K f + U gf = K i + U gi

1

mv 2 + mgR cos = 0 + mgR

2

Using the result from the force analysis, this becomes

1

mRg cos + mgR cos = mgR , which reduces to

2

cos =

b g

2

, and gives = cos 1 2 3 = 48.2

3

as the angle at which the pumpkin will lose contact with the surface.

P8.52

ja

ge

(a)

(b)

K A + U A = KB + UB

K B = K A + U A U B = mgR = 0.588 J

(c)

(d)

2K B

=

m

vB =

2 0.588 J

= 2.42 m s

0.200 kg

ge

ja

FIG. P8.52

K C = K A + U A U C = mg h A hC

ge

ja

P8.53

gb

1

1

mv B2 = 0.200 kg 1.50 m s

2

2

(a)

KB =

= 0.225 J

(b)

Emech = K + U = K B K A + U B U A

b

g

= 0.225 J + b0.200 kg ge9.80 m s ja0 0.300 mf

= K B + mg hB hA

(c)

Its possible to find an effective coefficient of friction, but not the actual value of since n

and f vary with position.

238

P8.54

Potential Energy

The gain in internal energy due to friction represents a loss in mechanical energy that must be equal

to the change in the kinetic energy plus the change in the potential energy.

Therefore,

k mgx cos = K +

1 2

kx mgx sin

2

and since vi = v f = 0 , K = 0.

Thus,

a fa fa

fa

2

and we find k = 0.115 . Note that in the above we had a gain in elastic potential energy for the

spring and a loss in gravitational potential energy.

P8.55

(a)

k = 100 N/m

Also K = 0

2.00 kg

therefore, Ui = U f

where Ui = mg sin x

and U f =

1 2

kx

2

FIG. P8.55

a fa f

x = 0.236 m

(b)

kx + mg sin = ma

For x = 0.236 m ,

The acceleration depends on position .

(c)

U(spring) increases monotonically as the spring is stretched.

K initially increases, but then goes back to zero.

Chapter 8

P8.56

k = 2.50 10 4 N m,

m = 25.0 kg

x A = 0.100 m,

Ug

(a)

Emech = K A + U gA + U sA

x =0

= Us

=0

Emech

1 2

kx A

2

= 25.0 kg 9.80 m s 2 0.100 m

Emech

1

2.50 10 4

2

= 24.5 J + 125 J = 100 J

Emech = 0 + mgx A +

f

ja

N mja 0.100 mf

ge

(b)

x=0

Since only conservative forces are involved, the total energy of the child-pogo-stick-Earth

system at point C is the same as that at point A.

ge

K C + U gC + U sC = K A + U gA + U sA :

x C = 0.410 m

1

25.0 kg v B2 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 24.5 J + 125 J

2

v B = 2.84 m s

(c)

K B + U gB + U sB = K A + U gA + U sA :

(d)

K and v are at a maximum when a = F m = 0 (i.e., when the magnitude of the upward

spring force equals the magnitude of the downward gravitational force).

This occurs at x < 0 where

k x = mg

or

x=

Thus,

K = K max at x = 9.80 mm

2

(e)

2.50 10 4 N m

x =9.80 mm

sA

s x =9.80 mm

2

max

yielding

j + eU U

j

1

b25.0 kg gv = b25.0 kgge9.80 m s j a0.100 mf b0.009 8 mg

2

1

+ e 2.50 10 N mj a 0.100 mf b0.009 8 mg

2

K max = K A + U gA U g

or

P8.57

239

v max = 2.85 m s

Emech = fx

E f Ei = f d BC

1 2

kx mgh = mgd BC

2

mgh 12 kx 2

= 0.328

=

mgd BC

FIG. P8.57

240

P8.58

Potential Energy

(a)

F=

(b)

F=0

d

x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x i =

dx

j e3 x

4x 3 i

(c)

af

The unstable point is at

FIG. P8.58

af

x = 1.87 maximum in U x .

P8.59

aK + U f = aK + U f

1

0 + b30.0 kg ge9.80 m s ja0.200 mf + b 250 N mga0.200 mf

2

1

= b50.0 kg gv + b 20.0 kg ge9.80 m s ja0.200 mf sin 40.0

2

58.8 J + 5.00 J = b 25.0 kg gv + 25.2 J

i

v = 1.24 m s

P8.60

(a)

FIG. P8.59

mgd =

1

1

mvi2 + kd 2

2

2

ge

ge

1

1

50.0 N m d 2 + 0.250 1.00 kg 9.80 m s 2 d 1.00 kg 3.00 m s 2 = 0

2

2

2.45 21.25 N

d=

= 0.378 m

50.0 N m

(b)

a f 12 mv 12 mv

2

v = b3.00 m sg

b1.00 kg g a2.45 Nfa2fa0.378 mf

2

f 2d =

2

i

= 2.30 m s

(c)

Emech = K + U

gb

1

2

1.00 kg 3.00 m s

2

9.00 J

D=

2 0.378 m = 1.08 m

2 0.250 1.00 kg 9.80 m s 2

f D + 2d =

fb

ge

FIG. P8.60

Chapter 8

P8.61

(a)

ga f

1

450 N m x

2

x = 0. 400 m

(b)

1 2 1

kx = mv 2

2

2

gb

1

0.500 kg 12.0 m s

2

FIG. P8.61

H

K H

K

2

2

b0.500 kgge9.80 m s ja2.00 mf + 12 b0.500 kg gv 12 b0.500 kggb12.0 m sg

= a7.00 N fa fa1.00 mf

T

2

T

2

B

2

T

vT = 4.10 m s

(c)

Does block fall off at or before top of track? Block falls if a c < g

ac =

a f

4.10

vT2

=

= 16.8 m s 2

R

1.00

P8.62

Let represent the mass of each one meter of the chain and T

represent the tension in the chain at the table edge. We imagine the

edge to act like a frictionless and massless pulley.

(a)

Fy = 0 :

+n 5 g = 0

n = 5 g

b g

fs sn = 0.6 5g = 3g

Fx = 0 :

+T f s = 0

T = fs

T 3 g

FIG. P8.62

The maximum value is barely enough to support the hanging segment according to

Fy = 0 :

+T 3 g = 0

T = 3 g

continued on next page

241

242

Potential Energy

(b)

Let x represent the variable distance the chain has slipped since the start.

a f

+n a5 x fg = 0

n = a5 xfg

f = n = 0.4a5 xfg = 2g 0.4xg

Fy = 0 :

Consider energies of the chain-Earth system at the initial moment when the chain starts to

slip, and a final moment when x = 5 , when the last link goes over the brink. Measure

heights above the final position of the leading end of the chain. At the moment the final link

slips off, the center of the chain is at y f = 4 meters.

Originally, 5 meters of chain is at height 8 m and the middle of the dangling segment is at

3

height 8 = 6.5 m .

2

K i + U i + Emech = K f + U f :

FG 1 mv + mgyIJ

H2

K

b5g g8 + b3g g6.5 z b2g 0.4xg gdx = 12 b8 gv + b8g g4

b

z

f

0 + m1 gy1 + m 2 gy 2 i f k dx =

5

0

0

a f

2 5

x

2

= 4.00 v 2

a f

22.5 g = 4.00 v 2

a22.5 mfe9.80 m s j =

2

v=

P8.63

4.00

7.42 m s

mg

FG 4 hIJ = 1 mv :

H5 K 2

2

v = 2g

FG 4 IJ h

H 5K

v y = v sin

for the child-Earth system) is found from

mgy =

1

h

mv y2 + mg

2

5

FIG. P8.63

1

mv x2 is constant in projectile motion)

2

1 2 h 1 2

h

y=

vy + =

v sin 2 +

2g

5 2g

5

(since

y=

LM FG IJ OP sin + h =

5

N H KQ

1

4

2g h

2g

5

4

h

h sin 2 +

5

5

Chapter 8

*P8.64

(a)

The length of string between glider and pulley is given by A 2 = x 2 + h02 . Then 2 A

Now

(b)

eK

243

dA

dx

= 2x

+ 0.

dt

dt

dA

dA

x

= v y = v x = cos v x .

is the rate at which string goes over the pulley:

A

dt

dt

+ KB + U g

j = eK

i

0 + 0 + m B g y 30 y 45

+ KB + U g

1

1

= m A v x2 + m B v y2

2

2

Now y 30 y 45 is the amount of string that has gone over the pulley, A 30 A 45 . We have

h

h

h0

h0

sin 30 = 0 and sin 45 = 0 , so A 30 A 45 =

= 0. 40 m 2 2 = 0.234 m .

A 30

A 45

sin 30 sin 45

From the energy equation

1

1

1.00 kg v x2 + 0.500 kg v x2 cos 2 45

2

2

1.15 J

= 1.35 m s

0.625 kg

vx =

P8.65

(c)

(d)

The acceleration of neither glider is constant, so knowing distance and acceleration at one

point is not sufficient to find speed at another point.

The geometry reveals D = L sin + L sin , 50.0 m = 40.0 m sin 50+ sin , = 28.9

(a)

eK + U j + W = eK + U j

1

mv + mg a L cos f + FDa 1f = 0 + mg b L cos g

2

1

50 kg v + 50 kg e9.8 m s ja 40 m cos 50f 110 Na50 mf = 50 kg e9.8 m s ja 40 m cos 28.9f

2

g

wind

2

i

2

i

1

50 kg vi2 1.26 10 4 J 5.5 10 3 J = 1.72 10 4 J

2

vi =

(b)

2 947 J

= 6.15 m s

50 kg

g

e

a f

f

f

1

mvi2 + mg L cos + FD +1 = 0 + mg L cos

2

1

130 kg vi2 + 130 kg 9.8 m s 2 40 m cos 28.9 + 110 N 50 m

2

ja

ja

1

130 kg vi2 4.46 10 4 J + 5 500 J = 3.28 10 4 J

2

vi =

g=

2 6 340 J

130 kg

9.87 m s

244

P8.66

Potential Energy

1

1

mv 2 = kx 2

2

2

2

5.00 kg 1.20 m s

mv

k= 2 =

x

10 2 m 2

je

eK + U j = eK + U j

g

= 7. 20 10 2 N m

(b)

11.1 m s

v2

=

ac =

r

6.3 m

(c)

Fy = ma y

1

0 + mgy A = mv B2 + 0

2

5.00 kg 2 1

v = 7.20 10 2 N m 10 1 m

2

2

v = 0.923 m s

(a)

k = 0.300

1

1

mv 2 = kx 2 k mgx

2

2

*P8.67

gb

= 19.6 m s 2 up

+n B mg = ma c

(d)

(e)

eK + U j

g

+ W = K +Ug

1

1

mv B2 + 0 + 1.01 10 3 J = mv D2 + mg y D y B

2

2

1

1

2

76 kg 11.1 m s + 1.01 10 3 J = 76 kg v D2 + 76 kg 9.8 m s 2 6.3 m

2

2

e5.70 10

J 4.69 10 3 J 2

76 kg

(f)

eK + U j = eK + U j

1

mv + 0 = 0 + mg b y

2

g

2

D

(g)

= v D = 5.14 m s

E yD

y E yD =

5.14 m s

v D2

=

= 1.35 m

2 g 2 9.8 m s 2

Consider the motion with constant acceleration between takeoff and touchdown. The time

is the positive root of

1

y f = yi + v yi t + a y t 2

2

1

2.34 m = 0 + 5.14 m s t + 9.8 m s 2 t 2

2

2

4.9t 5.14t 2.34 = 0

t=

a fa

f=

9.8

1.39 s

Chapter 8

*P8.68

If the spring is just barely able to lift the lower block from the table, the spring lifts it through no

noticeable distance, but exerts on the block a force equal to its weight Mg. The extension of the

spring, from Fs = kx , must be Mg k . Between an initial point at release and a final point when the

moving block first comes to rest, we have

FG

H

IJ

K

FG

H

IJ

K

FG IJ

H K

0 + mg

c he4m j = m

M=

2c h

Only a positive mass is physical, so we take M = ma3 1f = 2m .

m m 2 4

1

2

1

2

(a)

FG IJ

H K

4mg

Mg

1 Mg

1 4mg

+ k

= 0 + mg

+ k

2

2

k

k

k

k

2 2

2 2

2

2 2

mMg

M g

4m g

8m g

+

=

+

k

k

k

2k

2

M

4m 2 = mM +

2

M2

+ mM 4m 2 = 0

2

K i + U gi + U si = K f + U gf + U sf :

P8.69

245

9m 2

released and the final point where its

upward swing stops at height H and

horizontal displacement

x = L2 L H

= 2LH H 2

does work

Wwind = F ds = F dx = F 2LH H 2

FIG. P8.69

K i + U gi + Wwind = K f + U gf , or

0 + 0 + F 2LH H 2 = 0 + mgH giving F 2 2LH F 2 H 2 = m 2 g 2 H 2

Here H = 0 represents the lower turning point of the balls oscillation, and the upper limit is

at F 2 2L = F 2 + m 2 g 2 H . Solving for H yields

a f e

H=

2LF 2

2L

=

F + m2 g 2

1 + mg F

As F 0 , H 0 as is reasonable.

As F , H 2L , which would be hard to approach experimentally.

(b)

H=

2 2.00 m

ge

= 1.44 m

246

Potential Energy

(c)

Fx = 0 T sin = F , and

Fy = 0 T cos = mg

Dividing: tan =

F

14.7 N

=

= 0.750 , or = 36.9

mg 19.6 N

f a

fa

(d)

A very strong wind pulls the string out horizontal, parallel to the ground. Thus,

eH j

eq

P8.70

max

=L .

the radius to the release point. Call v r the speed here. By

conservation of energy

vi = Rg

The path

after string

is cut

K i + U i + E = K r + U r

1

1

mvi2 + mgR + 0 = mv r2 + mgR cos

2

2

gR + 2 gR = v r2 + 2 gR cos

v r = 3 gR 2 gR cos

FIG. P8.70

v y = v r sin so for the projectile motion we have

x = vxt

1

y = v y t gt 2

2

R sin = v r cos t

R cos = v r sin t

1 2

gt

2

By substitution

R cos = v r sin

R sin g R 2 sin 2

v r cos 2 v r2 cos 2

3 cos 2 6 cos + 1 = 0

cos =

6 36 12

6

Only the sign gives a value for cos that is less than one:

cos = 0.183 5

= 79.43

so = 100.6

247

Chapter 8

P8.71

Applying Newtons second law at the bottom (b) and top (t) of the

circle gives

Tb mg =

mv b2

and Tt mg =

Tb = Tt + 2mg +

v b2

vt

mg

mv t2

R

v t2

Tb

R

mg

So,

m v b2 v t2

2

Tt

2

b

v t2

j = 4mg

vb

FIG. P8.71

P8.72

(a)

(b)

stationary peg does no work. So the balls speed does not

change when the string hits or leaves the peg, and the ball

swings equally high on both sides.

Relative to the point of suspension,

Ui = 0, U f = mg d L d

d

Peg

1

mg 2d L + mv 2 = 0

2

Also for centripetal motion,

mg =

mv 2

where R = L d .

R

3L

.

5

FIG. P8.72

248

*P8.73

Potential Energy

(a)

At the top of the loop the car and riders are in free

fall:

Fy = ma y :

mg down =

v = Rg

mv 2

down

R

between release and top of loop:

K i + U gi = K f + U gf :

0 + mgh =

a f

1

mv 2 + mg 2 R

2

a f

1

Rg + g 2 R

2

h = 2.50 R

gh =

(b)

point. At the bottom of the loop we have

mgh =

1

mv b2

2

Fy = ma y :

or

v b2 = 2 gh

n b mg =

n b = mg +

mv b2

up

R

m 2 gh

b g

b g

R

a f

1

mv t2 + mg 2 R

2

v t2 = 2 gh 4 gR

Fy = ma y :

n t mg =

FIG. P8.73

mv t2

R

m

2 gh 4 gR

n t = mg +

R

m 2 gh

5mg

nt =

R

b g

n b n t = mg +

m 2 gh

R

6mg .

Chapter 8

*P8.74

(a)

249

between A and C:

K i + U gi = K f + U gf

1

m 2.5 m s

2

vC =

(b)

ja

1

mvC2 + 0

2

2

gb

g b

ja

ge

1

2

80 kg 2.5 m s + 80 kg 9.80 m s 2 9.76 m f k x = 0 + 0

2

f k x = 7.90 10 3 J

7.90 10 3 J 7.90 10 3 N m

=

= 158 N

x

50 m

fk =

n = mg = 80 kg 9.80 m s 2 = 784 N

ge

a158 Nf + a784 Nf

2

(d)

FIG. P8.74(a)

14.1 m s

Incorporating the loss of mechanical energy during the portion of the motion in the water,

we have, for the entire motion between A and D (the riders stopping point),

K i + U gi f k x = K f + U gf :

(c)

+ m 9.80 m s 2 9.76 m =

= 800 N

= sin 1

9.76 m

= 10.4

54.3 m

Fy = ma y :

FIG. P8.74(d)

n B mg cos = 0

ge

(e)

Fy = ma y :

mvC2

r

nC = 80.0 kg 9.80 m s 2

+nC mg =

b

ge

j

b80.0 kggb14.1 m sg

+

2

20 m

nC = 1.57 10 3 N up

FIG. P8.74(e)

The rider pays for the thrills of a giddy height at A, and a high speed and tremendous splash

at C. As a bonus, he gets the quick change in direction and magnitude among the forces we

found in parts (d), (e), and (c).

250

Potential Energy

P8.2

P8.4

P8.6

1.84 m

P8.42

e7 9x yji 3x j

P8.44

P8.46

and unstable; r neutral;

(b) 5.6 J E < 1 J ; (c) 0.6 mm r 3.6 mm ;

(d) 2.6 J; (e) 1.5 mm; (f) 4 J

P8.48

P8.50

33.4 kW

P8.52

(d) 0.196 J; 0.392 J

P8.8

P8.10

d=

P8.12

P8.14

(a)

kx 2

x

2mg sin

b

bm

g

+m g

2 m1 m 2 gh

1

; (b)

2m1 h

m1 + m 2

P8.16

160 L min

P8.54

0.115

P8.18

40.8

P8.56

P8.20

FG 8 gh IJ

H 15 K

(d) 9.80 mm ; (e) 2.85 m s

P8.58

P8.22

P8.24

P8.26

12

P8.60

P8.62

P8.64

(c) 0.958 m s ; (d) see the solution

P8.28

194 m

P8.30

2.06 kN up

P8.66

0.923 m s

P8.32

168 J

P8.68

2m

P8.34

depends strongly on speed.

P8.70

100.6

P8.36

3.92 kJ

P8.72

P8.38

44.1 kW

P8.74

(d) 771 N; (e) 1.57 kN up

P8.40

(a)

Ax 2 Bx 3

;

2

3

5 A 19B

19B 5 A

(b) U =

; K =

2

3

3

2

- Chapter # 7 Work Power and EnergyUploaded bySIR USMAN KHAN
- WPE Quiz 1Uploaded byPhoenixRobo
- Work Power and EnergyUploaded byanir
- chapter 5 energy work.pptUploaded byuno
- TOS.docxUploaded byRolex Daclitan Bajenting
- Physics EquationsUploaded byalphading
- Work Energy TheoremUploaded byririhRatiwi
- Work Energy and PowerUploaded byDivine Incillo
- Amwand Presentation Usa 011510Uploaded bynancy407
- copy of rubegoldberg presentationUploaded byapi-322284803
- Kinetic, Potential, Mechanical energy.pdfUploaded byKeren HZ
- Science Class Ix Sessing Ending Final Exam Sample Paper 01 (1) (1)Uploaded byrajman1990
- 1_4_2_1_5Uploaded byAkshay Sharma
- c083c282a43655ec69532f2704c3993aUploaded byAneilRandyRamdial
- Kinetic Energy ManipulationUploaded bySunčica Nisam
- jasmin malhotra reportUploaded byapi-287665202
- L1 Science Mechanics WorkBookUploaded byDeepak Sharma
- palm_ch1Uploaded byA Raheem Siddiqui
- Gravitational InteractionUploaded byHamizan Hafiz
- 01B - Forms & Classification of EnergyUploaded byAgung Hermawan
- PhysicsUploaded byJanani Varatharajan
- Lecture Notes 01Uploaded byGABRIEL MORENO
- FieldsUploaded bylove
- SET OF QUESTIONS 4Uploaded byApu
- chemicalrocketlaunchUploaded byapi-300974290
- PhysicsUploaded byFurqan Ali Cheema
- UPSC (2015) General Studies EManual (P1) General Physics GlossaryUploaded byKhalil Sayed
- Yearly Plan Science Year 5 2007Uploaded byMuslihah Mohd Mokti
- Daily Consumption 2009Uploaded byarachman297988
- A2 CT - MomentumUploaded byShabbir H. Khan

- 2019 Hip2Save Black Friday Price Comparison Spreadsheet 110719Uploaded bymahi dasari
- ConvAssist_e28918-02-1967539Uploaded bySB
- Chloromethylation of Meta Xylene by Phase Transfer CatalysisUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Chopper fed DC motorUploaded byKeshara Battage
- Adm 61 Admin GuideUploaded byJuha-Matti Ung
- Topographic Map of TatumUploaded byHistoricalMaps
- IRF730Uploaded byJoxess Saavedra Jara
- Bush Tr82dabUploaded byamarch65
- IOBIT-License code.txtUploaded bychikylin
- Electrical Engineer Job Description Electrical Engineer %7c Job Description Template EnUploaded byMaya Ashok
- RichardUploaded bysimcityfreak
- foliantmanualUploaded byadina_aal
- 110_Technical REC - 112Uploaded byumamaheshwarrao
- presentatoin on MILD combustionUploaded byRoopesh Kaimal
- mid point circleUploaded byejaz123456
- Frequency Domain Analysis of Fluid-structure Interaction in Liquid Filled Pipe Systems by Transfer Matrix MethodUploaded byJessica Ivana Steffan
- The Total Information Awareness (TIA) System DescriptionUploaded byImpello_Tyrannis
- ROVER-HD-TAB-7-EVO-2015-V1-EN.pdfUploaded byKabelventje
- OPV AlanSellinger WebUploaded byWalter
- Bamboo Rodmaking Tips - Articles Area - Wood Planing FormsUploaded bycannotdecide
- Unit-8 Shear Stress in BeamsUploaded byBharath Kaipparedan
- Niobium, titanium anodizingUploaded byCary Brief
- 160108103304Uploaded byNilaydeep Chakraborty
- Hosting Infrastructure Director in Phoenix AZ Resume Sarfaraz SheikhUploaded bySarfarazSheikh1
- mech.pdfUploaded byshariqqgzp92
- download site to siteUploaded byLugner S
- Foam CHamberUploaded byempacao1
- uk_bl_ethos_268691Uploaded byp09tp451
- GDTWizTutor_featuresheetUploaded bykevinjais
- Concrete BeamUploaded byNazar Alshami

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.